I Trigotti

Necessaria precisazione: e sia ben chiaro noi non siamo bigotti.

Mese: dicembre 2007

L’INCUBO DI MICHELANGELO

Era finalmente spuntato il gran giorno, il giorno del giudizio papale per il grande progetto dell’affresco del Giudizio universale nella Cappella Sistina. Clemente VII, al secolo Giulio De’ Medici, rivolse al grande artista uno sguardo stanco, in cui si avvertiva il peso delle innumerevoli delusioni e sconfitte subite, non senza una buona parte di colpa da parte dello stesso Papa. Il sacco di Roma e i sette mesi di prigionia in Castel Sant’Angelo, l’umiliazione della fuga travestito da venditore ambulante, le beffe di Pasquino, non erano ricordi facili da dimenticare. Ma come committente d’arte appariva sicuro di sé, forte del potere delle chiavi, perché a lui competeva guidare l’artista nella difficile impresa di esprimere i misteri della Fede. E così, con grave cipiglio, apostrofò subito Michelangelo Buonarroti:
— O Mihelangelo, il tu’ progetto mi garba assai, ma gli è troppo palese. ‘Un c’è il senso dell’ineffabile presenza divina. Gli è home se tutto fosse lì papale papale, hovvìa, troppo papale per il Papa. Ma, Mihelangelo, Dio ’un gli è miha hosì facile da conoscere, o he ti credi? E tu me ne fai un carrettiere nudo che fa un gestaccio. —
— Ma he gestaccio, Santità? —
— O grullo, e ‘un lo vedi he fa huasi il gesto dell’ombrello? —
— E he ci metto, allora? —
— E tu ci metti un bel punto interrohativo. —
— He ci metto? —
— Un punto interrohativo. —
— E perché? —
— Ma tu se’ proprio grullo. Un hapisci he il punto interrohativo rappresenta l’immensità e l’inhonoscibilità del mistero divino? —
— Boh. —
— Già, boh, gli è che ‘un lo honosciamo. E sopra, a destra e a sinistra, dove sciai messo gli strumenti della Passione, altri du’ punti interrohativi, che hosì si fa un bel triangolo che simboleggia la Trinità. —
— Ma, Santità, o h’ella disce? —
— Sta’ zitto, grullo, che io so’ il Papa, e so. Dunque, al posto dell’angeli tu mi metti de’ punti, perché quelli so’ de’ punti fermi nel paradiso, mentre dove stanno i diavolacci metti de’ punti e virgola. Perché l’eran punti e ‘un so’ più fermi, ma so’ haduti in basso. —
— So’ caduti in basso? I punti e virgola? —
— No, i diavolacci. —
— In basso? —
— E che volevi che hadessero in alto? —
— E che ne so? A me mi gira la testa. E dell’anime he ne faccio? —
— Sta’ ben attento, Mihelangelo. I beati so’ punti ‘sclamativi, perché esclamano “Oh!”, davanti alle meraviglie del paradiso. I dannati invece so’ virgole, perché so’ venuti meno al punto. —
— E la Madonna? —
— O grullo he sei, l’è du’ volte santa, e sci metti du’ punti. E il Giudizio universale l’è bell’e sistemaho. Così l’è più spirituale e teologico. E tu ha hapito? —
— Ho hapito he la santità vostra dev’aver preso un holpo in testa da un lanzihenecco. E he, la hiama Mihelangelo Buonarroti per fare punti e virgole? E la hiami qualche pittore da virgole che sa fare solo quelle. Magari fra qualche secolo, se l’Italia sarà finita nella hacca, verranno di moda i pittori da virgole, ma hodesto l’è il Rinascimento e nella hacca ‘un ci siamo ancora. —
— O Mihelangelo, e l’è hodesto il modo di parlare al Papa? Io ti faccio sbattere nelle segrete di Hastel Sant’Angelo, he tu impari il rispetto per la tiara, le hiavi, la teologia e tutto il resto. —
In quella irruppe una pattuglia di guardie papali, e una cominciò a pungolare il povero Michelangelo con l’alabarda, con tanta energia che il poveretto si svegliò. Dopo aver impiegato un bel po’ per raccapezzarsi, il grande artista sospirò:
— Basta hon quella diavoleria de’ fagioli c’ha portato Holombo dall’Ameriha. La sera so’ troppo pesanti, e si sogna i pittori da virgole. —

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DIZIONARIO ITALIANO-INGLESE DI SCIENZE DELLA TERRA

A- : a- (abbreviation in chemistry for “asymmetrically substituted”)
A FORMA DI CRATERE : crater shaped
A STRATI SOTTILI : thin bedded
A STRATI SPESSI : thick bedded
ABBASSAMENTO DEL LIVELLO MARINO : lowering of sea level
ABBASSAMENTO DELLA FALDA FREATICA : groundwater lowering
ABBASSAMENTO DELLA LINEA DI CRESTA : plunge of the crest line (in a fold system)
ABBASSAMENTO SECOLARE DEL LIVELLO MARINO RELATIVAMENTE ALLE COSTE : secular rise
ABISSALE : abyssal
ABLAZIONE : denudation
ABLAZIONE INTERNA : englacial melting
ABRASIONE : abrasion, corrasion, eolian corrasion, planation (due to fluvial or glacial action), wind corrasion
ABRASIONE CAUSATA DALLE ONDE : wave planation
ABRASIONE GLACIALE : glacial erosion
ABRASIONE MARINA : marine abrasion
ABRASIVO : abrasive
ABSORZIOMETRO : absorptiometer (apparecchio per misurare l’assorbimento di luce e la solubilità dei gas nei liquidi)
ACANTITE : acanthite (silver sulfide cristallized in the monocline system)
ACCELERAZIONE DELLO SVLUPPO EVOLUTIVO : tachygenesis
ACCELERAZIONE DI GRAVITÀ : acceleration of gravity, acceleration due to gravity
ACCENTUAZIONE DELL’INCLINAZIONE : steepening of the dip
ACCETTORE : acceptor (a chemical whose velocity of reaction with another substance is increased by the presence of an inductor, or an atom accepting electrons in a coordinate bond)
ACCORCIAMENTO : shortening
ACCORCIAMENTO DI UN PACCO DI STRATI IN CONSEGUENZA DI UNA PIEGA : shortening of the overturn (unfolded width of a fold minus its width at the base)
ACCRESCIMENTO : growth (of a coast, of a glacier, of a biological organism)
ACCRESCIMENTO ORIZZONTALE : lateral spread (of a coastal marsh)
ACCRESCIMENTO VERTICALE : vertical accretion (by sedimentary deposition)
ACCUMULAZIONE : accumulation
ACCUMULAZIONE GRAVITATIVA DI LIQUIDI MAGMATICI RESIDUI : liquid gravitative accumulation (forming metal veins)
ACCUMULAZIONE PETROLIFERA : oil pool
ACCUMULO DA GELIVAZIONE : congelifractate deposit (a deposit of rocky fragments produced by congelifraction)
ACCUMULO DETRITICO IN LENTO MOVIMENTO : creeping rubble
ACCUMULO DI ACQUA IN DEPRESSIONI DEL TERRENO : depression storage
ACCUMULO DI FOSSILI : churchyard (accumulation of fossils usually belonging to one or few species)
ACCUMULO DI NEVE CAUSATO DAL VENTO : snowdrift
ACCUMULO ECCESSIVO DI UMIDITÀ NEL SUOLO : waterlogging
ACCUMULO SEDIMENTARIO SOPRA IL LIVELLO DELL’ACQUA : char
ACIDIMETRIA : acidimetry
ACIDITÀ: acidimetry
ACIDIZZAZIONE DI UN POZZO PETROLIFERO : acidizing an oil well (technique for improving the flow of oil from a limestone formation by pumping acid into it)
ACIDO : acid
ACME : acme (period of highest flourishing of a given systematic group of living organisms)
ACMITE : acmite (variety of aegirine)
ACONDRITE : achondrite (silica meteorite devoid of condrules)
ACQUA : water
ACQUA ACIDA DI MINIERA : acid mine water (cause of corrosion of mining equipment)
ACQUA ADERENTE : attached water (attached to the pore wall of an aquifer)
ACQUA ALLOCTONA : allochtonous groundwater (undergroundwater coming from precipitation which has taken place elsewhere)
ACQUA ALTA : high water
ACQUA ALTA IN GROTTA : rise
ACQUA ALTA SULLA COSTA CAUSATA DA UNA TEMPESTA : storm surge (high water conditions caused by cyclonic weather conditions)
ACQUA ARTESIANA : artesian water
ACQUA ASCENDENTE : hypogene water
ACQUA ATMOSFERICA : atmospheric water
ACQUA AUTOCTONA : autochtonous groundwater (coming from local precipitation)
ACQUA BASSA : low water (in a river)
ACQUA CAPILLARE : capillary water, fringe water (water in suspension in the capillary fringe)
ACQUA CONTENUTA NELLA ZONA CAPILLARE : capillary water
ACQUA CONTENUTA NELLA ZONA DI AERAZIONE DEL SUOLO : soil water, suspended water
ACQUA CORROSIVA : active water
ACQUA CRESCENTE : flood water (in a river or stream)
ACQUA DECRESCENTE : subsiding water (in a river, after a flood)
ACQUA DI COMPATTAMENTO : compaction water (water returned to the surficial reserves by compacting geological processes)
ACQUA DI FALDA : groundwater store
ACQUA DI FALDA FREATICA : phreatic groundwater (underground water in a saturation zone delimited upwards by a distinct nappe surface)
ACQUA DI FONDO : bottom water
ACQUA DI INFILTRAZIONE : infiltration water
ACQUA DI INFILTRAZIONE : percolating water
ACQUA DI SORGENTE : spring water
ACQUA DI SUPERSATURAZIONE : water of supersaturation
ACQUA DISCENDENTE : supergene water
ACQUA DOLCE : fresh water
ACQUA ECCEDENTE IL LIVELLO DI SATURAZIONE DELLO STRATO ACQUIFERO : water of supersaturation
ACQUA FOSSILE : native water (trapped in the interstices of an effusive or sedimentary sedimentary rock when the rock was formed)
ACQUA FREATICA : phreatic groundwater (underground water in a saturation zone delimited upwards by a distinct nappe surface)
ACQUA GIOVANILE : juvenile water (water returned to the surficial reserves by geological processes of compaction and metamorphism)
ACQUA GIOVANILE : juvenile water, metamorphic water (water returned to surficial reserves by geological processes of metamorphism)
ACQUA GRAVITATIVA : infiltration water
ACQUA IN CRESCITA : flood water (in a river or stream)
ACQUA IN EQUILIBRIO STATICO : sejunction water (water lying above the capillary fringe and surrounded from every side by menisci in static equilibrium)
ACQUA IN RITIRO : subsiding water (in a river, after a flood)
ACQUA INCLUSA : native water (trapped in the interstices of an effusive or sedimentary sedimentary rock when the rock was formed)
ACQUA INTERSTIZIALE : interstitial water
ACQUA MAGMATICA : juvenile water, magmatic water (water existing in the magma or in melted rock)
ACQUA MEDIA : mean water (of a river)
ACQUA MESOALINA : mesohaline water (water with moderate salt percentage)
ACQUA METEORICA : meteoric water (contained in the atmosphere or derived from atmospheric water)
ACQUA MINERALE : mineral water
ACQUA NATURALE : natural water (with solid, liquidand suspended material)
ACQUA NORMALE : mean water (of a river)
ACQUA OCEANICA INTERMEDIA : intermediate water
ACQUA OCEANICA PROFONDA : deep water : (in large scale oceanography: deep oceanic water)
ACQUA OLIGOALINA : oligohaline water (water with low salt percentage)
ACQUA PELLICOLARE : pellicular water (held in layers thicker than two molecules at the surface of particles in an unsaturated soil)
ACQUA PERCOLANTE : percolating water
ACQUA PIOVANA CONGELATA SUL FIRN : regenfirn (snowy crust above the firn formed due to freezing of rain drops)
ACQUA POCO PROFONDA : shallow water (water twhose depth is lower than half the wavelength)
ACQUA POLIALINA : polyhaline water (water with a high salt percentage)
ACQUA POTABILE : potable water
ACQUA PROFONDA : deep water (in dynamic oceanography: water whose depth passes a half of the wavelength)
ACQUA RINGIOVANITA : rejuvenated water (water returned to the surficial reserves by geological processes of compaction and metamorphism)
ACQUA SCORRENTE IN SUPERFICIE : runoff water, surface water
ACQUA SOLLEVATA A CONO : water cone (due to an underwater volcanic event)
ACQUA SOSPESA : perched groundwater (water held by an aquifer delimited by a discontinuous impermeable bed above the main water table)
ACQUA SOTTERRANEA : groundwater, subsurface water
ACQUA SOTTERRANEA ALLOCTONA : seepage water (emerging at the surface or inside streams)
ACQUA SOTTERRANEA LEGATA : internal water (water held in depth in the lithosphere at such a pressure as to prevent the existence of interstices)
ACQUA SOTTERRANEA NON CONFINATA : confined groundwater (underground water separated by the remaining underground water due to sufficiently impermeable rocky strata)
ACQUA SOTTERRANEA PROFONDA : internal water (water held in depth in the lithosphere at such a pressure as to prevent the existence of interstices)
ACQUA TRATTENUTA : retention (amount of precipitation in a drainage area which does not escape surface flow by evapotranspiration)
ACQUA VADOSA : vadose water (moving the aeration zone of the soil without saturating it)
ACQUEOIGNEO : acqueoigneous (an adjective applied to minerals or rocks formed by the action of heat and water)
ACQUIFERO CONFINATO : confined aquifer (an aquifer surrounded by an aquitard, an aquifer surrounded by more or less impermeable formations)
ACQUIFUGO : aquifuge (geological formation which does neither absorb nor allow seepage of water)
ACQUITARDO : aquitard (geological formation of moderate permeability)
ACRITARCHI : acritarchs (palaeozoic microrganisms of uncertain systematic affinities)
ACUTA CERNIERA DI PIEGA : sharp bend
ADAMELITE : adamelite (granite with approximatively equivalent amounts of alkali-feldspar and plagioclase)
ADATTAMENTO : adaptation
ADATTARSI : to adapt
ADESIONE : adhesion
ADIABATICO : adiabatic (without exchange of heat)
ADOBE : adove (calcareous clay found in  the south-western United States and Mexico)
ADSORBATO : adsorbate (substance removed from liquid or gaseous solution by adsorption)
ADSORBENTE : adsorbent (substance at whose surface adsorption takes place)
ADSORBIMENTO : adsorption
ADULARESCENTE : adularescence (milky or bluish sheen of alkali feldspar or plagioclase, popularly called “moonstone”)
ADULARIA : adularia (varietà trasparente di feldspato potassico di colore bianco latteo)
ADVANCE WORKINGS : scavo lineare in miniera : advance workings  (senza lasciare pilastri di sostegno)
AEROBICO : aerobic
AEROLITE : aerolite (siliceous meteorite)
AFANITE : aphanite, glassy rock
AFANITICO : aphanitic
AFFINAMENTO : fining (of sediments)
AFFINITÀ : affinity (extent to which a compound or a functional group reacts with a given agent)
AFFLUENTE : side stream, tributary (of a river)
AFFLUSSO : inflow
AFFLUSSO PER CAPILLARITÀ : capillary yield
AFIRICO : aphiric (textural term applied to an aphanitic rock, without phenochrists)
AFVILLITE : afwillite (hydrated calcium silicate present both in natural rocks and in set cements)
AGALMATOLITE : agalmatolite (hydrated silicate of aluminium and potassium with high silica content, synonimous of pagodite)
AGATA : agate (cryptocrystalline variety of silica with parallel bands of colour)
AGENTI MINERALIZZANTI : mineralizing agents (fluid agents of magmatic origin from which minerals are crystallized)
AGENTI MINERALIZZATORI : mineralizing agents (fluid agents of magmatic origin from which minerals are crystallized)
AGGLOMERATO : agglomerate (indurated rock built of angular rock fragments embedded in an ashy matrix)
AGGLOMERATO DI SCORIE LAVICHE : agglomerate, agglutinate
AGGLOMERATO DI SFOGO VULCANICO : vent agglomerate
AGGLOMERATO LAVICO : agglomerate lava
AGGLOMERATO VULCANICO : volcanic agglomerate (chaotic accumulation of large and small angular volcanic blocks in a groundmass of shingle and sand)
AGGLOMERAZIONE : agglomeration, binding, sintering
AGGLUTINANTE : cement
AGGLUTINAZIONE : agglutination
AGGRADAZIONE : aggradation, vertical accretion (by sedimentary deposition)
AGGRADAZIONE COSTIERA : coastal accretion
AGGRADAZIONE VALLIVA : aggradation of a valley
AGGREGATO : aggregate
AGGREGATO A COLONNE APPIATTITE : bladed aggregate
AGGREGATO A GRAPPOLO : botryoidal aggregate
AGGREGATO CAPILLARE : capillary aggregate
AGGREGATO COLONNARE : columnar aggregate
AGGREGATO CRISTALLINO : crystal aggregate
AGGREGATO DI VENE ORIENTATE IN MODO IRREGOLARE : cluster of veins
AGGREGATO FIBROSO : fibrous aggregate
AGGREGATO FOLIACEO : foliaceous aggregate
AGGREGATO LAMELLARE : lamellar aggregate, shaly aggregate
AGGREGATO MICACEO : micaceous aggregate
AGGREGATO RADIATO : radiated aggregate
AGGREGATO RENIFORME : reniform aggregate
AGHI DI GHIACCIO : needle ice
AGHIFORME : acicular (crystal form)
AGITATORE : agitator (tank used to  mix finely ground mineral slurries in order to extract valuable minerals)
AGMATITE : agmatite (heterogenous migmatite made up by fragments of christalline schists in a chiefly gneissic matrix)
AGO : needle (crystal form)
AIRGLOW : airglow (faint atmospheric glow, fainter than the polar aurora, caused by ionizing effects of the solar radiation) – AIRGLOW DIURNO : dayglow – AIRGLOW NOTTURNO : nightglow – AIRGLOW AL TRAMONTO : twilightglow
AIRGLOW AL TRAMONTO : twilightglow
AIRGLOW DIURNO : dayglow
AIRGLOW NOTTURNO : nightglow
AKERMANITE : akermanite (calcium silicate and magnesium end-member of the melilite group)
AL DI SOPRA DEL LIMITE DI PIENA : overbank
AL LARGO : offshore
ALABASTRO : alabaster (massive form of gypsum)
ALBERO GENEALOGICO : genealogical tree
ALBITE : albite (sodium and aluminium silicate, crystallized in the tricline system)
ALBITIZZAZIONE : albitization (production of albite as a secondary mineral)
ALGINITE : alginite
ALIMENTATORE : feeder (feeding channel of a magmatic intrusion)
ALLA BASE ……. : at the base ……. (of a stratigraphic unit)
ALLA CIMA ……. : at the top ……. (of a stratigraphic unit)
ALLA SOMMITÀ ……. : at the top ……. (of a stratigraphic unit)
ALLINEAMENTO DI OSCILLAZIONI : lineup (regular pattern of oscillations of the seismogram due to wave reflection)
ALLOCTONO : allochthonous
ALLOGENO : allogene (an adjective applied to a mineral included into a rock at a later stage)
ALLOGENO : allothigenic
ALLOMETRIA : allometry
ALLOTIMORFO : allothimorph (term applied to the constituents of a metamorphic rock whose forms have not been altered by metamorphism)
ALLOTRIOMORFO : allotriomorphic, anhedron, xenomorphic (an adjective applied to crystals not delimited by their own crystal faces)
ALLUMINOSILICATI : silicates of aluminium
ALLUVIAZIONE : alluviation
ALLUVIONE CAUSATA DA EVENTO VULCANICO SUBACQUEO : glacier burst, jökulhlaup (from Icelandic: a flood caused by a volcanic event underwater)
ALLUVIUM : alluvium
ALMIROLISI : halmyrolysis (chemical phenomena of destruction and replacement in abyssal sediments in regions of slow sedimentation) 2101
ALTA MAREA : high tide
ALTA MAREA MEDIA : mean high water (mean high water height in a 19 years period)
ALTE MONTAGNE : high mountains (mountains with relief intensity over 1000 m/kmq)
ALTERAZIONE IDROTERMALE : hydrothermal alteration
ALTERAZIONE PNEUMATOLITICA : pneumatolytic alteration
ALTERAZIONI IPOGEE DELLE ROCCE : hypogene rock alterations
ALTERAZIONI SUPERFICIALI DELLE ROCCE : supergene rock alterations
ALTERNANZA DI LETTI : alternation of beds
ALTERNANZA PROVINCIALE : provincial alternation (cyclical variation of mineral associations at the border between two geological provinces)
ALTERNATORE : commutator
ALTEZZA DI BEACH CUSP : height of a beach cusp (vertical distance of a beach cusp top from the base)
ALTEZZA DI RIPPLE MARKS : height of ripple marks (vertical distance between a crest and the original surface)
ALTEZZA DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : height of the overturn (vertical distance between the crest line of an overfold and the trough line of the adjacent syncline)
ALTIPLANAZIONE : altiplanation
ALTO BACINO : upper course
ALTOPIANO : plateau (subaerial), upland
ALTOPIANO BASALTICO : basaltic plateau
ALTOPIANO COSTELLATO DI INSELBERG : paesaggio a inselberg
ALTOPIANO DESERTICO : desert plateau
ALTOPIANO LAVICO DI PRESSIONE : pressure plateau (lava plateau lifted by the pressure of underlying new lava)
ALTOPIANO STRUTTURALE : structural plateau
ALUNITIZZAZIONE : alunitization (replacement of feldspars and other aluminosilicates by alunite)
ALVEO FLUVIALE : channel
ALVEOLI : honeycomb lattice
AMBIENTE : environment
AMBIENTE ABISSALE : abyssal environment (part of the sea bottom below 2000 m depth)
AMBIENTE BATIALE : bathyal environment (sea bottom at a depth between 200 and 2000 m)
AMBIENTE CONTINENTALE : continental environment
AMBIENTE DESERTICO : desert environment
AMBIENTE DI ESTUARIO : estuarine environment
AMBIENTE DI GROTTA : spelean environment
AMBIENTE EOLICO : eolian environment
AMBIENTE EPINERITICO : epineritic environment (sea bottom up to a depth of about 40 m)
AMBIENTE FLUVIALE : fluvial environment
AMBIENTE GLACIALE : glacial environment
AMBIENTE INFRANERITICO : infraneritic environment (sea bottoms ad a depth from 40 to 200 m)
AMBIENTE LACUSTRE : lacustrine environment
AMBIENTE LAGUNARE : lagoonal environment
AMBIENTE LITORANEO : littoral environment
AMBIENTE MARINO : marine environment
AMBIENTE NERITICO : neritic environment (sea bottoms up to a depth of about 200 m)
AMBIENTE PALUSTRE : marsh environment, paludal environment
AMBIENTE PARALICO : paralic environment
AMBIENTE PELAGICO : pelagic environment (deeper sea bottoms profondi in which the accumulation of terrigenous sediments is less important than the deposition of skeletons of planktonic organisms)
AMBIENTE SOTTOCOSTA : paralic environment
AMBIENTE TERRESTRE : terrestrial environment
AMBIENTE TRANSIZIONALE : transitional environment (an environment of contact between different environments, an environment of transition between different environments)
AMBITO STRATIGRAFICO LOCALE DI UNA DATA SPECIE O GENERE ANIMALE O VEGETALE : Teilzone (from the German, local stratigraphic range of a given species or genus of a plant or an animal)
AMBRA : amber
AMIGDALA : amygdale
AMIGDALA TUBOLARE : pipe amygdale
AMIGDALOIDE : amygdaloid
AMMASSO : condensed deposit
AMMONITI : ammonites
AMPIA CERNIERA DI PIEGA : wide bend
AMPIA SACCA DICCHIFORME : ignisept (broad magmatic intrusion shaped like a dike)
AMPIEZZA ALLA BASE DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : width at the base of the overturn
AMPIEZZA DI BEACH CUSP : width of beach cusp
AMPIEZZA DI RICOPRIMENTO : fold overlap (distance between the two displaced parts of a bed in a fold nappe)
AMPIEZZA DI RIPPLE MARKS : amplitude of ripple marks
AMPIEZZA DI SOLLEVAMENTO DI UNA FAGLIA : distance of upthrow
AMPIEZZA DI UN SISMA : seismic amplitude (deflection of the seismogram from the equilibrium position)
AMPIEZZA DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : amplitude of the overturn
AMPIEZZA DI VARIAZIONE DI UNA SPECIE : degree of variation (degree of divergence in the characters of a species’ offspring)
AMPIEZZA MASSIMA DI CULMINAZIONE : structural relief
AMPLITUDINE DI MAREA : tidal range
ANAEROBICO : anaerobic
ANAGENESI : anagenesis (progressive development of organisms during the phyletic evolution)
ANALISI DELLA STRUTTURA INTERNA DI UNA ROCCIA : petrofabric analysis
ANALISI GRANULOMETRICA : mechanical analysis (of grain size)
ANALISI MECCANICA : mechanical analysis (of grain size)
ANALISI POLLINICA : pollen analysis, pollen statistics
ANALOGIA DI LIVELLO DELLE VETTE : summit concordance
ANAMORFISMO : anamorphism (constructive alteration of a rock with the production of more complex compounds starting from simpler ones)
ANASTOMOSI : spongework (an entaglement of interconnected tubular channels of various size and at different heights developed at random in limestone)
ANATESSI : anatexis (ultrametamorphic process of fusion or solution of deep rocks until these are turned into magma)
ANATESSI DIFFERENZIALE : differential anatexis (selective melting of deep rocks)
ANATETTITI : anatectites (rocks formed by anatexis)
ANCHIEUTETTICO : anchieutectic (an adjective applied to those rocks which are composed almost exclusively of two or more minerals thought to represent an eutectic mixture)
ANCHIMONOMINERALICO : anchimonomineralic (an adjective applied to rocks basically made up of a single mineral)
ANEDRO : (a constituent of a crystalline rock not bounded by own faces)
ANEDRO : anhedron (an adjective applied to crystals not delimited by their own crystal faces)
ANELLO DI CALDERA : caldera ring (mountain rim surrounding the caldera)
ANELLO DI CONGIUNZIONE : passage form (in evolutionary theory)
ANELLO DI FUMO VULCANICO : smoke ring (caused by turbulent air movements around the cloud)
ANELLO LAVICO : lava ring
ANFIBI : amphibians
ANFIBOLITE : amphibolite
ANFITEATRO MORENICO : moraine amphitheatre
ANGIOSPERME : Angiosperms
ANGOLO : angle
ANGOLO DI EMERGENZA : EMERGENCE ANGLE : emergence angle (of an earthquake, corresponding to the angle of the seismic ray with the earth surface)
ANGOLO DI INCIDENZA : angle of incidence
ANGOLO DI INCLINAZIONE : angle of dip
ANGOLO DI INCLINAZIONE REALE : angle of true dip (of geological strata)
ANGOLO DI ROTAZIONE : angle of rotation (of a rotatory fault)
ANGOLO TRA L’ASSE DI UNA ZONA DI GIACIMENTO AD ALTA CONCENTRAZIONE E LA DIREZIONE DELLA VENA : pitch
ANGOLOSITÀ : angularity
ANGOLOSO : angular
ANIDRITE : anhydrite
ANISOTROPIA : anisotropy
ANISOTROPIA MAGNETICA : magnetic anisotropy
ANNO LUCE : light year
ANOGENICO : anogenic (term applied to deep plutonic metamorphism or deep plutonic replacement)
ANOMALIA AD ARIA LIBERA : free air anomaly (gravimetric anomaly depending on the height assuming there is no mass between the station and the surface of reference)
ANOMALIA DI BOUGUER : Bouguer anomaly (gravitational anomaly to which the Bouguer correction has been applied but not that for the isostasy effect)
ANOMALIA DI BOUGUER MODIFICATA : modified Bouguer anomaly (after the total topographic reduction for Hayford’s zones A-O)
ANOMALIA ELETTRICA : electric anomaly (difference between the observed and the normal value of an electrical quantity)
ANOMALIA GRAVITATIVA : gravity anomaly
ANOMALIA GRAVITAZIONALE : gravitational anomaly (difference between the observed gravity acceleration and the normale gravity acceleration)
ANOMALIA ISOSTATICA : isostatic anomaly
ANOMALIA ISOSTATICA LOCALE : local isostatic anomaly
ANOMALIA ISOSTATICA REGIONALE : regional isostatic anomaly
ANOMALIA MAGNETICA : magnetic anomaly
ANOSSIA : anoxia
ANOSSICO : anoxic
ANSA : curve, fluvial meander, meander (of a river)
ANSA DI MEANDRO : meander loop (in a river)
ANSA DI UNA VALLE A MEANDRI : valley meander
ANTEBARRIERA : fore reef (area facing a coral reef towards the open sea)
ANTECEDENZA : antecedention (phenomen whereby a river which has hold its course during an orogenic phase, incising its channel as fast as the land was rising)
ANTENATO : ancestor, forerunner
ANTICA FALESIA : old cliff
ANTICLINALE : anticline
ANTICLINALE A TERMINAZIONE PERICLINALE AI DUE ESTREMI : doubly plunging anticline
ANTICLINALE ACCESSORIA : auxiliary anticline
ANTICLINALE AMPIO SULLA CIMA : broad crested anticline
ANTICLINALE ASSOTTIGLIATO SULLA CIMA : narrow crest anticline
ANTICLINALE CHIUSA : closed anticline
ANTICLINALE CORICATO CON FORTE STIRAMENTO ORIZZONTALE : overthrust fold (a recumbent fold in which the reversed middle limb has been completely sheared out as a result of the great horizontal traslation)
ANTICLINALE FALSA : pseudoanticline (anticline located in an evidently synclinalic structural complex)
ANTICLINALE INCLUSA DA CURVE DI LIVELLO : closed anticline
ANTICLINALE RESIDUA : residual anticline (local structural elevation between two peripheral synclines formed by beds covering tectonically inert saline masses)
ANTICLINALI RELATIVAMENTE PIÚ ALTE DELLE SINCLINALI : Faltenhochgang (from German)
ANTICLINORIO : anticlinorium
ANTIFERROMAGNETISMO : antiferromagnetism (growth of magnetism with the increase of temperature typical of some ferromagnetic materials)
ANTIONDULAZIONI DI SABBIA : wind anti-ripples (caused by the wind in eolian deposits, with a steeper windward side, due to moisture causing sticking of wind-borne unconsolidated material)
ANTIPERTITE : antiperthite (plagioclase containing potassium-rich feldspar)
ANTITELIA : antitely (extinction of a species due to development of useless characters)
ANTODITE : anthodite (a group of small crystals or tubular stalactites in a cave)
ANTRACITE : anthracite
APERTURA : gap (steep-sided furrow which cuts transversely across a ridge or rise, breaking through of a bar, space between the two faces of an open fault)
APERTURA DEGLI OCEANI : opening of the oceans (with formation of new oceanic crust, e.g. Atlantico)
APERTURA IN SOFFITTO DI GROTTA : cave manhole
APERTURA VULCANICA : volcanic opening
APICE DELLA CRESTA : crest apex, crest maximum (of a system of folds)
APICE DI BEACH CUSP : apex of beach cusp
APLITICO : aplitic, saccaroidal
APLOIDE : haploid (single cellular chromosome set)
APOFISI : apophysis, tongue shaped apophysis, tongue shaped vein, zungenförmig apophysis (a vein radiating from a great intrusive body)
APOFISI A CUNEO : keilförmig Apophysis (from German), wedge shaped apophysis
APOFISI DIGITIFORME : finger shaped apophysis, fingerförmig apophysis
APOFISI RAMIFORME : astförmig Apophysis (from German), branch shaped apophysis
APPARATO DI REGISTRAZIONE SISMOGRAFICA : seismic registering apparatus
APPARECCHIO DI ABEL : Abel flash-point apparatus (for measuring the flash point petroleum and petroleum products)
APPARENZA : appearance
APPIATTIMENTO DEGLI STRATI : flattening out of strata
APPIATTIMENTO DELLA TERRA : flattening
APPIATTITO : flattened
APPORTO : supply
APPORTO SEDIMENTARIO : sediment supply, sediment yield
ARCHEANO : Archaean
ARCHEOCIATIDI : Archaeocyathans
ARCHI LUMINOSI : flashing arcs (bright circle-shaped bows, swiftly enlarging and producing explosions in rapid succession due to the condensation-rarefaction spherical shell produced by the air above the arc)
ARCIPELAGO : archipelago
ARCO : upfold (in tectonic geology)
ARCO DEL GHIACCIAIO : glacier cave
ARCO DI PRESSIONE : pressure arch (an arch formed by partial collapse of a cave ceiling)
ARCO ESTERNO NON VULCANICO : nonvolcanic outer arc
ARCO INSULARE : island arc
ARCO MARINO NATURALE : sea arch (a natural bridge formed by the collapse of a cave previously cut in a cliff by the waves)
ARCO NATURALE : natural bridge (a natural bridge formed by the partial collapse of a cave)
ARCO VULCANICO : volcanic arc
ARCO VULCANICO INTERNO : volcanic inner arc
ARCOSE : arkose (feldspatic sediment derived from granite)
ARCUATURA DI BEACH CUSP : bay of beach cusp
ARCULITE : arculite (bow-shaped cristallite group)
ARDESIA : slate (from metamorphism of argillites and other finely grained sediments)
AREA AVENTE CARATTERI GEOLOGICI DISTINTI : terrane (e.g. the Alston block in Northern England)
AREA COPERTA DI LAVA AA : clinker field
AREA DEPRESSIONARIA IN UNA FALDA FREATICA : area of influence
AREA DESERTIFICATA DA UNA COLATA LAVICA : scorched area
AREA DI ALIMENTAZIONE IDRICA : recharge area
AREA DI DEPOSIZIONE DI UNA FRANA : deposition area
AREA DI DISSIPAZIONE IDRICA : dissipating area (area in which surficial water spreads and disappears absorbed by the ground)
AREA DI DRENAGGIO FLUVIALE : catchment area
AREA DI ORIGINE DEI SEDIMENTI : sediment source area
AREA DI SEDIMENTAZIONE : distributive province
AREA DI SPROFONDAMENTO : area of foundering, rift zone
AREA DISINTEGRATA IN BLOCCHI : block faulted area
AREA EPICENTRICA : epicentral area
AREA LIBERA DAI GHIACCI IN REGIONE GLACIALIZZATA : driftless area
AREA PERIFERICA CONTINENTALE SOMMERSA : continental borderland
AREA PLEISTOSISMICA : meizoseismal area (most disturbed area inside the isoseismic line)
AREA POCO PROFONDA DI UNA LAGUNA : lagoon shoal (in which corals keep growing)
AREA SORGENTIFERA : headwater region
AREA STABILIZZATA : consolidated area
AREICO : riverless
ARENARIA : sandstone (lithified sand)
ARENARIA GROSSOLANA PREVALENTEMENTE QUARZITICA : grit (a term particulary used in Great Britain)
ARENARIA MICACEA : micaceous sandstone
ARENARIA TUFACEA : tuffaceous sandstone (with fragments between 0,5 and 0,05 mm)
ARENITE : arenite, psammite
Arête : arête, sharp mountain ridge, serrate ridge
ARGILLA : clay (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter less than 1/256 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
ARGILLA COMPATTA : bleached sand
ARGILLA CON FESSURE DI DISSECCAMENTO : mud cracked clay
ARGILLA DI FAGLIA : fault gouge
ARGILLA DI GROTTA : cave clay
ARGILLA DI VARVA : varved clay
ARGILLA EOLICA PERIGLACIALE : loess (with granulometry about 60% between 10 and 50 micron)
ARGILLA FERROSA : clay ironstone (sinonimo di clay band)
ARGILLA REFRATTARIA : fire clay
ARGILLA RESIDUA : residual clay
ARGILLITE : claystone, mudstone, shale (weaker than slate, having well defined fracture plains)
ARGILLITE CARBONIOSA : carbonaceous shale
ARGILLITE FERROSA : clay ironstone
ARGILLITE TUFACEA : tuffaceous shale (with fragments < 0,05 mm)
ARGILLITI STERILI CIRCONDANTI ROCCE DIAMANTIFERE : reef (Australian and South African English)
ARGILLOSO : clayey, argillaceous
ARGINE : dike, dyke, levée
ARGINE LAVICO : lava levée
ARGINE NATURALE : levee (or levée) (from French, usually written in English without accent; in fluvial geomorphology: formed by river sediments; in vulcanology: formed by the rims of a collapsed volcanic channel)
ARMATURA PROTETTIVA DELLE SPONDE : revetments (strengthening of a levée as a protection against erosion and as a means of control against floods)
ARRESTO DELLA DIGESTIONE : arrested stoping (of apophyses radianting from the top of a batholith)
ARRETRAMENTO DEI VERSANTI : slope retreat
ARRICCHIMENTO SUPERFICIALE DI COMPOSTO SOLFOROSI : supergene sulphide enrichment
ARROTONDATO : rounded
ARTEFATTO : artifact
ARTERITE : arterite (veined gneiss formed by injection of material from a magmatic source in a metamorphic rock)
ARTROPLEURIDI : arthropleurids
ARTROPODI : arthropods
ASCISTICA : aschistic (an adjective applied to magmatic rocks minor intrusions having roughly the same make up as the major intrusions from which they derive)
ASCISTITE : aschistite, aschistic rock
ASFALTITE : asphaltite
ASFALTO NATURALE : native asphalt (insoluble solid organic material)
ASIDERITE : asiderite (meteorite exlusively made up of silica)
ASPRO : rugged (an adjective applied to the relief)
ASSE DI ROTAZIONE : pivotal axis (of a rotary fault)
ASSENZA DI STRATIFICAZIONE : massiveness
ASSESTAMENTO : settling
ASSESTAMENTO COMPRESSIVO : compressive settling
ASSIMILAZIONE MAGMATICA IN PROFONDITÀ : abyssal assimilation
ASSIMILAZIONE MAGMATICA MARGINALE : marginal assimilation (assimilation at the rim of a magmatic mass)
ASSIOLITE : axiolite (elongated spherulite)
ASSOCIAZIONE : association (of organisms)
ASSOCIAZIONE DI ROCCE : rock association (group of associated igneous rocks of about the same age)
ASSOCIAZIONE FOSSILE : assemblage
ASSOCIAZIONE FOSSILE BILANCIATA : balanced assemblage (a thanatocoenosis truly reflecting the original biocoenosis)
ASSOCIAZIONE MINERALE : mineral association
ASSORBANZA : absorbance (logarithm of the ratio of the intensity of a light incident on a solution to that transmitted)
ASSORBIMENTO DI ELEMENTO TRACCIANTE A PARITÀ DI VALENZA : camouflage of a trace element (absorption of a trace element with another one having a similar valence, replacement of a common element by a rare one with similar valence)
ASSORBIMENTO DI UN TRACCIANTE : admission of a trace element (replacement of a common element by a rarer one with higher valence)
ASSORBIMENTO SPECIFICO : specific absorption (ability of a layer of absorb water after the removal of gravitative water)
ASSORTIMENTO : fining (of sediments)
ASSORTIMENTO : sorting
ASSOTTIGLIAMENTO : thinning (of bedding), wedging out (of a sedimentary unit)
ASSOTTIGLIAMENTO DEI LATI : thinning of the limbs (of an anticline or a syncline)
ASSOTTIGLIAMENTO DI UN DEPOSITO MINERARIO : pinch
ASSOTTIGLIARSI : to thin off, to wedge out (terms applied to bedding)
ASTENOLITE : astenolith (old-fashioned concept of magna and migma accumulation at the basis of the sialic crust from which the energy for orogeny would derive)
ASTENOSFERA : astenosphere
ASTEROIDE : asteroid
ATASSITE : ataxite (iron meteorite containing less nickel than esaedrite and more than octahedite)
ATAVISMO : atavism (recurrence in a species of a primitive character)
ATELIA : ately (reduction of some organs to a rudimentary state as a consequence of eccessive specialization)
ATMOCLASTO : atmoclastic rock
ATOLLO : atoll
ATOLLO CORALLINO INTERNO AD UN ALTRO : faro
ATOLLO CORALLINO SECONDARIO : faro
ATRIO : atrio vulcanico (space between the central crater and the Somma ring)
ATRIO VULCANICO : fosse
ATTINIDI : actinides (gruppo di elementi chimici di numero atomico da 89 a 104, con proprietà chimiche simili all’attinio)
ATTINIO : actinium (elemento radioattivo con numero atomico 89, simbolo Ac, prodotto da decadimento radioattivo dell’isotopo 235U da bombardamento neutronico di 226Ra, tempo di dimezzamento 21,7 anni)
ATTINOLITE : actinolite (calcium, magnesium and iron amphibole, green in color, present in igneous metamorphosed rocks)
ATTIVATORE : activator (chemical used as a catalizer in flotation process)
ATTIVITÀ : activity (in nuclear geologiy: speed of transformation of a radioactive isotope)
ATTIVITÀ EFFUSIVA : effusive activity
ATTIVITÀ ERUTTIVA : eruptive activity
ATTIVITÀ ERUTTIVA DEBOLE : weak eruptive activity
ATTIVITÀ ERUTTIVA VIOLENTA : violent eruptive activity
ATTIVITÀ ESPLOSIVA : explosive activity
ATTIVITÀ FUMAROLICA : fumarolic activity
ATTIVITÀ HAWAIIANA : hawaiian activity (eruptive activity of very basic lavas)
ATTIVITÀ IGNEA : igneous activity
ATTIVITÀ IGNEA ENDOGENA : abyssal activity
ATTIVITÀ IGNEA SOTTERRANEA : plutonism
ATTIVITÀ PELEANA : peléan activity (explosive activity of extremely acid lavas)
ATTIVITÀ PIROCLASTICA : pyroclastic activity
ATTIVITÀ PLINIANA : plinian activity (explosive activity with collapse of the crater region and formation of a Mount Somma type structure, e.g. Vesuvius in the 79 d.C.)
ATTIVITÀ PREDATORIA : predation
ATTIVITÀ PRINCIPALE : main activity (in a volcanic eruption)
ATTIVITÀ SOLFATARICA : solfataric activity
ATTIVITÀ SPASMODICA : spasmodic activity (eruptive activity at irregular intervals)
ATTIVITÀ STROMBOLIANA : strombolian activity (eruptive activity of alkaline lavas)
ATTIVITÀ VULCANIANA : vulcanian activity (eruptive activity of acid lavas)
ATTIVITÀ VULCANICA : volcanic activity
ATTIVITÀ VULCANICA EFFIMERA : ephemeral volcanic activity
ATTRAZIONE GRAVITATIVA : attraction, gravitational attraction
ATTRITO : abrasion, friction
ATTRITUS : attritus (coal component made up of finely subdivided fragments of the stouter vegetal matter)
ATTUALISMO : actualism
AUGITE : augite
AUMENTO DELLA PRESSIONE GASSOSA : increase in gas pressure
AUMENTO DI LIVELLO : vertical accretion (by sedimentary deposition)
AUMENTO DI TEMPERATURA : increase of temperature
AUMENTO RETROGRADO DELLA TENSIONE DI VAPORE : retrograde increase of vapour tension (due to the volume reduction of the part of magma which remains liquid due to partial crystallization of the magma chamber)
AUREOLA : aureola, corona (contact zone between two minerals)
AUREOLA METAMORFICA : contact zone
AURORA AUSTRALE : aurora australis
AURORA BOREALE : aurora borealis
AURORA POLARE :polar aurora
AUTAPOMORFIA : autapomorphy (character unique to a species or group)
AUTIGENESI : authigenesis (formation of minerals in situ)
AUTIGENO : authigene
AUTOCTONO : autochtonous
AUTOIDRATAZIONE : autohydration (production of new minerals indide a magma by action of magmatic water upon magmatic minerals already extant in a liquid state)
AUTOINTRUSIONE : autointrusion (intrusion of residual liquid in the fractures of the solidifying mass at the terminal stages of magma consolidation)
AUTOLITE : autolith (fragment of igneous rock included in a magmatic rock to which it is lithologically similar and probably derived from the same magma but crystallized first)
AUTOMETAMORFISMO : autometamorphism (chemical adaptation of a magma to a decrease in temperature due to the action of endogenous volatile fluxes, e.g. serpetinization of peridotite and spilitization of basalt)
AUTOMETASOMATISMO : autometasomatism (replacement of minerals initially formed within a magma by new minerals by the action of mineralizing agents developed by the magma itself)
AUTOPNEUMATOLISI : autopneumatolysis (production of new minerals inside a magma by action of its gaseous mineralizing agents)
AUTOSTASIA : autostasy, omeostasis (preservation of the balance physiological processes)
AUTUNNO : autumn, fall (American English)
AVANFOSSA : foredeep (marginal depression in the area towards which orogenic uplift is chiefly oriented)
AVANPAESE : foreland (area towards which the orogenetic uplift is chiefly oriented)
AVANZATA : advance (of a glacier)
AVERE O PRENDERE LA DIREZIONE DELLA TENDENZA DI UNO STRATO : to strike
AVVILUPPARE : to envelop
AZIMUT DELLA DIREZIONE DI INCLINAZIONE REALE : bearing of the true dip line
AZIMUT DELLA TENDENZA DI UNO STRATO : direction of the strike of a layer
AZIMUTH DELL’EPICENTRO : azimuth of epicentre
AZIONE CAPILLARE : capillary action
AZIONE IDRAULICA : hydraulic action (energy of moving water acting on the bottom and the banks of a river)
BACILLITE : bacillite (rodlike form made up of elongated cristallites)
BACINI FORMATI DA NIVAZIONE : nivation cirques
BACINO : basin
BACINO ARTESIANO : artesian basin
BACINO CALCAREO IN GROTTA : rimstone pool
BACINO CHIUSO : closed basin
BACINO CRATERICO : crater basin
BACINO DI CRISTALLIZZAZIONE : crystal pool
BACINO DI DRENAGGIO : drainage basin
BACINO DI DRENAGGIO FLUVIALE : catchment basin
BACINO DI EVAPORAZIONE : salt pan
BACINO DI GEYSER : geyser basin (a valley with widespread geysers)
BACINO DI PALUDE LITORANEA : marsh basin (depression between two raised levées in a littoral salt marsh)
BACINO DI RACCOLTA : reception basin
BACINO DI RACCOLTA DI UN GHIACCIAIO : névé
BACINO DI SUBSIDENZA : subsidence basin
BACINO DI UN SISTEMA DI CANALI DI MAREA : tidal basin
BACINO ENDOREICO : bolson
BACINO EOLICO : blowout (a basin of eolic accumulation of sand)
BACINO FORMATO DALLA LINGUA GLACIALE : terminal basin
BACINO GLACIALE : glacial basin (ice scoured basin)
BACINO GLACIALE PERIFERICO : marginal glacial basin
BACINO IN LETTO FLUVIALE : pool (a comparatively deeper zone in the bed of a river)
BACINO INFERIORE : lower course (of a river)
BACINO INTERMONTANO : intermontane basin, nuclear basin
BACINO LACUSTRE : lake basin
BACINO LACUSTRE GLACIALE : rock basin lake
BACINO MARINO PERIFERICO : marginal (sea) basin
BACINO PETROLIFERO : oil basin
BACINO SOTTERRANEO DI ACCUMULO IDRICO : groundwater basin
BACINO TERMINALE : terminal basin
BACINO TETTONICO : fault basin
BAIA : bay
BAIA DELTIZIA : delta bay
BAIA PICCOLA SEMILUNATA : bight
BAJADA : bahada (alluvial fan coalescing around the centre of desert basin, deposition area of deposition of a desert basin)
BANCHISA : field ice
BANCO : bank
BANCO : shoal (fluvial or in a tidal zone)
BANCO CONCHIGLIFERO : shell bank
BANCO CORALLINO : bank reef
BANCO DI MITILI : mussel bed
BANCO DI OSTRICHE : oyster bed
BANCO DI SABBIA : sand bar
BANCO FANGOSO EMERGENTE A BASSA MAREA : tidal flat area (an area for the greater part covered by the sea at high tide but uncovered at low tide)
BANCO IN ZONA DI MAREA : flat
BANCO OCEANICO : oceanic bank (submerged extinct volcano lying below 200 m)
BANDA DI ASSORBIMENTO : absorption band (banda oscura nello spettro della luce bianca trasmessa da una sostanza indicante assorbimento differenziale di luce da parte della sostanza stessa)
BANDE SCURE : dirt bands (caused in a glacier by the accumulation of debris and dust)
BARCANA : barchan, barchane
BARENA : tidal flat area (comparatively wide and flat area formed by unconsolidated sediments, the greater part of which are covered and uncovered by the tides)
BARISFERA : barysphere
BARRA : bar (littoral sand bar, or threshold in a river bed)
BARRA SEDIMENTARIA : offshore sedimentary barrier
BARRA SEDIMENTARIA CUSPIDATA : cuspate bar (V-shaped littoral barrier made up by two oblique littoral bars connected with one another)
BARRA SOMMERSA PARALLELA ALLA COSTA : offshore bar
BARRANCO : barranco
BARRIERA CALCAREA IN GROTTA : chinese wall
BARRIERA CORALLINA : reef
BARRIERA COSTIERA STABILE : fixed coastal barrier (barriera sedimentary which is attaccata totalmente or parzialmente alla terraferma in consequence of migrazione verso terra or riempimento of a laguna che precedentemente delimitava, cordone costiero collegato alla terraferma)
BARRIERA DI GHIACCIO : ice barrier
BARRIERA DI GHIACCIO : ice dam
BARRIERA DI TRONCHI : log jam (in the bed of a river)
BARRIERA GLACIALE : ice barrier
BARRIERA GLACIALE : shelf ice (ice barrier on the continental platform)
BASALTI AREALI : plateau basalts
BASALTO DEI VULCANI A SCUDO : cone basalt (of shield volcanoes, different from areal basalts due to the low Fe content and the lower fluidity)
BASAMENTO FRAMMENTATO IN BLOCCHI : basement split up into blocs
BASE : base (bottom of a stratigraphic unit), basis (final result of magma consolidation), lower side (of bedding)
BASE DI FALESIA : cliff base
BASE DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : basement of a nappe
BASE DI UNO STRATO : floor of a layer
BASSA INCLINAZIONE : low dip (of a stratum referred to the horizon)
BASSA ISOLETTA SABBIOSA : sand cay
BASSA MAREA : ebb tide, low tide
BASSA MAREA MEDIA : mean low water (mean low water height in a 19 years period)
BASTIONE ROCCIOSO : buttress
BATOLITE : batholith
BATOLITE COMPOSITO : composite batholith (a batolith formed by multiple intrusions by magmas of different chemical makeup)
BATOLITE DIFFERENZIATO : differentiated batolith (showing magmatic differentiation)
BATOLITE MULTIPLO : multiple batholith (a batholith formed by multiple intrusions of the same magma)
BATOLITE OMOGENEO : homogenous batholith
BATOLITE SEMPLICE : simple batholith (formed by a single intrusion)
BAUXITE : bauxite
BAYOU : bayou (secondary branch of a delta characterized by a slow or imperceptible current)
BEACH CUSPS : beach cusps (rythmically interspaced features on the beach, with seaward pointing ends)
BELEMNITI : belemnites
BELONITE : belonite (elongated cristallite)
BELTEPORICA : belteroporic (an adjective applied to the structure of a mineral in deformed rocks without a direct relationship with deformation but entirely controlled by the anisotropic nature of the medium in which the mineral has grown)
BEN STRATIFICATO : well bedded
BENTON : benthon (marine organisms living at the sea bottom)
BENTONITE : bentonite (shaly rock formed by alteration of volcanic glassy material)
BENTOS : benthos (marine organisms living at the sea bottom)
BERGSCHRUND : bergschrund (broad and deep crevasse visible in a glacier during the summer between the névé and the ablation area, hidden in winter by the snow)
BERMA : bank, berm (beach ridge parallel to the shore), strath
BIFORCAZIONE : forking (e.g. fluvial)
BIFORCAZIONE FLUVIALE : bifurcation
BIFORCAZIONE FLUVIALE ANASTOMOSATA : anastomosing river bifurcation (due to sedimentary overload)
BILANCIA DI TORSIONE : torsion balance (instrument for measuring the gradient and some other second order derivatives of the Earth’s potential)
BILANCIO IDRICO : water balance, water budget
BILANCIO IDRICO DEL SUOLO : soil moisture budget
BILANCIO IDRICO SOTTERRANEO: groundwater balance
BIOCENOSI : biocoenosis, community of organisms
BIODEPOSIZIONE : biodeposition
BIOERMA : bioherm (structure of a strictly organic origin having a varied form, reef-like, mound-like, lens-like, or otherwise, embedded in rocks of a different lithology)
BIOFACIES : biofacies (set of palaeontological features of a sedimentary deposit at a given point)
BIOGEOGRAFIA DELLA VICARIANZA : vicariance biogeography (historical study of the actual distribution of organisms interpreted as a result of an interaction between biological evolution and physical evolution of the Earth surface)
BIOLOGIA : biology
BIOMECCANICA : biomechanics
BIOSFERA : biosphere (part of the Earth where living organisms are found)
BIOSTROMA : biostrome (stratified biogenic formation having a shape neither lens-like nor mound-like)
BIOTOPO : biotope (area where a biocoenosis lives)
BIOTURBAZIONE : bioturbation
BIOZONA : biozone
BIRIFRANGENZA : birefringency, double refraction (e.g. in colourless calcite, i.e. Iceland spar)
BIRIFRAZIONE : birefringency, double refraction (e.g. in colourless calcite, i.e. Iceland spar)
BISMALITE : bysmalith (a conical or cylindrical very long laccolith)
BITUME : bitumen, tar
BITUME ASFALTOIDE : asphaltoid bitumen
BITUME DA SOSTANZE ORGANICHE SOLUBILI : naphtabitumen (from asphaltite, ozocerite, natural gas, oil)
BITUMIZZAZIONE : bituminization (fossilization process)
BLASTETRIX : blastetrix (an adjective applied to a surface to which the direction of easiest growth is perpendicular in an anisotropic medium)
BLASTOFITICO : blastophytic (palimpsest structure in metamorphic rocks in which the original ophitic structure is not entirely destroyed by recrystallization)
BLASTOGRANITICO : blastogranitic (palimpsest structure in metamorphic rocks in which the original granitic structure is not entirely destroyed by recrystallization)
BLASTOPORFIRITICO : blastoporphyritic (palimpsest structure in metamorphic rocks in which the original porphyritic structure is not entirely destroyed by recrystallization)
BLIZZARD : blizzard, snowstorm
BLOCCHI DI BASAMENTO CRISTALLINO FRAMMENTATI E SPOSTATI DA FORZE TETTONICHE : thrusted blocks
BLOCCO : block, terrane (e.g. the Alston block in Northern England)
BLOCCO ABBASSATO : fault trough, graben
BLOCCO AL DI SOPRA DEL PIANO DI FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA : overthrust block
BLOCCO DI CORALLO ANNERITO IN EROSIONE : negrohead (blackened coral block being eroded, sometimes uprooted by a hurricane and thrown on a beach; a term probably no longer “politically correct”)
BLOCCO DI GHIACCIO IN UN CORSO D’ACQUA : ice cake
BLOCCO DI ROCCIA INCASSANTE ISOLATO E DIGERITO DA UNA MASSA MAGMATICA INTRUSIVA : stoped block
BLOCCO DI ROCCIA SPORGENTE IN GROTTA : cantilever
BLOCCO DI SPINTA : overthrust slice (single large rock mass caught between the walls of an overthrust)
BLOCCO FAGLIATO : fault block
BLOCCO FAGLIATO E BASCULATO : tilted fault block
BLOCCO INFERIORE : lower fault block
BLOCCO LAVICO : lava block
BLOCCO ROCCIOSO SOLLEVATO E SCHIACCIATO FRA DUE FAGLIE : horse
BLOCCO SOLLEVATO DI UNA FAGLIA : upthrow
BLOCCO SPROFONDATO DI UNA FAGLIA : downthrow
BLOCCO SPROFONDATO IN UNA FAGLIA : faulted down
BLOCCO STAZIONARIO : stationary block (block of rocks comparatively undeformed below the plane of a compressive fault)
BLOCCO STERILE : barren block (bounded by the vertical planes passing through the traces of the fault plane, called barren under the viewpoint of oil geology because it is unproductive as the oil has faulted out)
BLOCCO SUPERIORE DI UNA FAGLIA : upper fault block
BOATO SOTTERRANEO : retumbo (from Spanish; caused by a seismic or volcanic event), subterranean rumbling
BOBINA PER SONDAGGI : search coil (used to measure the magnetic field associated to electric current)
BOBINA PRIMARIA : energizing coil (used in the induction based method of magnetic field investigation)
BOCCA : volcanic crater
BOCCA AVVENTIZIA : adventive bocca
BOCCA DI LAGUNA : breach inlet, grau(from French of Languedoc)
BOCCA VULCANICA ESPLOSIVA : esplosive bocca (a crater emitting gas and solid material in explosive fashion)
BOCCA VULCANICA GASSOSA : gas bocca
BOCCA VULCANICA LAVICA : lava bocca
BODDEN : bodden (a broad inlet formed by submergence of a former glacial tongue basin, typical of the southern baltic coast)
BOLLA CALCAREA IN GROTTA : calcite bubble
BOLLIRE : to bubble
BOMBA A CROSTA DI PANE : breadcrust bomb
BOMBA A ESCREMENTO DI VACCA : cow dung bomb
BOMBA DI OLIVINA : olivine bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA : bomb, pancake bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA A CAPPELLO DI PRETE : bomb with the shape of a hat of a priest
BOMBA VULCANICA A FORMA DI LACRIMA : tear shaped bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA ALLOGENA : cored bomb, perilith (formed by a fragment of old rock mantled with newly solidified lava)
BOMBA VULCANICA BIPOLARE FUSIFORME : spindle shaped bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA CON APPENDICI ELICOIDALI : bomb with spiral projections
BOMBA VULCANICA DI POMICE : pumiceous bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA DI SCORIE : slag bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA ELLISSOIDALE : ellipsoidal bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA ESPLOSIVA : explosive bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA GLOBULARE : globular bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA NASTRIFORME : ribbon shaped bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA ROTATORIA : rotational bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA SPIRALATA : twisted bomb
BOMBA VULCANICA UNIPOLARE : unipolar bomb (elongated at one end)
BONIFICA : land reclamation, reclamation
BOTROIDALE : botryoidal
BOUDIN : boudin (a sedimentary element of a set of saucer shaped structure)
BOUDINAGE : boudinage (linear structure in which beds in a yielding matrix are divided by cross fractures forming pillow-like or sausage-shaped segments)
BRACCIO MORTO : false channel (in a river or stream)
BRACHIANTICLINALE : brachyanticline (an anticline of which the relationship between breadth and length of the structural closure is greater than 1 to 2 and less 1 than 5)
BRACHISINCLINALE : brachysincline (a syncline of which the relationship between breadth and length of the structural closure is greater than 1 to 2 and less 1 than 5)
BRADIGENESI : bradygenesis (a delay in the biological evolutionary development)
BRADISISMA : bradyseism
BRECCIA : breccia (a rock formed by rough cemented fragments)
BRECCIA DA ESPLOSIONE PELEANA : glowing cloud breccia
BRECCIA DA NUBE ARDENTE : glowing cloud breccia
BRECCIA DA VALANGA ASCIUTTA: avalanche breccia
BRECCIA DI ATTRITO : friction breccia
BRECCIA DI CROLLO : crumble breccia
BRECCIA DI DISLOCAZIONE : dislocation breccia
BRECCIA DI ESPLOSIONE : explosion breccia
BRECCIA DI ESSICAMENTO : dessication breccia (formed by dessication polygons later fragmented and deposited with other sedimentary material)
BRECCIA DI FAGLIA : fault breccia
BRECCIA DI FLUSSO : clinker, flow breccia
BRECCIA DI FLUSSO CEMENTATA : welded flow breccia
BRECCIA DI FRIZIONE VULCANICA : volcanic friction breccia
BRECCIA DI RIEMPIMENTO : solution breccia (breccia filling of solution channelss inside a limestone)
BRECCIA DI SFOGO VULCANICO : vent breccia
BRECCIA DI STRITOLAMENTO : crush breccia
BRECCIA FRA LE DUNE : dune crevasse
BRECCIA IGNEA : igneous breccia
BRECCIA INTRUSIVA : intrusive breccia
BRECCIA LITOLOGICAMENTE ETEROGENEA : lithologically heterogenous breccia
BRECCIA LITOLOGICAMENTE OMOGENEA : lithologically homogenous breccia
BRECCIA PALAGONITICA : palagonite tuff
BRECCIA SEDIMENTARIA : sedimentary breccia
BRECCIA TETTONICA : autoclastic rock, tectonic breccia
BRECCIA TUFICA : lithic tuff
BRECCIA VULCANICA : volcanic breccia
BRECCIATO : brecciated
BRECCIOIDE : brecciated
BRILLAMENTO PER CORREZIONE DELLE ALTERAZIONI DI STRATIFICAZIONE : weathering shot (in seismic survey: special shot fired to determinare the the time delay caused by the weathered layer)
BRINA : hoarfrost
BRIOZOI : bryozoans
BRUCATORI : grazers
BRUGHIERA : moor
BRUGHIERA A CALLUNA : calluna peat
BUCO SOFFIANTE : blow hole (an opening in the ceiling of a littoral cave or a wave-dug cavity which acts as a vent of the air when the cave or cavity is invaded by the waves)
BUSSOLA DI INCLINAZIONE : dip needle
BUSSOLA DI INCLINAZIONE : inclinator (an instrument to measure the inclination of the magnetic field)
BUSSOLA MINERARIA : mining compass (an instrument which provides qualitative indications of anomalies of the magnetic field)
CADACRISTALLO : chadacryst (a small crystal included in a larger one)
CADUTA DI PETRE DA UN PENDIO : falling stones
CALA : cala (from Spanish)
CALANCHI : badlands
CALANCO : rain rill, ravine
CALAZOIDITE : chalazoidite, pisolite (formed by glowing volcanic ash and rain water)
CALCARE : lime, limestone
CALCARE A CRINOIDI : crinoidal limestone
CALCARE A LUMACHELLE : coquina, coquinoid limestone
CALCARE ARENACEO : sandy limestone
CALCARE BRECCIATO : brecciated limestone
CALCARE CAVERNOSO : cavernous limestone
CALCARE COMPATTO : compact limestone
CALCARE CON VENATURE : veiny limestone
CALCARE DETRITICO : fragmental limestone
CALCARE FARINOSO : mealy limestone
CALCARE FERRUGINOSO : ferruginous limestone
CALCARE FETIDO : fetid limestone
CALCARE FRIABILE : crumbly limestone
CALCARE GESSOSO : chalky limestone
CALCARE GRANULARE : granular limestone
CALCARE LAMINARE : banded limestone
CALCARE LITOGRAFICO : lithographic limestone, plattenkalk
CALCARE MAMMELLONATO : knobby limestone
CALCARE NODULARE : nodular limestone
CALCARE PISOLITICO : calcareous pisolite
CALCARE SABBIOSO : sandy limestone
CALCARE SACCAROIDE : saccaroidal limestone
CALCARE SILICEO : siliceous limestone
CALCARE SPATICO : spathic limestone
CALCARE TALCOSO : talcky limestone
CALCARE TERROSO : earthy limestone
CALCARE VERMICULATO : vermiculated limestone (a limestone having as appearance as if it had been excavated by worms)
CALCARE VESCICOLARE : vescicular limestone
CALCARENITE : calcarenite (limestone with arenitic structure)
CALCAREO : calcareous, limy
CALCEDONIO : chalcedony
CALCIFICAZIONE : calcification
CALCILUTITE : calcilutite (a calcareous rock with a lutitic structure or pelitic structure)
CALCIRUDITE : calcirudite (a calcareous rock with a ruditic structure)
CALCITE IN FRAMMENTI CRISTALLINI LIBERI IN GROTTA : floating calcite scales
CALCO ESTERNO : external mould (of an organism)
CALCO FOSSILE DI CUNEO DI GHIACCIO : fossil ice wedge
CALCO INTERNO : cast, internal mould (of an organism)
CALCO LAVICO DI UN ALBERO : lava tree cast, lava tree mold (tubular lava cavity formed around a tree trunk)
CALCO LAVICO DI UN TRONCO D’ALBERO : tree trunk mold
CALCOGENE : chalcogene (mineral deposits linked to a given phase of orogeny and plutonism)
CALDERA : caldera (from Spanish)
CALDERA ANNIDATA : nested caldera (formed by the intersection of two or more calderas)
CALDERA CRIPTOVULCANICA : criptovulcanic caldera (formed by volcanic processes triggered by volcanic injections close to the surface with o minimal magmatic effusion followed by subsidence or collapse of the surface, e.g. Rieskessel in Swabia having a 25 km diameter and a 200 m depth)
CALDERA DI COLLASSO : collapse caldera
CALDERA DI EROSIONE : erosion caldera
CALDERA DI ESPLOSIONE : explosion caldera
CALDERA DI ORIGINE MISTA : caldera of mixed origin (explosive or due to collapse)
CALDERA FREATICA : phreatic caldera (formed by overheating of rain water without magmatic eruption)
CALDERA SEMPLICE : simple caldera (formed by a volcanic explosion)
CALDERA SOMMITALE : summit caldera (formed at the top of a volcanic cone)
CALDERA VULCANOTETTONICA : volcano-tectonic caldera
CALDERONE : cauldron (a small approximately circular depression on the ocean bottom)
CALDERONE VULCANICO : cauldron
CALOTTA DI GHIACCIO POLARE : polar icecap
CALOTTA GLACIALE : ice sheet
CALOTTA GLACIALE CONTINENTALE : inland ice
CALOTTA GLACIALE LOCALE : ice cap
CALOTTA GLACIALE SU CONO VULCANICO : volcanic cone glacier
CALOTTA POLARE : polar icecap
CAMBIAMENTI DEL LIVELLO MARINO : shifts
CAMBIAMENTO DI DIREZIONE : change of strike (of a stratigraphic unit)
CAMBIAMENTO DI FACIES : facies change
CAMBIAMENTO DI INCLINAZIONE : change of dip
CAMBIAMENTO DI POTENZA : change in thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
CAMBIAMENTO DI SPESSORE : change in thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
CAMBIAMENTO IN SENSO LATERALE NELLA STRATIFICAZIONE : lateral change of strata
CAMBIAMENTO IN SENSO TRASVERSALE DELLA STRATIFICAZIONE : transversal change of strata
CAMBIAMENTO LATERALE DI VELOCITÀ : lateral velocity change (of a seismic wave on a horizontal plane)
CAMBRIANO : Cambrian
CAMERA DI RAFFREDDAMENTO : aftercooler (chamber for allowing the cooling of air heated by compression in a mine)
CAMINO CARSICO : light hole
CAMINO IN SOFFITTO DI GROTTA : cave chimney
CAMINO VULCANICO PRINCIPALE : central volcanic vent, principal vent
CAMINO VULCANICO SECONDARIO : subordinate vent
CAMPIONE DI CAROTAGGIO : core sample
CAMPIONE DI ROCCIA : hand specimen
CAMPO CARREGGIATO : clints, lapiés (narrow channels or furrows separated by ridges or crests, caused by the solvent action of rainwater on a limestone surface)
CAMPO DI DETRITI : debris plain
CAMPO DI DUNE : dune field
CAMPO DI FAGLIE : field of faults
CAMPO DI FANGO : mud field (formed by fumaroles in a soil satured with water)
CAMPO DI FRAMMENTI ROCCIOSI : block field (usually caused by fragmentation through freezing and refreezing)
CAMPO DI FUMAROLE : fumarole field
CAMPO DI LAVA A BLOCCHI : clinker field
CAMPO DI NEVE : snow field
CAMPO DI PIETRE : block field (usually caused by fragmentation through freezing and refreezing)
CAMPO DI SABBIA : sand plain
CAMPO DI SCORIE LAVICHE : clinker field
CAMPO FILONIANO : field of veins
CAMPO GHIACCIATO : ice field (area of drift ice of such an extent that its limits cannot be seen from the ship’s masthead)
CAMPO GRAVITATIVO : gravity field
CAMPO GRAVITAZIONALE : gravity field
CAMPO LAVICO : lava field
CAMPO MAGNETICO NECESSARIO A RIMUOVERE LA MAGNETIZZAZIONE : coercivity
CAMPO SOLFATARICO : solfatara field
CANALE : canal (a passage in a cave partially filled with water, a furrow on the floor in passage of a cave)
CANALE AA : aa channel (in lava hardened forming large blocks)
CANALE ALIMENTATORE : channelway (through which the mineralizing solution reaches the rock)
CANALE ANASTOMOSATO : braided channel
CANALE DELTIZIO : stream channel
CANALE DI ALIMENTAZIONE : channelway (through which the mineralizing solution reaches the rock)
CANALE DI CROLLO DI TUNNEL LAVICO : collapse canal
CANALE DI DEFLUSSO IN PALUDE LITORANEA : marsh creek (outflow channel in a littoral coastal marsh)
CANALE DI DISCESA DI VALANGA : avalanche track
CANALE DI EROSIONE : gully (on a slope)
CANALE DI EROSIONE IN GROTTA : meander channel (narrow erosion channel at the bottom of a passage in a cave)
CANALE DI ERUZIONE PRESSAPOCO CIRCOLARE : pipe
CANALE DI MAREA : tidal channel
CANALE DI MAREA A PREVALENTE DEFLUSSO : ebb channel (tide channel dominated by ebb currents)
CANALE DI MAREA DOMINATO DA CORRENTI DI AFFLUSSO : flood channel
CANALE DI METALLIZZAZIONE : channelway (through which the mineralizing solution reaches the rock)
CANALE DI RACCORDO : cross channel (channel-shaped depression of the submerged beach connecting two other depressions)
CANALE DI SCOLMA : floodway (artificial channel for discharging rainwater)
CANALE DI VALANGA : avalanche chute
CANALE EFFIMERO : ephemeral channel (channel occupied by water only after intermittent showers and normally dry)
CANALE FLUVIALE : river channel
CANALE LAVICO COLLASSATO : collapse canal
CANALE MARINO : channel
CANALE METALLIFERO : channelway (through which the mineralizing solution reaches the rock)
CANALE NAVIGABILE : navigable channel
CANALE SINUOSO IN SOFFITTO DI CAVERNA : cave ceiling channel
CANALE VULCANICO : diatreme, volcanic vent
CANALE VULCANICO : volcanic vent
CANALE VULCANICO CILINDRICO : cylindrical vent
CANALE VULCANICO NON DIRETTAMENTE COLLEGATO AL CONDOTTO PROFONDO : rootless vent
CANALETTO MINORE DI DEFLUSSO : gully (lesser creek in muddy or sandy flats below the high tide level along a coast)
CANALI DI SCIOGLIMENTO : solution openings (in a rock)
CANALI INTRECCIATI : interlaced channels
CANALIZZAZIONE ARTIFICIALE : channelisation
CANCELLAZIONE DELLE SUPERFICI PREGLACIALI IN SEGUITO A FORMAZIONE INTENSIVA DI CIRCHI GLACIALI : upland fretting
CANYON : canyon
CANYON SOTTOMARINO : sybmarine canyon
CAOLINIZZAZIONE : kaolinizazion (replacement of feldspars and other silicates of aluminium in kaolin)
CAOLINO : china clay
CAOS DI PIETRE : block field (usually caused by fragmentation through freezing and refreezing)
CAPACITÀ DI ASSIMILAZIONE : assimilation capacity (ability of fluvial natural processes to absorb and control the effects of foreign materials such as pollutants)
CAPACITÀ DI IMMAGAZZINAMENTO DELLA FALDA FREATICA : field capacity (water remaining in a freely draining soil after the percolation of all water which could be removed by gravity, quantity of water held in the soil after the excessive amount has been drained)
CAPACITÀ DI TRASPORTO : competence (size of the largest sedimentary particle which can be carried by a river at a given place and in a given time)
CAPACITÀ IDRICA DEL SUOLO : water capacity in the soil (capacity of the soil of hold water in static equilibrium)
CAPACITÀ RIPRODUTTIVA : reproductive power
CAPELLI DI LA PELÉ : Pelé’s hair
CAPILLARITÀ : capillarità
CAPO : cape
CAPO ROCCIOSO : rocky cape
CAPPELLO DI FERRO : gossan
CAPPUCCIO CORALLINO : reef cap (coral limestone cover of an island or a mountain)
CAPPUCCIO DI DUOMO SALINO : cap of salt dome (of limestone, anhydrite or other rock)
CARAPACE DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : carapace of a nappe (set of the more surficial folds of a nappe outcropping in an eroded section)
CARATTERE DEL SISMOGRAMMA : character of the seismogram – in connection to pulsation size: PERCETTIBILE, perceptible; MODERATAMENTE FORTE, moderately strong; FORTE, strong – in connection to distance: VICINO, near; LONTANO, distant; MOLTO LONTANO, very distant – in connection to the first pulsation: INIZIO IMPROVVISO, sudden beginning; INIZIO GRADUALE, gradual beginning
CARATTERE DI UN’ERUZIONE VULCANICA : character of a volcanic eruption
CARATTERE DI UN’ONDA SISMICA : character of a seismic wave (a typical wave which, in favourable conditions, allows the identification of a particular interface inside the Earth)
CARATTERISTICA LITOLOGICA : lithological character
CARATTERISTICHE ESTERIORI DI UNA ROCCIA : habit
CARATTERISTICHE TOPOGRAFICHE LOCALI : terrain
CARBARGILLITE : carbonaceous shale
CARBOGENESI : carbonification, coalification, formation of coal by natural processes (an old term, now replaced upon a proposal by the Internationale Kommission für Kohlenpetrologie with carbonification)
CARBONATIZZAZIONE : carbonatization (introduction of carbonates in a rock or replacement of other minerals by carbonates)
CARBONE : coal
CARBONE ATTIVO : activated carbon (obtained from vegetal matter by means of anaerobic carbonization, used as a gas absorber)
CARBONE BITUMINOSO : bituminous coal
CARBONE BRILLANTE : vitrain (lithotype made up by microlithotypes rich in vitrinite, German: Glanzkohle)
CARBONE CONTENENTE ARGILLA : carbonaceous shale
CARBONE DA COKE : medium volatile bituminous coal (coal yielding about 19-28% volatile matter, coking coal)
CARBONE DA GAS : high volatile bituminous coal a (coal yielding about 28-35% volatile matter)
CARBONE DA SPORE E POLLINI : cannel coal
CARBONE DI LEGNA : charcoal
CARBONE DI LEGNA ATTIVATO : carbone di legna attivato (treated with acids to increase its absorbing power)
CARBONE FIAMMEGGIANTE DA GAS : high volatile bituminous coal b (coal about 35-40% volatile matter)
CARBONE FIBROSO : fusain
CARBONE NON BRILLANTE : durain (lythotype made up mainly by exinite and other macerals)
CARBONE SAPROPELICO : sapropelic coal (coal derived from organic debris sedimented in totally anaerobic conditions)
CARBONE SEMIBRILLANTE : clarain (a lithotype formed mainly by vitrinite; German: Glanzstreifenkohle)
CARBONE SEMIGRASSO : low volatile bituminous coal (yielding about 12-19% volatile matter)
CARBONE UMICO : humic coal (coal derived from peat)
CARBONELLA MINERALE : fusain
CARBONIFERO : Carboniferous
CARBONIOSO : coaly
CARBONIZZAZIONE : carbonization (artificial process at high temperature)
CARBONIZZAZIONE NATURALE : carbonification
CARICA CAPILLARE : capillary head
CARICA PER PROSPEZIONE SISMICA PERPENDICOLARE ALLA LINEA DELLE ALTRE ESPLOSIONI : offset shotpoint
CARICO DI FONDO : tractional load
CARICO DI SOSTEGNO : abutment load (weight transferred on adjacent solid rock by unsupported roof in a deep excavation)
CARICO DI SPALLA : abutment load (weight transferred on adjacent solid rock by unsupported roof in a deep excavation)
CARICO DI TRASPORTO : tractional load
CARICO SEDIMENTARIO TOTALE DI UN CORSO D’ACQUA : stream capacity (total sediment load at a given point or at a given time)
CARICO SOSPESO : suspended load (of sediments in a river)
CAROTA : core sample
CAROTAGGIO : core sampling
CAROTAGGIO SISMICO : well velocity survey (method to determine the velocity distribution of the seismic waves by recording in a deep well)
CARSIFICAZIONE : karstification (process creating karst phenomena)
CARSISIMO NUDO : naked karst (karst not covered by sedimentary or weathering debris)
CARSISMO : karst
CARSISMO AVANZATO : advanced karst, kegelkarst (with a great many residual hills, hum)
CARSISMO COPERTO : covered karst
CARSISMO IMPERFETTO : shallow karst
CARSISMO PARZIALE : shallow karst
CARSISMO PROFONDO : deep karst
CARSISMO SOTTERRANEO : subterranean karst
CARSISMO SUPERFICIALE : shallow karst
CARTA DEI CONTORNI ISOCORI : isochore map (map showing thickness variations of a stratigraphic interval regardless of dip)
CARTA DELLA GRAVIMETRIA LOCALE : local gravity map (from which gradual gravity changes have been eliminated)
CARTA DELLA GRAVIMETRIA REGIONALE : regional gravity map (showing only gradual gravimetric changes)
CARTA DELLE ANOMALIE : isanomalic contour map (gravitational, magnetic, etc.)
CARTA DELLE CONVERGENZE : isopach map (of the stratigraphic units in a given direction, shown by isopach lines)
CARTA DELLE LINEE DI CORREZIONE ISOSTATICA : isostatic isocorrection line map
CARTA DELLE VARIAZIONI DI SPESSORE : isopach map (of the stratigraphic units in a given direction, shown by isopach lines)
CARTA DI REGISTRAZIONE AFFUMICATA PER SISMOGRAFO : smoked registration paper
CARTA DI REGISTRAZIONE FOTOGRAFICA : photographic registration paper
CARTA GEOLOGICA : geological map
CARTA ISOGALICA : isogal map (map of gravitational anomalies)
CARTA ISOGAMICA : isogam map (map of magnetic anomalies)
CARTA PER REGISTRAZIONE SISMICA : seismic registration paper
CARTA STRUTTURALE : structure maple
CASCATA : cascade, fall (meaning autumn, in American English), force (Northern England, from Norse)
CASCATA : waterfall
CASCATA LAVICA : lava cascade
CATACLASI : cataclasis (metamorphism by mechanical deformation without chemical reconstitution)
CATACLASTICO : cataclastic (an adjective applied to the texture produced by dynamometamorphism and characterized by crystals crushed and deformed)
CATAGENESI : katagenesis (regressive development regressivo during phylogenesis)
CATALISI DI ADSORBIMENTO : adsorption catalysis
CATALIZZATORE : activator, catalizer, inductor (in a chemical reaction)
CATAMORFISMO : katamorphism (alteration of a rock by erosion and cementation)
CATASTROFISMO : catastrophism
CATAZONA : katazone (lower zone of metamorphism)
CATENA DI CRATERI : row of craters
CATENA DI DUNE : dune range
CATENA DI FONDO : chaîne de fond (from French)
CATENA DI ISOLE : island chain
CATENA DI VULCANI : chain of volcanoes
CATENA MONTUOSA : mountain chain, mountain range
CATENA MONTUOSA ELEVANTESI SU UNA LINEA DI DEBOLEZZA DEL BASAMENTO : chaîne de fond (from French)
CATENA MONTUOSA INTERESSATA PER INTERO DA CIRCHI GLACIALI : fretted upland
CATENA MONTUOSA SVILUPPATA LUNGO L’ASSE DI UNA SINCLINALE : synclinal mountain
CATENA PREALPINA : front range
CATENA PREMONTANA : front range
CATENA SEPOLTA : buried ridge
CATERATTA : cataract
CATERATTA GLACIALE : icefall
CATTURA DI UN ELEMENTO TRACCIANTE : capturing of a trace element
CATTURA FLUVIALE : river capture
CATTURA FLUVIALE DA EROSIONE LATERALE : capture by lateral erosion
CATTURARE UN FIUME : to capture a river
CAUSTOBIOLITI : caustobioliths
CAVERNA : cave
CAVERNA COSTIERA : sea cave (dug in a cliff by the waves)
CAVERNA LAVICA : lava cavern
CAVITÀ : vesicle (in lavas and intrusive surficial rocks)
CAVITÀ IN SOFFITTO DI GROTTA : cave ceiling pocket
CAVITÀ NEL PAVIMENTO DI UNA GROTTA : pot, pothole
CAVITÀ PRINCIPALE : master cave (a hall upstream of an actual or former sump)
CAVITÀ PROFONDA NEL PAVIMENTO DI UNA GROTTA : cave well
CAVITAZIONE : cavitation (erosion caused by explosions of gaseous bubbles in rapidly moving water)
CEDIMENTO DI UNA DIGA : fall
CELLULARE : cavernous (an adjective applied to igneous rocks)
CEMENTAZIONE : cementation (in lithology: formation of sedimentary rocks; in palaeontology: process of fossilization)
CEMENTO : cement
CENERE ACCESSORIA : accessory ash (derived from fluid lava)
CENERE ESSENZIALE : essential ash (derived from solidified material inside the volcanic vent)
CENERE VULCANICA : volcanic ash
CENOTIPICO : cenotypal (an adjective applied to aphanitic and porphyric igneous rocks having characters typical of recent hypabyssal volcanic rocks)
CENTOPIEDI : centipedes
CENTRO DI ERUZIONE : eruption point
CENTRO DI ESPLOSIONE VULCANICA : explosion focus
CENTRO DI PROPAGAZIONE : centre of dispersal (origin of adaptive radiation)
CENTRO ERUTTIVO : eruption centre
CENTRO ESPLOSIVO : explosion focus
CERA : wax
CERA FOSSILE NON SAPONIFICABILE : ozocerite
CERA MONTANA : montan wax (wax extracted from certain lignites partly saponifiable)
CERCHI DI PIETRE : stone rings (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
CERCHIO DI CLASTI : clast cell, clast cellular structure (typical form of river sedimentary deposition in coarse clast rivers, synonim of struttura cellulare di clasti)
CERNIERA ANTICLINALE : anticlinal bend
CERNIERA DI PIEGA : bend
CERNIERA RADICALE : root hinge (of a nappe or a fold)
CERNIERA SINCLINALE : synclinal bend
CERNOZEM : chernozem (from Russian; dark well drained soil rich in humus)
CHAPEIRO : chapeiro (Brazilian Portuguese, a coral reef growing in small scattered patches, usually irregular at the top and sometimes spread like a mushroom, typical of the Brazil coast)
CHENIER : chenier (from French of Louisiana, sandy or shelly beach built on mud)
CHEROBITUME : kerabitumen (insoluble noncoaly organic matter of oil shales, oil source rocks, recent sediments)
CHEROGENO : kerogen (organic material contained in bituminous schists)
CHERT : chert (rock made up by chalcedony and criptocrystalline quartz)
CHIAZZATO : mottled
CHIUDERSI : to die out (an adjective applied to a a joint or a fissure)
CHIUSURA STRUTTURALE : structural closure (area enclosed by the lowest closed structural contour)
CHIUSURA VERTICALE : vertical closure (difference in altitudine between the crest of a structure and the lowest closing structural contour)
CIANOFITE : cyanophites
CICATRICE DI FRANA : landslide scar (niche left on a slope by the material detached by the slide)
CICATRICE DI MEANDRO : meander scar (cliff cut by lateral erosion in a meander)
CICLO CARSICO : karst cycle, karst landscape cycle (Davis) – STADIO INCIPIENTE DEL C.C. (young stage of the karst cycle, characterized by surface circulation but with growing underground circulation) – STADIO MATURO DEL C.C. (mature stage of the karst cycle, characterized by underground circulation) – STADIO SENESCENTE DEL C.C. (old stage of the karst cycle, characterized by return to surface drainage with sparse limestone relief)
CICLO DELL’ACQUA : hydrological cycle, water cycle
CICLO DESERTICO : arid cycle (Davis) – STADIO INCIPIENTE DEL CICLO DESERTICO (early stage of the arid cycle, characterized by numerous playa basins) – STADIO MATURO DEL C.D. (maturo stage of the a.c., characterized by infilling of basins and lowering of the divides with coalescence in a single basin and formation of pediments) – STADIO SENESCENTE DEL C.D. (old stage of the a.c., characterized by a single basin infilled with sediment with centralized drainage)
CICLO DI EROSIONE COSTIERA : shoreline cycle (according to Davis) – STADIO INCIPIENTE DI EROSIONE COSTIERA (young stage of the shoreline cycle, at high energy with a narrow abrasion platform and cliff formation) – STADIO MATURO DI EROSIONE COSTIERA (mature stage of the shoreline cycle, at medium energy with a growing abrasion platform and formation of beaches) – STADIO SENESCENTE DI EROSIONE COSTIERA (old stage of the shoreline cycle, with a broad abrasion platform and a low cliff slope; a rather theoric stage as the cycle is usually interrupted before this final stage is reached)
CICLO ERUTTIVO : eruption cycle – 1) SINTOMI PRELIMINARI (premonitory symptoms) – 2) FASE PRELIMINARE (preliminary phase) – 3) FASE PRINCIPALE (main phase) – 4) FASE CONCLUSIVA (concluding phase)
CICLO FLUVIALE DI EROSIONE : fluvial cycle of erosion
CICLO IDROLOGICO : hydrological cycle, water cycle
CICLO INTERROTTO DI RINGIOVANIMENTO : interrupted cycle of erosion (due to rejuvenation, volcanic activity, etc.)
CICLO OROGENETICO : orogenetic cycle
CICLO VULCANICO : volcanic cycle – 1) PERIODO DI RIPOSO (repose period), 2) PERIODO DI ATTIVITÀ (period of activity)
CICLOTEMA : cyclothem (rythmic alternation of sedimentary beds)
CILINDRO DI REGISTRAZIONE SISMICA : recording cylinder, recording drum
CIMA : crest, summit (of a subaerial or submarine relief)
CIMA ACUTA : sharp crest (of the anticline)
CIMA AMPIA : broad crest, broad topped crest (of an anticline)
CIMA DI BARRIERA CORALLINA : reef flat (emerging at low tide)
CIMA DI FALESIA : cliff top
CIMA DI UN MASSICCIO SALINO : top of a salt plug
CIMA DI UNA MASSA INTRUSIVA : crown
CIMA INNEVATA : snow capped peak
CIMA PIATTA : flat crest, flat topped crest
CINTURA DI FAGLIE : fault belt
CINTURA PALUDOSA DELTIZIA : belt of marshes
CINTURA VULCANICA : volcano belt
CIOTOLA DI POLVERE : dust bowl
CIOTTOLO : cobble, pebble (a sedimentary particle having a diameter between 64 and 256 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
CIRCO GLACIALE : botn (Norvegian), cirque (standard English), corrie (Anglo-Scottish, also used in some parts of Canada), Cwm (Welsh), kar (from German), oule (from French of the Pirenees region), van (from French of the Alps)
CIRCO GLACIALE COMPOSITO : compound cirque
CIRCO GLACIALE DI TESTATA VALLIVA : valley-head cirque
CIRCO VULCANICO : cauldron
CIRCOLAZIONE FORZATA : pressure flow
CIRCOLAZIONE SOTTERRANEA : groundwater hydrology
CIRCULUS : circulus (fossil population of similar organisms)
CLADISTICA : cladistics (a method of biological taxonomy aiming at classifying organisms on the basis of the simplest and more parsimonious distribution of characters)
CLADOGENESI : cladogenesis
CLADOGRAMMA : cladogram (atemporal diagram showing the distribution of characters of the various systematic groups)
CLARITE : clarite (microlithotype of coal containing over 90% vitrinite plus exinite)
CLASSE : class (systematic group below the phylum)
CLASSIFICAZIONE : classification, rating, taxonomy
CLASSIFICAZIONE CHIMICA DELLE ROCCE IGNEE : chemical classification of the igneous rocks (formulated by Peacock in 4 classes based upon the alkali-calcic index) – SERIE ALCALINA : alkalic series (with alkali-calcic index 61)
CLASSIFICAZIONE DEI GIACIMENTI MINERARI : classification of mineral deposits
CLASSIFICAZIONE DELLE ROCCE : rock classification
CLASSIFICAZIONE DI WENWORTH DELLE PARTICELLE SEDIMENTARIE : Wenworth classification of particle sizes – ARGILLA: clay (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter less than 1/256 mm) – CIOTTOLO o SASSO: pebble (a sedimentary particle having a diameter between 64 and 256 mm) – GRANULO: granule (a sedimentary particle having a diameter between 4 and 64 mm) – MASSO: boulder (a particle having a diameter above 256 mm) – SABBIA FINE: fine sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/8 and 1/4 mm) – SABBIA FINISSIMA: very fine sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/8 and 1/4 mm) – SABBIA GROSSOLANA: coarse sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/2 and 1 mm) – SABBIA MOLTO GROSSOLANA: very coarse sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1 and 2 mm) – SABBIA: sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/16 and 2 mm) – SABBIE o SEDIMENTI CLASTICI DI MEDIA GRANDEZZA: medium grained clastics (sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/16 and 2 mm) – SEDIMENTI CRIPTOCLASTICI: fine grained clastics (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter under 1/16 mm)
CLASSIFICAZIONE GEOCHIMICA : geochemical classification (grouping of elements according their distribution in nature)
CLASTI : clasts, stones
CLASTI GROSSOLANI : coarse grained clastics (sediments with particles over 2 mm in diameter)
CLASTI SFACCETTATI DA ESARAZIONE GLACIALE : faceted pebbles
CLASTI STRIATI DA ESARAZIONE GLACIALE : striated pebbles
CLASTO : clast, stone, wedge (when found in a fault)
CLASTO CAPOVOLTO : inverted wedge (in a fault)
CLASTO SOLLEVATO : upthrusted wedge (in a fault)
CLASTOMORFICO : clastomorphic (an adjective applied to rock constituents modified by exogenous processes)
CLATRATO : clathrate (an adjective applied to a spongy texture in which leucite crystals are tangentially surrounded by augites, e.g. in the leucites)
CLAVALITE : clavalite (a stick-shaped cristallite)
CLAYGYTTJA : claygyttja (from Swedish: clayey sediment containing various amounts of organici detrites deposited in various conditions from aerobic to anaerobic)
CLIMATOLOGIA : climatology
CLINKER : clinker, flow breccia
CLINKER CEMENTATO : welded flow breccia
CLINOGRAFO : clinograph (a device to record inclination changes during an earthquake)
CLINOMETRO : tilt meter
CLORITIZZAZIONE : chloritization (replacement of various minerals with chlorites)
CLOROFILLA : chlorophyll
COCCOLITI : coccoliths
CODA DI CATTURA FLUVIALE : elbow of capture
CODA DI COMETA : comet tail
COEFFICENTE DI MANNING DELLA RESISTENZA DEL LETTO AL FLUSSO FLUVIALE : Manning’s roughness coefficient (coefficient of bed resistance to river flow depending on the nature of bed and bank material, on the vegetation and bed sinuosity)
COEFFICIENTE DI APPASSIMENTO PERMANENTE : permanent wilting coefficient (soil moisture content when the leaves of a plant growing in that soil first undergo a permanent reduction in moisture content from which they can only recover if water is added to the soil)
COEFFICIENTE DI ASSORBIMENTO : absorption coefficient (volume of gas absorbed by a unit volume of a liquid at normal pressure, or energy fraction absorbed by a medium through which it is propagated)
COEFFICIENTE DI ASSORTIMENTO : sorting coefficient
COEFFICIENTE DI BASE : foundation coefficient (indicating for a given earthquake what wopuld have been the intensity of the same earthquake if, other conditions being equal, it had occurred in undisturbed crystalline rocks)
COEFFICIENTE DI CLASSIFICAZIONE : sorting coefficient
COEFFICIENTE DI PERMEABILITÀ : permeability coefficient (rate of flow of a fluid through a unit area of a porous mass under a unit hydraulic gradient)
COEFFICIENTE IGROSCOPICO : hygroscopic coefficient (quantity of water absorbed by the soil after exposure to high humidity for 24 hours at 25 °C)
COERCIVITÀ : coercivity
COERENZA GEOCHIMICA : geochemical coherence (regular association in nature of chemical elements of the same family)
COESIONE : cohesion
COEVOLUZIONE : coevolution
COLATA DETRITICA : flow of debris
COLATA DETRITICA INCANDESCENTE : glowing avalanche
COLATA DI CENERI : ash avalanche
COLATA DI CENERI INCANDESCENTI : incandescent ash flow
COLATA DI CEVERI ROVENTI : hot ash avalanche
COLATA DI FANGO : mudflow (movement of water-saturated rock debris down definite channels)
COLATA DI FANGO FREDDO : cold lahar, cold mudflow
COLATA DI FANGO SOLFOROSO : sulphur mud flow
COLATA DI SABBIA VULCANICA : sand flow
COLATA DI TERRA : earthflow (movement of clay sediments saturated with water, swifter than solifluction but slower than a mudflow)
COLATA LAVICA : lava flood, lava flow
COLATA LAVICA INTERNA : interfluent lava flow (in underground cavities of the volcano)
COLATA LAVICA INTERNA AL CRATERE : intercrateral lava outflow
COLATA LAVICA PARASSITA : parasitic lava flow (issuing on the slope or from the foot of a volcano)
COLATA LAVICA SRADICATA : clastogenetic lava flow
COLATA MISTA : mixed avalanche (lava flow formed partly by glowing debris and partly by old debris)
COLATA TUFICA : concealed fissure orifice tuff flow type
COLLASSO : collapse (with the formation of a basin)
COLLASSO DEL TETTO DI UNA CAMERA MAGMATICA : roof collapse
COLLASSO DI GROTTA : cave collapse, cavern breakdown
COLLASSO DI SOFFITTO DI GROTTA : cave roof fall
COLLASSO DI UNA GROTTA : cave collapse, cavern breakdown
COLLASSO GRAVITATIVO : gravitational sliding
COLLASSO VULCANOTETTONICO : volcano-tectonic collapse
COLLE : hill
COLLINA : hill
COLLINA A DORSO DI MAIALE : hogback (a ridge formed on the outcrop of steeply inclined resistant strata)
COLLINA VULCANICA SUBCONICA : neck (of lava or fragmentary material)
COLLINITE : collinite, amorphous vitrinite
COLLO DI MEANDRO : meander neck (in a river)
COLLUVIO : colluvium
COLMATA : filling up
COLMATA : warping (filling up of a lagoon or a tidal flat area converting it into the marsh)
COLMATA ARGILLOSA : clay filling in a cave
COLMATA DI UN LAGO : lake filling up, lake silting up
COLONIA CORALLINA : coral colony
COLONIA CORALLINA A FORMA DI ATOLLO : miniature atoll
COLONIA CORALLINA MASSICCIA : coral head
COLONIALITÀ : coloniality
COLONNA : column (a columnar crystalline form)
COLONNA D’ACQUA : water spout (due to an underwater volcanic event)
COLONNA DI FANGO SOLFOROSO : sulphur mud column
COLONNA DI FUMO VULCANICO : eruption cloud, eruption column
COLONNA DI VAPORE : vapour column
COLONNA ERUTTIVA OBLIQUA : inclined jet
COLONNA LAVICA : lava column (liquid or solid inside a vent)
COLONNA MAGMATICA : magma column
COLONNA MINERALIZZATA LINEARE : pod
COLONNA VULCANICA : neck (of lava or fragmentary material)
COLONNATO LAVICO : lava colonnade
COLPATO : colpate (an adjective applied to a pollen grain with a furrowed exine)
COLPORATO : colporate (an adjective applied to a pollen grain with exine showing furrows and pores)
COMETA : comet
COMPATTAMENTO : compaction, settling
COMPATTAZIONE : compaction, settling
COMPENSATORE : compensator (a device for measuring voltage differences for investigations on the electrical potential of the earth)
COMPENSAZIONE DI PRESSIONE ISOSTATICA : isostatic pressure compensation
COMPENSAZIONE ISOSTATICA : isostatic compensation
COMPENSAZIONE ISOSTATICA DELLE MASSE : isostatic mass compensation
COMPENSAZIONE ISOSTATICA LOCALE : local isostatic compensation
COMPENSAZIONE ISOSTATICA REGIONALE : regional isostatic compensation
COMPETENZA : competence (size of the largest sedimentary particle which can be carried by a river at a given place and in a given time)
COMPLESSO DI ORGANISMI FOSSILI : thanatocoenosis
COMPLESSO LITOLOGICO DI CALDERA : caldera complex
COMPLESSO SEDIMENTARIO : sedimentary complex
COMPONENTE DELLO SPOSTAMENTO PARALLELA ALLA TRACCIA DEL PIANO DI FAGLIA : trace slip
COMPONENTE IN QUADRATURA : quadrature component (component of an electromagnetic quantity that is 90° out phase as compared to the primary quantity)
COMPONENTE ORIZZONTALE DELLO SPOSTAMENTO : strike slip (of a fault)
COMPONENTE ORIZZONTALE DELLO SPOSTAMENTO MISURATA PERPENDICOLARMENTE ALLA DIREZIONE DELLA FAGLIA : horizontal component normal to the fault strike
COMPONENTE VERTICALE DELLO SPOSTAMENTO NETTO : vertical slip
COMPONENTI AUTIMORFI : authimorphe Gemengteile (components of a metamorphic rock whose crystal boundaries have been deformed by metamorphism)
COMPONENTI FINI : fine components (of pyroclastic material)
COMPONENTI GROSSOLANI : coarse components (of pyroclastic material)
COMPONENTI VOLATILI DEL MAGMA : volatile components
COMPOSIZIONE MINERALE STANDARD : norm (standard composition of igneous rocks in terms of their key minerals)
COMPRESSIONE : compression, pinch
COMPRESSIONE LATERALE NELLA STRATIFICAZIONE : lateral compression
COMPRESSO : pinched
COMPUTAZIONE PER TRACCIA : point plotting (of points indicating the depth of an interface on each seismographic trace)
CON ARROTONDAMENTO COMPLETO : subangular
CONCA : concoidal caldera
CONCORDANTE : conformable (in stratigraphic conformity)
CONCORDANZA DI SOMMITÀ : summit concordance
CONCORDANZA STRATIGRAFICA : conformity
CONCORDANZA STRUTTURALE : structural concordance
CONCREZIONE : concretion
CONCREZIONE CARBONATICA NEL LOESS : loess nodule
CONCREZIONE CARBONIOSA : coal ball (a limestone or dolomite concretion in coal)
CONCREZIONE FERROSA : concretionary ironstone
CONDENSATO : condensate (highly volatile specially produced mineral oil)
CONDIZIONI DI ESISTENZA : conditions of existence
CONDIZIONI DI INTERFACCIA : boundary conditions
CONDIZIONI DI SOPRAVVIVENZA : conditions of existence
CONDOTTA FORZATA : pressure flow
CONDOTTA IDRICA SOTTERRANEA NATURALE : groundwater artery (a roughly tubular body of permeable material included in less permeable material and saturated with water under artesian pressure)
CONDOTTO DI GEYSER : geyser pipe
CONDRITE : chondrite (a meteorite characterized by inclusions of small globular aggregates either glassy or radially cristallized in a finely grained matrix)
CONDRULI : chondrules (small radially crystallized aggregates inside a chondrite)
CONDUTTIVITÀ : conductivity
CONFIGURAZIONE A ZAMPA D’OCA : crawfoot pattern (of a delta, e.g. Mississippi delta)
CONFIGURAZIONE ANULARE : annular pattern
CONFIGURAZIONE ARBORESCENTE : digitate pattern (in a river)
CONFIGURAZIONE DEL DRENAGGIO : drainage pattern
CONFIGURAZIONE DENDRITICA : dendritic pattern (of a river)
CONFIGURAZIONE DIGITATA : digitate pattern (in a river)
CONFIGURAZIONE RADIALE : radial pattern
CONFIGURAZIONE RETTANGOLARE : pennate pattern, rectangular pattern, trellised pattern (e.g. of a river network)
CONFINE EROSIVO : erosional termination (between two stratigraphic formations)
CONFINE NETTO DI FORMAZIONE SEDIMENTARIA : pinching out (extreme rim of a sedimentary formation corresponding to an erosion plane or an inclined plane of disconformity)
CONFINE SUPERIORE DELL’ACQUA NELLA ZONA CAPILLARE : capillary surface
CONFLITTO FRA DUE SISTEMI FLUVIALI ADIACENTI PER ESTENDERE IL PROPRIO BACINO : struggle for the divide
CONFLUENZA : confluence (of rivers or glaciers, in river and glacial geomorphology), junction (of folds or systems of folds, in tectonic geology)
CONFLUENZA DISCORDANTE : discordant junction (of two rivers at different heights)
CONFLUENZA FLUVIALE AD ANGOLO ACUTO : barbed junction
CONFLUENZA FLUVIALE ALLO STESSO LIVELLO : accordant junction (confluence of two rivers at the same level)
CONFLUENZA SPOSTATA : shifted junction
CONGELITURBAZIONE : congeliturbation, crioturbation
CONGIUNZIONE : junction (of folds or systems of folds)
CONGLOMERATO : conglomerato (a rock formed by rounded and cemented shingle)
CONGLOMERATO A TESSITURA TRASVERSALE ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE : edgewise (conglomerate in which elongated components lie transversally to the stratification)
CONGLOMERATO AURIFERO DEL TRANSVAAL : (from Afrikaans) banket
CONGLOMERATO DI BASE : basal conglomerate, transgression conglomerate (laying on an erosion surface)
CONGLOMERATO DI CONOIDE : fan conglomerate
CONGLOMERATO INTERFORMAZIONALE : interformational conglomerate (a conglomerate included in a formation but whose constituents are of external origin to the formation)
CONGLOMERATO INTRAFORMAZIONALE : intraformational conglomerate (a conglomerate included in a formation whose constituents derive from the formation itself)
CONGLOMERATO VULCANICO : volcanic conglomerate (hardened deposit of rounded and subangular material reworked by water, sometimes formed by a lahar)
CONGLOMERITE : conglomerite (a conglomerate that has reached the hardness of quartzite)
CONO AVVENTIZIO : adventive cone
CONO CENTRALE : central cone
CONO D’ACQUA : water cone (due to an underwater volcanic event)
CONO DEPRESSIONARIO : cone of depression (area around a well in which the abstraction of water causes a lowering of the water table)
CONO DI ACCUMULO DI MATERIALE PIROCLASTICO : cone formed by accumulation of pyroclastic material
CONO DI CENERI : ash cone, cinder cone
CONO DI FANGO VULCANICO : puff cone
CONO DI GHIACCIO : ice wedge
CONO DI SABBIA : sand covered mound (conical ice ridge crowned by morainic material)
CONO DI SCORIE : hornito, spatter cone (small chimney built up on a lava flow and consisting of clots of lava dragged along by the escaping gases and deposited around the opening of emission)
CONO DI SEGER : Seger cone (clay cone with a known melting temperature used to measure high temperatures such as those of volcanic gases)
CONO DI TRASIZIONE : transition cone (transition zone between the terminal moraine and fluvioglacial deposits)
CONO DI TUFO : tuff cone
CONO DOPPIO : twin volcano
CONO ENDOGENO : endogenous cone (volcanic cone growing mainly by expansion from the inside)
CONO ERUTTIVO : eruption cone, lava cone
CONO ESOGENO : exogenous dome (volcanic cone growing mainly by surficial effusion)
CONO LAVICO : lava cone
CONO LAVICO LITORANEO : littoral cone (formed when flow of aa lava reaches the sea, e.g. Hawaii)
CONO LITORANEO : littoral cone (formed when a flow of aa lava reaches the sea, e.g. Hawaii)
CONO TRONCATO : truncated cone
CONO VULCANICO : volcanic cone
CONO VULCANICO A CIMA MOLTO PIATTA : Konihomate (from German, according to Schneider)
CONO VULCANICO NORMALE : Konide (from German, according to Schneider), normal cone
CONOIDE : fan
CONOIDE ALLUVIONALE : alluvial fan, talus fan
CONOIDE DETRITICO : debris cone, talus
CONOIDE DETRITICO AI PIEDI DI UNA FRANA : talus cone
CONOIDE DI VALANGA : avalanche cone
CONOIDE ROCCIOSA : rock fan (fan-shaped rock surface caused by lateral planation by rivers)
CONOLITE : chonolith (an extremely disturbed inclusion of irregular form in a rock)
CONQUISTA DELLE TERRE EMERSE DA PARTE DEGLI ORGANISMI ACQUATICI : terrestrialization
CONSANGUINEITÀ : consanguinity (relation among the igneous rocks of the same petrographic province)
CONSANGUINEO : consanguineous (an adjective applied to the relation among the igneous rocks of the same petrographic province)
CONSOLIDAMENTO : consolidation (of magma or loose sedimentary material)
CONSOLIDAMENTO SUPERFICIALE DEL MAGMA : dermolithic solidification
CONTAMINAZIONE : contamination (in lithology: addition of material to a magma by assimilation of the surrounding rock, in ecology: introduction of a foreign substance in such an environment as to cause pollution)
CONTATTO DI FAGLIA : faulted junction (contact between two layers through a fault)
CONTATTO DISCONFORME RICOPRENTE : onlap (unconforming contact due to marine transgression, in which every succeeding layer covers also the margins of the previous one)
CONTATTO DISCONFORME SCOPRENTE : offlap (a type of unconformable contact between different sediments formed by deposition in an encroaching sea, each newly formed deposit leaving a portion of the older one exposed)
CONTATTO NETTO : clean contact (between the two faces of a fault)
CONTEMPORANEO : synchronous, syngenetic (an adjective applied to an element contemporaneous to the including rock)
CONTENUTO DI UMIDITÀ : moisture content (amount of water removable by warming a sample of soil at 105°C)
CONTENUTO IDRICO DEL SUOLO : soil water
CONTENUTO SALINO : salt content
CONTINENTE : continent, mainland
CONTORNO AVVILUPPANTE DI UN ANTICLINORIO : enveloping contour of an anticlinorium (surface connecting the crest lines of an anticlinorium fold system)
CONTRAFFORTE : rampart
CONTRAFFORTE ANULARE DI TUFO : tuff ring
CONTRAFFORTE DI CLASTI : gravel ridge
CONTRAFFORTE DI SCORIE VULCANICHE : spatter rampart
CONTRAFFORTE MONTUOSO : mountain spur
CONTRAFFORTE MORENICO : moraine rampart (deposited by a glacier which has withdrawn)
CONTRAFFORTE ROCCIOSO : buttress
CONTRAFFORTE VULCANICO AD ANELLO O A MEZZALUNA : volcanic rampart
CONTRAZIONE : contraction (e.g. due to heat)
CONTROCORRENTE : upstream (in a river)
CONTRONDATA DI RISACCA : backwash
CONTROPENDENZA : inverted dip
CONTROPENDENZA DI UNA VALLE GLACIALE : reversed gradient (locally caused downstream of an overdeepening zone)
CONTROPRESSIONE : counterpressure
CONTROSPINTA : counterpressure
CONVERGENZA : convergence (in geology: collision between two plates; in meteorology: convergence of air masses; in palaeontology: developmment of similar characters by organisms belonging to different groups due to behavioural and environmental analogies), convergency, thickness reduction (in stratigraphy: thickness reduction of a stratigraphic unit in a given direction)
CONVEZIONE BIFASE : two phase convection (according to Daly, convection currents caused by the mutual action of two magmatic phases: volcanic gas and liquid magma)
COPERTO DA ……. : overlain by …….
COPERTURA : coverage (in seismic prospection: a segment of an interface of the Earth’s crust covered by one or more explosions)
COPERTURA DETRITICA SUPERFICIALE : residual soil
COPERTURA DI MATERIALE STERILE SU UN GIACIMENTO DI MINERALE UTILE : overburden
COPERTURA DI SCORIE VULCANICHE : mantle of scoriae
COPERTURA LAVICA : lava sheet
COPERTURA SEDIMENTARIA DISTACCATA : disconnected sedimentary cover (from the underlying massif)
COPPIE DI STRATIFICAZIONE : rhythmites
COPROLITE : coprolite
CORALLI : corals
CORAZZATURA DESERTICA : desert pavement
CORAZZATURA FERRUGINOSA : ironstone cap
CORDATI : chordates
CORDIGLIERA : cordillera (from Spanish: mountainous province with all the subordinate mountain chains)
CORDONE COSTIERO DI SBARRAMENTO DI UNA BAIA : bay mouth bar
CORDONE LITORANEO DI CAPO : recurved spit (a spit attached to a headland and turned landward at the outer end)
CORDONE LITORANEO RICURVO UNITO AD UN CAPO DELIMITANTE UN’INSENATURA : lateral spit
CORDONE LITORANEO UNITO AD UN CAPO DA UN’INSENATURA : spit (a spit attached to a headland and turned landward at the outer end)
CORDONE SABBIOSO : barrier island
CORDONE SABBIOSO DI PALUDE LITORANEA : marsh bar (outer bar of a littoral marsh)
CORDONE SEDIMENTARIO LITORANEO CHE SI DIPARTE DA UN ISOLOTTO : tail
CORDONE SEDIMENTARIO LITORANEO RELITTO : flying bar (spit formed behind an island which has subsequently disappeared)
CORDONE SEDIMENTARIO LITORANEO RICURVO : loop
CORICAMENTO : overturn (of a fold)
CORISMITE : chorismite (group of mixed rocks having heterogenous structure, e.g. breccias, conglomerates, heterogenous migmatites)
CORNICE CIRCOLARE DEL CRATERE : crater ring
CORNICE DI FALESIA : cliff overhang (carved at the base of the cliff by the waves)
CORNICE DI NEVE : snow cornice
CORNO DI BEACH CUSP : horn of beach cusp
CORONA : aureola, corona, reaction rim (peripheral zone of mineral aggregates formed around a mineral due to chemical rections with another mineral)
CORONGITE : corongite (elastic bituminous substances derived from algae)
CORPO ERUTTIVO : eruptive body (by injection or extrusion at the surface)
CORPO ESTRUSIVO : extrusive body
CORPO LENTICOLARE : lens (sedimentary unit)
CORPO MAGMATICO INTRUSIVO : intrusive body
CORPO MAGMATICO SOGGIACENTE AD UN COMPLESSO SEDIMENTARIO : subjacent body
CORRASIONE : corrasion (cumulative effects of erosion by running water, mechanical erosion)
CORRASIONE EOLICA : eolian corrasion
CORRASIONE EOLICA : wind corrasion
CORRASIONE GLACIALE : glacial erosion
CORRELARE : to correlate
CORRELAZIONE : correlation (in seismic prospection: a procedure of research on seismograms of highs and lows corresponding to the same phase of reflexion against the same interface of the Earth’s crust)
CORRELAZIONE SU UN PROFILO DISCONTINUO : jump correlation (between seismic profiles obtained by different seismographs)
CORRENTE ALTERNATA : alternating current
CORRENTE CAUSATA DA UN GRADIENTE DI DENSITÀ : density current
CORRENTE D’ARIA IN GROTTA : cave air current
CORRENTE DI ALTA MAREA : flood current, inflow current
CORRENTE DI BASSA MAREA : ebb current, outflow current
CORRENTE DI DENSITÀ : density current
CORRENTE DI FONDO : bottom current
CORRENTE DI MAREA : tidal current
CORRENTE DI PROFONDITÀ : underflow
CORRENTE DI RIFLUSSO AL DI SOTTO DELLA SUPERFICIE : undertow (outward current which forms under the surface when the wave breaks on a beach)
CORRENTE DI TORBIDITÀ : turbidity current
CORRENTE ELETTRICA ALTERNATA : commutated current
CORRENTE ELETTRICA CONTINUA : direct current
CORRENTE INTERMEDIA : intermediate current
CORRENTE LACUSTRE : lake current
CORRENTE LAMINARE : laminar flow
CORRENTE LUNGOCOSTA : longshore current
CORRENTE MARINA : sea current
CORRENTE PROFONDA : deep current
CORRENTE SUPERFICIALE : surface current
CORRENTE TORBIDA : turbidity current
CORRENTI CONVETTIVE SUBCROSTALI : subcrustal convection currents
CORRENTI ELETTRICHE NATURALI DELLA SUPERFICIE TERRESTRE : natural earth currents
CORRENTI ELETTRICHE TELLURICHE : telluric currents
CORRENTI ELETTRICHE VAGABONDE : stray currents (electrical currents introduced on the ground due to leaks from man-made activities)
CORRENTI MAGNETICHE A MULINELLO : current sheets (three dimensional rotating currents of the solar magnetic field)
CORRETE TURBOLENTA : turbulent flow (in a fluid, e.g. in the atmosphere or in a river)
CORREZIONE AD ARIA LIBERA : free air correction (part of the correction taking account of the vertical distance between the station and the surface of reference)
CORREZIONE DELLE MISURAZIONI GRAVIMETRICHE PER TENER CONTO DELLA TOPOGRAFIA LOCALE : terrain correction
CORREZIONE DELLE MISURAZIONI GRAVIMETRICHE PER TENER CONTO DELLE FORZE DI MAREA : tidal force correction
CORREZIONE DELLE MISURE SISMOGRAFICHE PER LO STRATO ALTERATO DAGLI AGENTI ATMOSFERICI : weathering correction (correction to seismographic measurements to make allowance for the time delay caused by the weathered layer)
CORREZIONE DI BOUGUER : Bouguer correction (estimate of the gravity effect of the mass included between the real Earth surface and the mass of the geoid)
CORREZIONE ISOSTATICA : isostatic correction
CORREZIONE PER LA LATITUDINE : latitude correction (correction for the effect of latitudine on the second order derivative of gravitational potential)
CORREZIONE PER L’ALTEZZA : elevation correction (assuming no mass between the station and the control station, free air correction)
CORREZIONE TOPOGRAFICA : topographic correction (correction of gravimetry measurements to account for the local topography)
CORRIDOIO INTERDUNARE : dune valley
CORRODERE : to corrode
CORROSIONE : corrosion (erosion by chemical agents)
CORROSIONE CHIMICA : chemical corrosion
CORROSIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic corrosion (partial resorption of crystals by the unsolidified portion of magma)
CORROSO : corroded
CORRUGAMENTO : rumpling
CORRUGAMENTO FINE : crumpling
CORRUGAMENTO INTRAFORMAZIONALE : intraformational contortion (crupling confined to a stratum between two unfolded strata)
CORRUGATO : crumpled, rumpled
CORSO D’ACQUA : watercourse
CORSO D’ACQUA INTERMITTENTE : intermittent stream
CORSO D’ACQUA PERENNE : perennial stream
CORSO D’ACQUA SOTTERRANEO : underground stream
CORSO D’ACQUA STAGIONALE : intermittent stream
COSMOCHIMICA : cosmochemistry
COSMOLOGIA : cosmology
COSTA : coast
COSTA A BAIE : embayed coast
COSTA A BARRIERA CORALLINA : coral reef coast
COSTA A CALANCHI : calas coast
COSTA A DEPOSITI EOLICI : wind-deposition coast
COSTA A DUNE : dune coast
COSTA A FAGLIE : fault shoreline (coast formed directly by a fault)
COSTA A FALESIE : cliffed coast
COSTA A FIARD : fiard coast (low rocky coast with irregular inlets formed by glacial scour)
COSTA A FIORDI : fjord coast (high rocky coast with long and deep glacial valley invaded by the sea)
COSTA A LAGUNE : lagoon type of coast
COSTA A LIMAN : liman coast (coast a valli fluviali parzialmente sommerse and sbarrate in tutto or in parte da cordoni sabbiosi, typical of the Black Sea) 1107, 1815
COSTA A MANGROVIE : mangrove coast
COSTA A MODELLAMENTO GLACIALE : glaciated coast
COSTA A PALUDI : swamp coast
COSTA A PIANI DI MAREA : coast with tidal flats (a coast in front of which lies a shallow sea with many tidal flats)
COSTA A RIA : ria shoreline (shore line formed by partial submergence of an uncomformable coast previously subject to subaerial erosion)
COSTA A RUPI A PICCO SUL MARE : cliff
COSTA A SCARPATA DI FAGLIA : fault scarp coast (coast formed by erosion along an extant fault plane)
COSTA A SKERRIES : skerry coast (a coast characterized by small islands and peninsulas formed by partial submersion of a rocky landscape shaped by ice)
COSTA A SUBSIDENZA : shoreline of submergence
COSTA AD ESTUARI : estuary coast
COSTA CONCORDANTE : longitudinal coast (a coast parallel to the trend lines of a coastal orogenetic belt)
COSTA CORALLINA : coral reef coast
COSTA DELTIZIA : delta shoreline
COSTA DENTELLATA : crenulate shoreline (a coast showing many rugged headlands, typical of a young coast in the cycle of coastal erosion according to Davis)
COSTA DI ABRASIONE : shoreline of retrogradation
COSTA DI ACCRESCIMENTO SEDIMENTARIO : shoreline of progradation
COSTA DI ALTOPIANO : tableland coast
COSTA DI EMERSIONE : raised shoreline, shoreline of emergence
COSTA DI IMMERSIONE : depressed shoreline, shoreline of submergence
COSTA DI INGRESSIONE : ingression coast
COSTA DI SEDIMENTI NON CONSOLIDATI : coast of loose material
COSTA DI SOLLEVAMENTO : raised shoreline, shoreline of emergence
COSTA DI TIPO ATLANTICO : transverse coast
COSTA DI TIPO DALMATA : dalmatian type of coast (longitudinal partly submerged coast, coast parallel to the line of a mountain chain and partially submerged)
COSTA DI TIPO PACIFICO : longitudinal coast (a coast parallel to the trend lines of a coastal orogenetic belt)
COSTA DIRITTA : graded shoreline
COSTA DISCORDANTE : transverse coast
COSTA EPIGENETICA : contraposed shoreline
COSTA FRASTAGLIATA : ragged coast
COSTA GIOVANILE : primary shoreline (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
COSTA IN SUBSIDENZA : depressed shoreline
COSTA INDIFFERENTE : neutrale Küste (from the German, a coast in which the rock formations do not show a distinct direction of the strike, not to be mistaken for the English terms neutral shoreline and neutral coast ) 1828
COSTA LOBATA : lobate coast
COSTA LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal coast (costa parallel to the trend lines of a coastal orogenetic belt)
COSTA MATURA : secondary shoreline (in the coastal erosion cycle according to Davis)
COSTA MISTA : coast of transverse deformation, compound shoreline (a coast with both rising and subsiding sections)
COSTA MONOCLINALE : monoclinal coast (coast formed by a monoclinal fold)
COSTA MONTUOSA : mountain coast
COSTA NEUTRALE : neutral coast, neutral shoreline (a coast not influenced by sea level changes, e.g. delta coast, alluvial plain coast, volcanic coast, fault coast; not to be mistaken for the German term neutrale Küste which refers instead to bedding orientation)
COSTA OBLIQUA : diagonal coast (related to the direction of the coast)
COSTA ORLATA DA LAGUNE : lagoon type of coast
COSTA PALUDOSA : swamp coast
COSTA POLICICLICA : multicycle coast (in emersion, showing traces of different interrupted erosion cycles in the course of the erosion cycle according to Davis)
COSTA RIPIDA : steep to shore
COSTA ROCCIOSA : rocky coast
COSTA STABILE : stable coast
COSTA STAZIONARIA : stable coast
COSTA TRASVERSALE RISPETTO ALLE LINEE DI ORIENTAMENTO DELLE FORMAZIONI ROCCIOSE : transverse coast
COSTA VULCANICA : volcanic coast
COSTANTE GRAVITAZIONALE : gravitational constant
COSTE BASSE : low coasts
COSTITUENTI DELLE ROCCE : rock constituents
COSTRIZIONE IN GROTTA : narrow
COSTRUZIONI ANTISISMICHE : earthquake proof constructions
COTIPO : cotype, syntype (two or more specimens on which the description of a species is based, avoiding the designation of the holotipe)
COTIPO : syntype (two or more specimens on which the description of a species or a subspecies is based, avoiding the designation of a holotype)
CRANIO : skull
CRATERE : crater, crater, kawah
CRATERE A BOCCHE MULTIPLE : compound crater
CRATERE A MEZZALUNA : breached crater
CRATERE AD ANELLO DEL TIPO SOMMA : Somma crater, Somma ring
CRATERE ATTIVO : active crater
CRATERE AVVENTIZIO : adventive crater
CRATERE CHE NON HA ERUTTATO IN EPOCHE RECENTI : subactive crater
CRATERE COMPOSITO : compound crater
CRATERE DETRITICO : debris crater
CRATERE DI BOMBA VULCANICA : bomb pit
CRATERE DI COLLASSO : pit crater
CRATERE DI ELEVAZIONE : elevation crater (crater lifted by the pressure of the gas: old-fashioned interpretation of the formation of a volcanic crater)
CRATERE DI ERUZIONE : crater of eruption (formed by the explosive activity of magma during an eruption)
CRATERE DI ESPLOSIONE : explosion crater
CRATERE DI GEYSER : geyser crater
CRATERE EMETTENTE GAS : gas bocca
CRATERE EMETTENTE LAVA : lava bocca
CRATERE INCOMPLETO : breached crater
CRATERE LAVICO : lava crater
CRATERE METEORICO : meteor crater
CRATERE MISTO : mixed crater (formed by alternating strata of lava and debris)
CRATERE PICCOLO EMETTENTE SOPRATTUTTO GAS: blow hole
CRATERE PRINCIPALE : main crater
CRATERE SUBATTIVO : subactive crater
CRATERE SUBTERMINALE : subterminal crater
CRATERE TERMINALE : summit crater
CRATERI ANNIDATI :nested craters (inside a major crater)
CREMISI : crimson
CRENULAZIONI : rumples (small scale folds mostly occurring in alternating hard and soft beds)
CREPA CAUSATA DAL GELO : frost crack
CREPACCI LONGITUDINALI : longitudinal crevasses (formed when the glacier enters a broader valley or a plain and the ice flows sideways)
CREPACCI MARGINALI : marginal crevasses (running from the rim of the glacier upwards and towards the middle of the glacier)
CREPACCI TRASVERSALI : transverse crevasses (crevasses running in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the glacier at places where the glacier flows over an elevation in its bed)
CREPACCIO : crevasse (in glaciology: a breakage in the ice due to shear stress on an irregular surface or to curves in the bed or to differential movements within the ice; in fluvial geomorfology: a breakage in a natural levée)
CRESCENTE ATTIVITÀ SOLFATARICA : increased activity (without true eruption)
CRESCITA : growth (of a coast, of a glacier, of a biological organism)
CRESCITA DELTIZIA : delta growth
CRESCITA DI SCOGLIERA CORALLINA : reef growth
CRESCITA ENDOGENA DI UN VULCANO : endogenous growth of volcano (by addition of material coming from the inner magmatic hearth)
CRESCITA ESOGENA : exogenous growth (by accumulation of volcanic material)
CRESCITA IN ALTEZZA : upward growth (e.g. of a coral reef)
CRESCITA INTERSECANTESI : intergrowth (of two interlocked minerals which have grown together or in succession)
CRESCITA INTERSECANTESI REGOLARE : massige Verwachsung (from German)
CRESCITA LATERALE : lateral spread (of a coastal marsh)
CRESTA : crest (of a subaerial or submarine relief)
CRESTA ANTICLINALE : anticlinal mountain
CRESTA DI RIPPLE MARKS : crest of ripple marks
CRESTA DI SPIAGGIA : perched beach ridge (a shallow based beach ridge having its base at or near high-tide level)
CRESTA DI SPIAGGIA EMERSA : beach ridge (sedimentary ridge on the backshore formed primarily by wave action)
CRESTA DI SPIAGGIA SOMMERSA : normal beach ridge (a ridge having its base at or near high-tide level)
CRESTA DI UNA DUNA : crest of a dune
CRESTA FUMANTE : smoking crest (crest of a dune subject to winnowing action of sand grains similar to smoke)
CRESTA GLACIALE : serrate ridge
CRESTA MONTUOSA : mountain crest
CRESTA SEDIMENTARIA MARGINALE : seaward rise (elevated seaward of reef-islands generally formed by boulders and other clastic sediments)
CRESTA SINCLINALE : synclinal mountain
CRETACEO : Cretaceous
CRIOCONITE : cryoconite (eolic dust accumulated on a glacier)
CRIOLIVELLAMENTO : cryoplanation
CRIOPEDOLOGIA : cryopedology
CRIOTURBAZIONE : cryoturbation
CRIPTOCRISTALLINO : cryptocrystalline
CRIPTOGENICO : cryptogenic (an adjective applied to a systematic group of which the forerunners are unknown)
CRIPTOGRAFICO : cryptographic (a term related to a microcrystalline structure characterized by interlaced crystallization of quartz and feldspars, often spherulitic and not easily distinguished at the microscope)
CRIPTOVULCANESIMO : cryptovolcanism
CRISTALLINITÀ : cristallinity
CRISTALLITE : crystallite
CRISTALLITE : crystallite (columnar structure, pyramid-like or conical, of stratified limestone or dolomite)
CRISTALLIZZAZIONE DIFFERENZIATA : crystallization differentiation
CRISTALLIZZAZIONE DISPERSA : dissemination (early crystals of metallic minerals formed in the magma, also dispersed mineral metallic formations in a general sense)
CRISTALLIZZAZIONE FRAZIONATA : crystallization differentiation, fractional crystallization
CRISTALLIZZAZIONE MIMETICA : Abbildungskristallisation (German), mimetic crystallization (recrystallization of a metamorphic rock reproducing any pre-existing anisotropy such as bedding or schistosity)CENOZOICO : Caenozoic, Tertiary, Tertiary era
CRISTALLO : crystal
CRISTALLO CORROSO : corroded crystal (formed during the early stages of magma solidification and later attacked by volatile agents)
CRISTALLO EMBRIONALE : crystallite
CRISTALLOBLASTICO : crystalloblastic (an adjective applied to the structure of rocks subject to recrystallization)
CRISTALLOGRAFIA : cristallography
CRITTOGAME : cryptogams
CRIVELLO OSCILLANTE AD ARIA : air jig
CROLLO DEL TAPPO VULCANICO : crumbling phase
CROLLO DI CAVERNA : cave crumbling (disintegration of a cave ceiling)
CROLLO DI UNA FALESIA : cliff fall
CROLLO DI UNA GROTTA : cavern breakdown, cave collapse, cave falling in
CROLLO DI UNA PARETE DI UNA GROTTA : cave wall fall
CROLLO RITARDATO : afterburst (delayed collapse of rock fragments after a first collapse caused by a detonation in a cave or mine)
CROMATOGRAFIA : chromatography
CROMATOGRAFIA DI ADSORBIMENTO : adsorption chromatography
CRONOLOGIA ASSOLUTA : absolute chronology
CRONOLOGIA BASATA SULLA STRATIFICAZIONE DEL MATERIALE PIROCLASTICO : tephrochronology
CRONOLOGIA GEOLOGICA : geologic chronology
CROSTA CALCAREA : calcareous crust, caliche (from Spanish), limestone crust, soil horizon hardened and cemented by limestone
CROSTA CONCREZIONARIA : hardpan (hard surficial soil crust formed as a result of evaporation of groundwater drawn to the surface by capillarity)
CROSTA DI ALTERAZIONE SUPERFICIALE : weathering crust
CROSTA DI MOHOROVIC : Mohorovic crust (above the Mohorovic discontinuity)
CROSTA DI SCIOGLIMENTO : melt crust
CROSTA FERROSA : ferricrust (surficial soil crust hardened by iron concretions)
CROSTA LAVICA : carapace, rigid lava crust
CROSTA LAVICA SOLIDIFICATA : congealed crust
CROSTA NEVOSA : ice crust (formed at the surface of a snow layer due to thaw and refreeze)
CROSTA NEVOSA INDURITA DAL VENTO : wind slab
CROSTA RIGIDA : rigid crust
CROSTA TERRESTRE : crust of the Earth, Earth’s crust
CROSTACEI : crustacea
CUESTA : cuesta (from Spanish; more or less lobate relief, with a steep slope at one side and a low one at the other)
CULMINAZIONE : structural high
CULMINE : structural high
CULMINE ASSIALE : axial culmination
CUMULITE : cumulite (spherical crystallites, called globulites, grouped in small irregular masses)
CUMULO DI DETRITI : debris cone
CUMULOFIRICO : cumulophyric, glomerophyric (an adjective applied to rocks having a cumulophiric structure)
CUMULOFIRO : cumulophyre (porphyritic rock in which the phenocrysts are ordered in groups)
CUNEO ABBASSATO IN UNA FAGLIA : downthrusted wedge
CUNEO CAPOVOLTO : inverted wedge (in a fault)
CUNEO DI MAREA : tidal wedge (tidal channel narrowing or shallowing at the downstream end, in which either the ebb or the flood current dominates)
CUNEO DISCENDENTE IN UNA FAGLIA : downthrusted wedge
CUNEO MAGMATICO : magmatic wedge
CUNEO ROCCIOSO : wedge
CUNEO SOLLEVATO : upthrusted wedge (in a fault)
CUNEO SPINTO VERSO IL BASSO IN UNA FAGLIA : downthrusted wedge
CUNICOLO DI GROTTA LUNGO LA STRATIFICAZIONE : bedding cave (broad and low passage formed in a cave usually due to karst erosion along a horizontal or nearly horizontal bedding plane)
CUPOLA : dome (periclinal structure in which the ratio between breadth and length of the structural closure is approximately 1 to 1)
CUPOLA ACQUEA : water cupola (cup-shaped vault formed at the surface of the sea above a submarine volcanic explosion just before the gases and solid material break through)
CUPOLA DI PRESSIONE : pressure dome (caused by pressure by overlying rocks)
CUPOLA LAVICA : cupola, lava dome
CUPOLA VULCANICA : lava dome
CURVA DI DURATA DEL FLUSSO : flow duration curve (graph of the frequency distribution of the daily average flow indicating the percentage of time during which given flow levels are equalled or passed)
CURVA DI UGUALE PRESSIONE DI UN ACQUIFERO : piezometric contour
CURVA IDROGRAFICA : hydrograph (plot of discharge against time at a given point in a river)
CURVA IDROGRAFICA DI TEMPORALE : flash hydrograph (hydrografic curve due to a single rainstorm in a river which responds swiftly)
CURVA IDROGRAFICA RISULTANTE DAL PASSAGGIO DI UN SINGOLO ROVESCIO DI PIOGGIA : storm hydrograph
CURVA TEMPORALE : time distance curve (graphical representation of the travel time of an earthquake as a function of the distance from the epicenter to the point of observation measured along the surface of the Earth)
CURVATURA DI STRATI : outcrop bending (in the surficial zone of sloping rocky strata)
CURVATURA LATERALE DEL PIANO ASSIALE DI UNA PIEGA : lateral curvature of the surface axis
CURVE DI LIVELLO STRUTTURALI : structure contours
CUSPIDI DI SPIAGGIA : beach cusps (rythmically interspaced features on the beach, with seaward pointing ends)
CUTICOLE : cuticles
DALLA BASE ALLA SOMMITÀ : from bottom to top (of a stratigraphic unit)
DATI TESSITURALI SCALARI : scalar fabric data (non-directional physical data on rock texture, such as granule size and shape, granule uniformity, porosity)
DATI TESSITURALI VETTORIALI : vectorial fabric data
DATTILITE : dactilite (a simplectite in which one of the minerals has projecting digitations)
DATTILITICO : dactylic (an adjective applied to the closely interlinked growth of two minerals, one of which penetrates with finger-shaped apophyses into the other)
DATTILOTIPO : dactilotype (interlinked growth of sodalite with hortoclase in borolanite)
DEBOLE SPESSORE : slight thickness (of bedding)
DEBOLMENTE PIEGATO : weakly folded
DEBORDAMENTO : overflow (of any fluid: water, lava, etc.)
DEBORDAMENTO LAVICO DEL CRATERE : summit overflow
DEBORDAMENTO LAVICO SUBTERMINALE : subterminal outflow
DEBORDARE : to onlap
DECALCIFICAZIONE : decalcification
DECAPITARE UN FIUME : to behead a river
DECAPITAZIONE DI UN CONO VULCANICO : decapitation (a beheading of the cone, often in consequence of the scouring action of a great eruption)
DECAPITAZIONE FLUVIALE : river beheading
DECLINAZIONE MAGNETICA : magnetic declination
DECLINO DI UN GHIACCIAIO : wastage
DECOLORAZIONE : bleaching
DECOMPORRE : to decay
DECOMPOSIZIONE : decay of organisms in an aerobic environment, disintegration
DECOMPOSIZIONE IN AMBIENTE PARZIALMENTE AEROBICO: mouldering, decay in partially aerobic environment (transformation of organic residues under partly aerobic conditions and attendant formation of a black mould)
DECOMPOSIZIONE PARZIALMENTE AEROBICA : mouldering, decay in partially aerobic environment (transformation of organic residues under partly aerobic conditions and attendant formation of a black mould)
DEDOLOMITIZZAZIONE : dedolomitization
DEFICIT DELL’UMIDITÀ DEL SUOLO : soil moisture deficiency
DEFLAZIONE : deflation
DEFLESSIONE : deflection (of an inclined fold)
DEFLUENTE : distributary (branching of a delta, a branch that leaves the main channel of a river and does not rejoin it anymore)
DEFLUENTE MORTO : dead distributary (of a river or stream)
DEFLUSSO : outflow
DEFLUSSO TORBIDO : suspended sediment (t)
DEFLUSSO TORBIDO UNITARIO : suspended sediment yields (t/km2, by surface of the river basin, e.g.: Po 215 t/km2)
DEFORMAZIONE : deformation
DEFORMAZIONE DELLA PARTE SUPERIORE DELLA CROSTA SIALICA : dermal deformation
DEFORMAZIONE PARACRISTALLINA : paracrystalline deformation
DEFORMAZIONE POSTCRISTALLINA : postcrystalline deformation
DEFORMAZIONE PRECRISTALLINA : precrystalline deformation
DEFORMAZIONE SIALICA PROFONDA : bathydermal deformation
DEFORMAZIONE SUBCROSTALE : subcrustal deformation
DEFORMAZIONE SUPERFICIALE : epidermal deformation (of the Earth’s crust)
DEGENERARE : to degenerate
DEGENERAZIONE : degeneration
DEGRADAZIONE : degradation
DEGRADAZIONE DI UN CONO VULCANICO : decapitation (a beheading of the cone, often in consequence of the scouring action of a great eruption)
DELTA : delta, fluvial delta (see also: letti al piede di un delta, letti del delta sommerso, strati sedimentari deltizi superiori pressapoco orizzontali e parzialmente emersi)
DELTA A PUNTA : cuspate delta
DELTA A ZAMPA DI UCCELLO : lobate delta
DELTA AL FONDO DI UNA BAIA : bay delta
DELTA APERTO : protruding delta
DELTA ARCUATO : arcuate delta
DELTA CUSPIDATO : cuspate delta
DELTA DI MAREA : tidal delta
DELTA DI MAREA ESTERNO : outer tidal delta
DELTA DI MAREA INTERNO : inner tidal delta
DELTA DI TEMPESTA : storm delta, wave delta (a delta-like deposit formed by waves beaking over a barrier)
DELTA FLUVIALE : fluvial delta
DELTA LACUSTRE : lake delta
DELTA LAVICO : lava delta
DELTA LOBATO : lobate delta
DELTA SECONDARIO : subdelta (lesser delta forming part of a large lobate or bird-foot delta)
DELTA SPORGENTE : protruding delta
DEMAGNETIZZAZIONE : demagnetization
DEMAGNETIZZAZIONE TERMICA : thermal demagnetization
DEMOLIZIONE A CAUSA DI PROCESSI EROSIVI : degradation
DENDRITE : dendrite (a tree-like branching structure formed on a rock by an exogenous mineral)
DENSITÀ DI CORRENTE ELETTRICA : current density
DENSITÀ DI DRENAGGIO : drainage density
DENSITÀ IDROGRAFICA : drainage density, drainage texture
DENUDAMENTO : denudation
DENUDAMENTO TETTONICO : tectonin denudation
DEPOSITARE : to deposit
DEPOSITARSI : to settle
DEPOSITI AL DI SOPRA DI UNA SCOGLIERA CORALLINA : top reef deposits
DEPOSITI DELTIZI : delta deposits
DEPOSITI DI PENEPIANO : peneplain deposits
DEPOSITI EOLICI : aeolian deposits (depositati dal vento)
DEPOSITI FREATICI : groundwater storeys (water-bearing strata separated by layers of little or no permeability)
DEPOSITI MINERARI DA GAS MAGMATICI : emanation deposits
DEPOSITI SEDIMENTARI : sedimentary deposits
DEPOSITI STRATIFICATI : bedded deposits (sedimentary or volcanic)
DEPOSITO : deposit
DEPOSITO ABISSALE : abyssal deposit
DEPOSITO ALLUVIONALE : alluvial deposit
DEPOSITO BENTONICO : benthonic deposit (oceanic deposit formed by organic bentonic remains)
DEPOSITO CALCAREO IN BACINO DI GROTTA : pool deposit
DEPOSITO DA FIUME DI FANGO DI ORIGINE VULCANICA : lahar deposit
DEPOSITO DI RIFIUTI ALIMENTARI : kitchen midden (refuse heap marking a settlement site of prehistoric man)
DEPOSITO DI RIVA CONCAVA DI MEANDRO : floodplain scroll (isolated zone of sedimentary deposit on the concave bank of a river meander)
DEPOSITO DI TERRAZZO : terrace cover
DEPOSITO DI ZOLFO : deposit of sulphur
DEPOSITO DISORDINATO : disordered deposit
DEPOSITO ELUVIALE : eluvium (residual soil after the leaching of the more soluble material)
DEPOSITO EOLICO : eolian deposit
DEPOSITO EOLICO NON STRATIFICATO : loess (with 60-85% of particles having a diameter less than 50 micron)
DEPOSITO EOLICO RIMANEGGIATO : reworked loess
DEPOSITO EOLICO SABBIOSO : sandy loess
DEPOSITO FLUVIOGLACIALE : fluvioglacial deposit
DEPOSITO GLACIALE : glacial deposit
DEPOSITO GLACIOLACUSTRE : glaciolacustrine deposit
DEPOSITO IN GROTTA : cave deposit
DEPOSITO IPOGEO : cave deposit
DEPOSITO ISOPICO : isopical sediment (a sedimentary deposit contemporary to another and having the same facies)
DEPOSITO MINERARIO IPOBATOLITICO : hypobatholithic deposit (formed in depth inside a strongly eroded batholith)
DEPOSITO MINERARIO LENTICOLARE : lenticular orebody
DEPOSITO MINERARIO MAGMATICO ORTOTETTICO : liquid magmatic deposit (segregated from liquid magma)
DEPOSITO MINERARIO ORIZZONTALE : flat
DEPOSITO PELAGICO : pelagic deposit
DEPOSITO PLANKTONICO : planktonic deposit (oceanic deposit formed by planktonic organic debris)
DEPOSITO PRIMARIO : primary deposit
DEPOSITO SABBIOSO DALLA SUPERFICIE ONDULATA CAUSATA DAL VENTO : wind rippled sand
DEPOSITO SECONDARIO : secondary deposit
DEPOSITO SEDIMENTARIO NON EQUIVALENTE : heterotaxial (an adjective applied to sedimentary deposits widely separated having a different relative position in the geological series)
DEPOSITO SUBAEREO : subaerial deposit
DEPOSITO TERRIGENO : terrigenous deposit
DEPOSIZIONE SELETTIVA : fining (of sediments)
DEPRESSIONE : structural saddle (between structurak highs along the crests of anticlines)
DEPRESSIONE ARROTONDATA E OBLUNGA SPESSO RAMIFICATA : dell
DEPRESSIONE ASSIALE : axial depression (of a fold or a nappe)
DEPRESSIONE CARSICA : karst depression
DEPRESSIONE CONICA : explosion funnel (from an explosion at the top of a volcano)
DEPRESSIONE DEL FONDO MARINO PRESSO LA COSTA E PARALLELA AD ESSA : offshore trough
DEPRESSIONE DELLA SPIAGGIA SOMMERSA PARALLELA ALLA COSTA : low
DEPRESSIONE DI RIPPLE MARKS : trough of ripple marks
DEPRESSIONE FORMATA DALLA LINGUA GLACIALE : central depression
DEPRESSIONE IN UNA PALUDE SALMASTRA LITORANEA : pan, salt marsh depression (usually colonized by larger plants than in the remainder of the marsh)
DEPRESSIONE INTERDUNARE : parabolic depression
DEPRESSIONE INTERNA DI UN ATOLLO : inner depression
DEPRESSIONE SOMMITALE VULCANICA : volcanic summit graben
DEPRESSIONE VULCANOTETTONICA : volcano-tectonic depression
DEPRESSIONI CRIOCONITICHE : cryoconite holes (depressions formed at the superface of a glacier due to heating by dust deposits)
DEPRESSIONI LATERALI : backlands (depressions flanking the levés towards the outside)
DERIVA DEI CONTINENTI : continental drift (Wegener)
DERIVA DEI POLI : drift away from the poles
DERIVA DEL GHIACCIO : ice drift
DERIVA LITORANEA : beach drift
DERIVA VERSO OCCIDENTE : westward drift
DERIVA VERSO ORIENTE : eastward drift
DERIVATA SECONDA : second derivative (of the acceleration of gravity, or of magnetic field intensity or one of its components, relative to the vertical coordinate)
DESERTO : desert
DESERTO CIOTTOLOSO : pebbly desert, serir (from Berber)
DESERTO COSTIERO : coastal desert
DESERTO DI BASSOPIANO : lowland desert
DESERTO MONTANO : mountainous desert
DESERTO PIETROSO : stony desert
DESERTO ROCCIOSO : hamada (from Berber), hammada (from Berber), rocky desert
DESERTO SABBIOSO : reg (from Berber), sandy desert
DESERTO SALATO : salt desert
DESERTO SALINO : alkali flat
DESILICIZZAZIONE : desilication (lowering of the percentage of silica in a magma due to chemical reactions with the country rock)
DESQUAMAZIONE : exfoliation
DETERMINAZIONE DELL’EPICENTRO : determination of epicenter (determination of the geographic coordinates of the epicenter by seismograms from seismic observatories in the area)
DETERMINAZIONE DELL’ETÀ : determination of the age
DETONAZIONE : detonation (caused by a volcanic event)
DETRITI : detritus
DETRITI GLACIALI : glacial debris
DETRITI VULCANICI INCANDESCENTI : incandescent detritus
DETRITI VULCANICI SOLIDIFICATI : nonluminous detritus
DETRITO DI FALDA : scree material, talus slope
DETRITO FINE : small waste
DETRITO FINE DI ORIGINE CORALLINA : coral mud
DETRITO FINE DI ORIGINE VULCANICA : volcanic mud
DETRITO GROSSOLANO : coarse waste
DEUTERICO : deuteric (a term related to changes in a igneous rock at the last stages of its consolidation)
DEUTERIO : deuterium (heavy hydrogen isotope with one neutron in the nucleus)
DEUTEROMORFICO : deuteromorphic (an adjective applied to rock constituents of which the forms have been modified by secondary agents)
DEVETRIFICAZIONE : devitrification
DEVIARE UN FIUME : to divert a river
DEVIATORE DI CORRENTE : pierdam (for defence against erosion)
DEVIAZIONE DAL FILO A PIOMBO : deflection of the plumbline
DEVIAZIONE DALLA VERTICALE : deflection of the plumbline, hade (angle of the fault plane with the vertical)
DEVIAZIONE DI UN FIUME : river deflection (spontaneous deviation of a river, due to various phenomena of tectonic, volcanic, glacial, erosional, alluviation or other origin)
DEVIAZIONE DI UNA FAGLIA : fault deflection (due to interception by another fault)
DEVIAZIONE FLUVIALE PER SBARRAMENTO : river diversion by ponding
DEVONIANO : Devonian
DIABLASTICO : diablastic (an adjective applied to the texture of metamorphic rocks of which the constituents are intimately interlocked)
DIACLASI : diaclase, joint, joint fissure
DIACLASI ACCESSORIA : auxiliary joint
DIACLASI AMPIA : open joint
DIACLASI CON RIEMPIMENTO SEDIMENTARIO : fissure vein (joint filled with sedimentary material different from the surrounding rock)
DIACLASI CONCREZIONATA : crustified vein
DIACLASI DI DISTENSIONE : extension joint (formed parallel to a compressional force)
DIACLASI DI RILASCIAMENTO : release joint (formed at right angle with a compressive force when the latter is released)
DIACLASI DIAGONALE : oblique joint (formed in oblique direction relative to the strike of the associated strata or to the surface axis of a fold)
DIACLASI DIREZIONALE : strike joint (formed parallel to the strike of adjacent strata or to their schistosity)
DIACLASI ENDOCINETICA : endokinetic fissure (joint caused by stresses internal to the formation)
DIACLASI ESOCINETICA : exokinetic fissure (joint caused by tensions external to the formation)
DIACLASI INCROCIATA : dip joint (formed at approssimatively right angle to the strike of layers or their schistosity)
DIACLASI LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal joint (striking parallel to the surface axis of a fold)
DIACLASI NASCOSTA : blind joint
DIACLASI PERSISTENTE : consistent joint
DIACLASI PRINCIPALE : main joint, major joint, master joint
DIACLASI SECONDARIA : minor joint
DIACLASI TRASVERSALE : transverse joint (a joint formed in the direction perpendicular to the axis of a fold surface)
DIACLASI VIRTUALE : blind joint
DIADE : dyad (group of two spores or pollen grains)
DIAFTOFORESI : diaphtoforesis, regressive metamorphism (a process whereby minerals of inferior grade grow at the expense of corresponding minerals at a higher level of metamorphism)
DIAFTORITE : diaphtorite (crystalline schist in which minerals typical of a lower metamorphic level have been developed by diaphtoforesis at the expense of minerals peculiar of higher levels of metamorphism)
DIAFTORITICO : diaphtoritic (an adjective applied to rocks that have been subject to diaphtoforesis)
DIAGENESI : consolidation, diagenesis (sum of the processes which turn an incoherent sediment into a compact rock, excluding metamorphism)
DIAGRAMMA DELLE ERUZIONI : diagram of eruptions (graphic representation of the sequence of events of a volcanic eruption by drawing conventional symbols or curves related to a temporal scale)
DIAGRAMMA DI CONTORNO : contour diagram (of a joint)
DIAGRAMMA DI DIACLASI : joint diagram
DIAGRAMMA POLLINICO : pollen diagram (graph of the pollen spectrum)
DIAGRAMMA TRIDIMENSIONALE : block diagram
DIAMAGNETISMO : diamagnetism (magnetism of material with negative susceptivity)
DIAMETRO MEDIO DEI GRANELLI : mean grain size
DIAPIRISMO : diapirism
DIASCISTICO : diaschistic (an adjective applied to hypabyssal rocks believed to be derived from a broader magmatic mass but differentiated from it in composition)
DIASCISTITE : diaschistite
DIASTEMA : diastem (interruption in the sedimentary sequence caused by a lowering of the base level)
DIASTROFISMO : diastrophism
DIATOMITE : diatomite
DIATREMA : diatreme, volcanic vent
DICCHI INCROCIANTISI : crossing dikes (older dikes cut by more recent ones)
DICCHI RADIALI : radiating dikes
DICCO : dike, dyke
DICCO AD ANELLO : ring dike
DICCO CAVO : hollow dike
DICCO COMPOSITO : composite dike
DICCO DIFFERENZIATO : differentiated dike (showing magmatic differentiation)
DICCO LAVICO : dike wall (a dike protruding after erosion of the country rock)
DICCO METALLIFERO : ore dike
DICCO MULTIPLO : multiple dike (a dike formed by multiple intrusions of the same magma)
DICCO OMOGENEO : homogenous dike
DICCO SEMPLICE : simple dike
DICTIONITE : diktyonite (migmatite with a network structure)
DIFESA COSTIERA : coast protection
DIFETTO DI MASSA : deficiency of mass (in geophysics: an adjective applied to gravitative anomaly)
DIFFERENZIAZIONE CINETICA DI LIQUIDI MAGMATICI RESIDUI : flowage differentiation (of residual magmatic liquids forming metal veins)
DIFFERENZIAZIONE GASSOSA : gas streaming (differentiation in a magma accomplished by bubbles of gas which may attach themselves to crystals and buoy them upward or they may cause interstititial liquids to move)
DIFFERENZIAZIONE GRAVITATIVA : gravitational differentiation, gravitative differentiation (inside a magma, by sinking of the heavy phases and rising of light phases)
DIFFERENZIAZIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic differentiazion (separation or aggregation of magma fractions)
DIFFERENZIAZIONE METAMORFICA : metamorphic differentiation
DIFFERENZIAZIONE PER CRISTALLIZZAZIONE GRAVITAZIONALE COMPLESSA : complex gravitational crystallization differentiation (differenzial crystallization, complex gravitational crystallization of magma which generates metal ores)
DIFFERENZIAZIONE PER TRASPORTO GASSOSO : gas transfer differentiation (inside a magma by movements of volatile constituents)
DIFFLUENZA : diffluence (of rivers or glaciers)
DIFFONDERSI IN OGNI DIREZIONE DA PARTE DI FORMAZIONI LENTICOLARI SABBIOSE : to lense out
DIFFUSIONE LATERALE : horizontal spread (of any geomorphological feature), lateral spread (of a mountain chain due to compression and subduction of plates, e.g. the orogeny occasioned by the pressure of the Indo-Australian plate against the Eurasian plate not only at the main contact surface between the two plates, in the Himalaya, Karakorum and the Tibet regions, but also laterally in Burma and adjacent regions), outward growth (of a salt marsh)
DIFFUSIONE METAMORFICA : metamorphic diffusion
DIGA : dam
DIGA COSTIERA : pierdam (for defence against erosion)
DIGA DI GHIACCIO : ice dam
DIGA ERETTA IN UN PIANO DI MAREA PER PROMUOVERNE LA SEDIMENTAZIONE : warping dam
DIGA FORANEA : breakwater
DIGESTIONE DELLE ROCCE INCASSANTI AL DI SOPRA DI UNA MASSA MAGMATICA INTRUSIVA : overhead stoping
DIGESTIONE DELLE ROCCE INCASSANTI AL DI SOTTO DI UNA MASSA MAGMATICA INTRUSIVA : underhand stoping
DIGESTIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic assimilation, magmatic digestion
DIGESTIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic stoping (digestion of country rock by an intrusive magma)
DIGITAZIONE SEDIMENTARIA : fingering out (outer lateral rim of a sedimentary formation at an erosional surface or at a dipping disconformity plane)
DIGITAZIONI DI FALDA : digitations of a nappe (digitations of the frontal lobe of a nappe)
DILATAZIONE : dilatation (and.g. due to heat)
DILATAZIONE DI UN DICCO : dike dilatation
DILATAZIONE IN STRATI ROCCIOSI : expansion (in rock strata)
DIMENSIONE DEI GRANELLI : grain size
DIMINUZIONE DELLA SALSEDINE : freshening
DIMINUZIONE DELL’INCLINAZIONE DEGLI STRATI : dip flattens out
DIMINUZIONE DI SPOSTAMENTO VERTICALE : decrease of throw, diminution of throw (decrease of the vertical thickness of strata due to a fault)
DIMINUZIONE DI TEMPERATURA : decrease of temperature
DINAMOMETAMORFISMO : dynamometamorphism, kinetic metamorphism (in consequence of strong mechanical deformations caused by powerful orogenetic forces)
DINOSAURI : dinosaurs
DIPLOIDE : diploid (complete cellular chromosome set with two homologous chromosomes)
DIRAMARSI : to feather out, to finger out
DIRAMAZIONE : branch (in geomorphology: branch of a river network; in palaeobotanics: branch of a plant; in palaeontology: branch in the phylogenesis; in speleology: branch of a cave; in tectonics: branch of a fault)
DIRAMAZIONE DI COLLEGAMENTO FRA DUE DEPOSITI MINERARI ORIZZONTALI : pitch
DIREZIONE : strike (direction of a line formed by the intersection between a bedding plane and a horizontal plane)
DIREZIONE : strike (direction of the line formed by the intersection of a bedding plane with the horizontal plane)
DIREZIONE COMPLESSIVA DI TENDENZA DI UNO STRATO : general trend of the strike
DIREZIONE DELLA LINEA DI CRESTA : course of the crest line
DIREZIONE DELLA SPINTA TETTONICA : direction of thrust
DIREZIONE DELLA TENDENZA DI UNO STRATO : direction of the strike of a layer
DIREZIONE DELL’INCLINAZIONE : direction of dip (of the magnetic field)
DIREZIONE DELL’INTERSEZIONE FRA IL PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE COL PIANO ORIZZONTALE : strike (direction of the line formed by the intersection of a bedding plane with the horizontal plane)
DIREZIONE DELLO SPOSTAMENTO INCLINATO : dip slip (of a layer along a fault plane)
DIREZIONE DELLO SPOSTAMENTO NETTO : direction of the net slip (direction of the minimum distance between two points previously adjacent an fault plane)
DIREZIONE DI FLUSSO : direction of flowage
DIREZIONE PREDOMINANTE DI UNO STRATO : main trend of the strike
DIREZIONE PRINCIPALE DI UNO STRATO : main trens of the strike
DIREZIONE VERSO IL BASSO : downward direction
DISADATTAMENTO DI UN FIUME : undefitness of a river
DISAEROBICO : dysaerobic
DISARTICOLAZIONE : dissociation (of a skeleton, in the fossilization process)
DISCENDENTE : descendant
DISCENDENZA : posterity
DISCESA DELL’ACQUA ATTRAVERSO IL REGOLITO : throughflow
DISCO : disk (crystal form)
DISCONFORMITÀ DELLE STRUTTURE SUPERFICIALI E DI QUELLE PROFONDE : nonconformity of structure in the surface and subsurface beds
DISCONFORMITÀ NON ANGOLARE : nonangular unconformity (unconformity in which the beds on opposite sides of the unconformable contact are parallel)
DISCONFORMITÀ STRATIGRAFICA : unconformity
DISCONTINUITÀ DI MOHOROVICIC : Mohorovicic discontinuity (transition between Earth’s crust and mantle)
DISCONTINUITÀ STRUTTURALE : structural discontinuity
DISCORDANTE : unconformable
DISCORDANZA ANGOLARE : angular unconformity
DISCORDANZA CAUSATA DA CORRENTI D’ACQUA : discordance by current action
DISCORDANZA PER RIPIEGAMENTO DISARMONICO : discordance by disharmonic folding
DISCORDANZA TETTONICA : structural discordance
DISCRISTALLINO : dyscrystalline (a textural term applied to a scarcely crystallized rock, opposite of eucrystalline)
DISEGNO DELLE DIACLASI : joint pattern
DISEGNO SCHEMATICO DI UN PROFILO GEOLOGICO : schematic section
DISGELO : thaw
DISGELO ESTIVO : summer thaw
DISGREGARE : to decompose
DISGREGAZIONE ALVEOLARE : honeycomb weathering
DISGREGAZIONE CHIMICA : chemical weathering
DISGREGAZIONE CHIMICO-FISICA : weathering
DISGREGAZIONE DA GELO : frost weathering
DISGREGAZIONE DI ROCCE DA ESPANSIONE DI SALI : salt wedging
DISGREGAZIONE DI UNA ROCCIA : crumbling
DISGREGAZIONE DIFFERENZIALE : selective weathering
DISGREGAZIONE MECCANICA : physical weathering
DISGREGAZIONE SELETTIVA : selective weathering
DISGREGAZIONE SFEROIDALE : spheroidal weathering
DISGREGAZIONE TERMICA : destruction by insolation (of a rock)
DISGREGAZIONE UMICA : humic decomposition
DISINTEGRAZIONE DELLE ROCCE : weathering
DISINTEGRAZIONE DI UNA ROCCIA : mineral disintegration (disintegration to the level of single minerals)
DISINTEGRAZIONE DI UNA ROCCIA A BLOCCHI : block disintegration
DISLIVELLO : head (between two points in a column of fluid)
DISLIVELLO TRA DUE LIVELLI PIEZOMETRICI : piestic interval
DISLOCATO : disrupted
DISLOCAZIONE : dislocation
DISLOCAZIONE DI STRATI : offsetting of strata (due to a fault)
DISPERSIONE DELLE STAZIONI SISMOMETRICHE : seismometer spread (in seismic survey: number of seismometers placed along a straight line that record the same shot)
DISPERSIONE RIFLESSA : backscatter
DISPLUVIALE : interfluve,Talzwischenscheide (from the German), watershed
DISPLUVIALE A ZIGZAG : zigzag watershed (formed by rivers which have breached the watershed by regressive erosion)
DISPLUVIALE BEN DEFINITA : well defined divide
DISPLUVIALE CONSEGUENTE : consequent divide (longitudinal divide between two subsequent rivers)
DISPLUVIALE IN LENTA MIGRAZIONE : creeping divide
DISPLUVIALE MAL DEFINITA : ill defined divide
DISPLUVIALE MIGRANTE : shifting divide
DISPLUVIALE MIGRANTE CON BALZO IMPROVVISO : leaping divide
DISPLUVIALE MIGRANTE CON MOTO LENTO : creeping divide
DISPLUVIALE TRA DUE FIUMI CONSEGUENTI : dividing ridge
DISPLUVIALE TRA I BACINI DI DUE AFFLUENTI DI UN MEDESIMO BACINO FLUVIALE : valley floor divide
DISPOSIZIONE DEGLI ELETTRODI : electrode configuration
DISPOSIZIONE INCROCIATA : cross spread (in seismic survey: placing of the seismographs at a right angle relative to the line of shooting)
DISPOSIZIONE STRUTTURALE : structural position
DISPOSIZIONE ZONALE DEI MINERALI : mineral zoning
DISSEZIONATO DA FAGLIE : dissected by faults
DISSEZIONE : dissection (of a comparatively regular land surface with formation of a ravine or a valley)
DISSOLUZIONE DI UNA ROCCIA : intrastratal solution
DISSOLUZIONE FREATICA : phreatic solution (solution by vadose water operating below the local water table)
DISSOLUZIONE VADOSA : vadose solution (solution by vadose water operating below the local water table)
DISTACCO : décollement (from French; of sedimentary beds over a lubricating layer)
DISTACCO DI UNA MASSA DI GHIACCIO : calving
DISTANZA DALL’EPICENTRO : distance of epicenter
DISTANZA DEL PUNTO DI ESPLOSIONE DALLA SEQUENZA DI SISMOGRAFI POSTI IN LINEA RETTA PER REGISTARE LE ONDE SISMICHE : shotpoint distance
DISTANZA FRA GLI ELETTRODI : electrode spacing
DISTANZA FRA PUNTI SIMILI SU DUE INDULAZIONI ADIACENTI : wave length of ripple marks
DISTANZA IN VERTICALE : vertical separation (between the two parts of a displaced bedding plane measured in a vertical direction)
DISTANZA LUNGO L’ASSE DI INCLINAZIONE : dip separation (between the two sides of the stratification plane which have become separated on account of a fault)
DISTANZA MINIMA FRA LE TRACCE DI INTERSEZIONE DI UN PIANO DI FAGLIA CON LA DUE PARTI DI UN UN PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE DISLOCATO : shortest distance between the traces of intersection of a fault plane with the two parts of a dislocated stratification plane
DISTANZA ORIZZONTALE DEGLI AFFIORAMENTI DI UNA FAGLIA : offset
DISTANZA ORIZZONTALE LUNGO LA LINEA DI FAGLIA : horizontal separation in a fault line strike
DISTANZA PARALLELA ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE : stratigraphic heave (width of the gap between two parts of a disrupted bed measured in the direction of the faulted bedding plane, in the case of normal faults)
DISTANZA PERPENDICOLARE ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE : stratigraphic throw (between the two displaced parts of a faulted bedding plane)
DISTANZA TRA LE STAZIONI SISMOMETRICHE : seismometer spacing
DISTANZA VERTICALE DEGLI AFFIORAMENTI DI UNA FAGLIA : gap of the outcrop of the bed
DISTANZA VERTICALE FRA LA CULMINAZIONE DI UN’ANTICLINALE E IL FONDO DELLA SINCLINALE ADIACENTE : structural relief
DISTELIA : distely (acquisition of non functional characters by a biological species)
DISTRIBUZIONE DELLA VELOCITÀ : velocity distribution (ratio between the velocity of the seismic wave and depth)
DISTRUZIONE : destruction (of abiotic elements, e.g. mountain chains)
DISTURBO : disturbance (in a sedimentary sequence)
DITO LAVICO : spine (lava plug pushed upward in the crater by gas pressure; the “finger of La Pélée” grew over 300 m on 4 July 1903)
DIVERGENZA : divergence (old fashioned term indicating development of different characters by organisms having common ancestors, nowadays known as adaptive radiation)
DIVERSIONE FLUVIALE : river diversion
DIVISIONE COLONNARE POLIEDRICA IRREGOLARE : polyhedric parting (occasionally found in porphyries)
DOCRISTALLINO : docrystalline (an adjective applied to vitreous and crystalline rocks with a ratio between crystals and glass lower than 7 to 1 and higher than 5 to 3)
DOIALINO : dohyaline (an adjective applied to hypocrystalline rocks with a ratio between crystals and glass lower than 3 to 5 and higher than 1 to 7)
DOLERITICO : doleritic, ophitic (an adjective applied to a texture of magmatic rock in which plagioclase crystals are totally or partially included in augite crystals)
DOLINA : doline
DOLINA DI CORROSIONE : solution sink
DOLINA DI CROLLO : collapse sink
DOLOMITE : dolomite
DOLOMITE CELLULARE : cellular dolomite (dolomite with a cavernous or irregular cellular structure)
DOLOMITIZZAZIONE : dolomitization (replacement of calcium carbonate by magnesium carbonate)
DOMANDA BIOLOGICA DI OSSIGENO : biological oxygen demand (BOD, used as a measurement of water pollution by organic matter)
DOPATICO : dopatic (an adjective applied to porphyritic rocks with ratio of groundmass to phenocrysts greater than 5 to 3 and less than 7 to 1)
DOPPIO CRATERE : twin crater
DOPPLERITE : dopplerite (brownish of blackish jelly substance formed by humic colloids)
DORSO DI BALENA : whale back (longitudinal sand ridges 1-3 km long and about 50 m high continuing for distances of the order of 300 km, making up the base for one or more chains of longitudinal dunes)
DORSO DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : back of a nappe
DOSE ASSORBITA : absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation absorbed by tissue of a living organism)
DOSEMICO : dosemic (an adjective applied to porphyritic rocks with ratio of groundmass to phenocrysts greater than 1 to 7 and less than 3 to 5)
DRAINAGE RATIO : drainage ratio (ratio between the river flow in a given area at a given period and the precipitation in the same area and in the same period)
DRAPPEGGIO DI LAVA : drapery of lava
DRENAGGIO : catchment, drainage
DRENAGGIO DENDRITICO : dendritic drainage pattern (of a river)
DRENAGGIO EFFIMERO : ephemeral drainage
DRENAGGIO ENDOREICO : internal drainage
DRENAGGIO EPISODICO : episodical drainage
DRENAGGIO ESOREICO : external drainage
DRENAGGIO INTERMITTENTE : intermittent drainage
DRENAGGIO ORTOGONALE : rectangular drainage pattern
DRENAGGIO PERENNE : perennial drainage
DRENAGGIO PERIODICO : periodical drainage
DRENAGGIO SOTTERRANEO : subterranean drainage
DRENAGGIO STAGIONALE : seasonal drainage
DRUMLINS : drumlins (sing. drumlin; elongated flat mounds made up of moraine material and built under glacier ice not far from its margin)
DRUMLINS DI ROCCIA : rock drumlins (having a bedrock core covered by a thin layer of moraine)
DRUSA : druse, geode, miarolitic cavity, vug
DUE O PIÚ CONI VULCANICI ACCOPPIATI : coupled cones
DUNA : dune
DUNA A PARABOLA : parabolic dune (a parabola-shaped dune with points tapering to windward, often proceeding from destroyed transverse dunes)
DUNA ANTERIORE : foredune (first row of dunes close to the high tide limit)
DUNA CAUSATA DA UN OSTACOLO NATURALE : lee dune
DUNA CONFUSA : hummocky dune
DUNA CONTINENTALE : inland dune
DUNA COSTIERA : beach dune
DUNA DI ACCUMULO EOLICO : blowout dune
DUNA EMBRIONALE : embryonic dune
DUNA ESTERNA : exterior dune
DUNA FITOGENICA : phytogenic dune (a dune caused by the effect of vegetation in arresting sand)
DUNA INCIPIENTE : embryonic dune
DUNA INTERNA : interior dune
DUNA LITORANEA : littoral dune
DUNA LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal dune (a dune oriented in the direction of the prevailing wind)
DUNA MOBILE : wandering dune
DUNA PARABOLICA : parabolic dune (a parabola-shaped dune with points tapering to windward, often proceeding from destroyed transverse dunes)
DUNA PSAMMOGENICA : psammogenic dune (a dune caused by the capture of sand by an extant sandy surface)
DUNA RELITTA : hummocky dune
DUNA STABILIZZATA : fixed dune
DUNA SULL’ORLO DI UNA FALESIA : cliff dune
DUNA TRASVERSA : transverse dune (a dune perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind)
DUOMO : dome (periclinal structure in which the ratio between breadth and length of the structural closure is approximately 1 to 1)
DUOMO IN GROTTA : cave dome (a dome shaped cavity in a cave)
DUOMO INTRUSIVO : intrusive dome
DUOMO LAVICO : lava dome
DUOMO LAVICO CON APPENDICE LINGUIFORME : lava dome with tonguelike offshoot (highly viscous lava flowing on an inclined surface, which first builds a lava dome and later begins moving downward in a tongue-like offshoot)
DUOMO SABBIOSO : sand dome
DUOMO SALATO : salt dome
DURCHBRUCHSBERG, DURCHBRUCH(S)BERG : Durchbruchsberg, Durchbruch(s)berg (from the German; a hill separated by the surrounding mountains by the diversion of a tributary at some distance upstream of the previous confluence)
DURITE : durite (microlithotype of coal containing over 95% of fusinite plus exininite)
EBOLLIZIONE : ebullition (of a crater lake or the sea due to volcanic heat)
ECCESSO DI MASSA : exess of mass
ECCESSO DI UMIDITÀ DEL SUOLO : soil moisture surplus
ECCEZIONALE RICCHEZZA MINERARIA : bonanza (American English)
ECHINODERMI : echinoderms
ECOCRISTALLO : oikocryst (a large crystal including other smaller crystals)
ECOLOGIA : ecology
ECOSISTEMA : ecosystem
ECTINITE : ectinite (metamorphic rocks little modified from a chemical viewpoint in comparison with the mother rock)
EDIFICIO VULCANICO : volcanic edifice
EDREOCRATONE : hedreocraton (old fashioned term indicating the central stable area centrale stabile of a continental shield)
EFFETTI SISMICI : seismic effects (of volcanic activity)
EFFETTO CAPILLARE : capillary action
EFFETTO CORONA : skin effect (tendency of an alternating current to concentrate at the surface of a conductor)
EFFETTO DI FILTROPRESSIONE : filter pressing (a differentiation process whereby a residual liquid is squeezed from a partly crystallized magma, metal veins can thereby be segregated)
EFFETTO DILUIZIONE : dilution effect (process whereby the concentration of substances in solution in a river decreases with increasing flow)
EFFETTO INDIRETTO : indirect effect (of deformation of the geoid due to application of the corrections made necessary by gravitational anomalies)
EFFETTO POMPAGGIO : pumping effect (increase of solute concentration with increasing discharge)
EFFETTO RAFFREDDAMENTO : chilling effect (exercised by solidified lava on pyromagma)
EFFETTO SCATENANTE : trigger effect (the last force needed to start off an eruption, e.g., according to Perret, the gravitational force exercised in certain positions by the sun and moon)
EFFLORESCENZA : efflorescence
EFFORAZIONE : efforation (from French; erosion by water under pressure)
EFFUSIONE : effusion
EFFUSIONE FISSURALE : fissure effusion
EFFUSIONE LAVICA TABULARE : lava flow plateau
EFFUSIONE SUBTERMINALE : subterminal outflow
EFFUSIONE TERMINALE : summit effusion
EFFUSIONE TERMINALE : summit overflow
EGIRINA : aegirine (green sodium-iron pyroxene)
EGIRINA : aegirine (pirossene verde sodio-ferroso)
EGIRINA-AUGITE : aegirine-augite (minerali intermedi fra l’egirina e l’augite)
EIEZIONE : ejection (of solidified magma fragments)
ELEMENTI ATMOFILI : atmophile elements (comparatively concentrated in the atmosphere)
ELEMENTI BIOFILI : biophile elements
ELEMENTI CALCOFILI : calcophile elements (main elements of the troilite phase of meteorites and of the sulphide ore deposits of eruptive origin)
ELEMENTI DI ATTIVITÀ ERUTTIVA : elements of eruptive activity (e.g. eruptions, ash emissions, scoriae, etc.)
ELEMENTI ENDOGEOSFERICI : endogeospheric elements (typical of the interior of the Earth)
ELEMENTI ESOGEOSFERICI : exogeospheric elements (typical of the atmosphere and the lithosphere)
ELEMENTI LITOFILI : litophile elements (main elements of the stone meteorites, of igneous silicate rocks and the pegmatite residues of silicate magmas)
ELEMENTI SIDEROFILI : siderophile elements (elements of iron meteorites and probably of the Earth’s nucleus)
ELEMENTI TRACCIA : trace elements
ELEMENTI UBIQUITARI : ubiquitous elements
ELEMENTO METALLOGENICO : metallogenic element (a chemical element normally forming salts, such as sulphides, selenides, tellurides, arsenides, antimonides, sulphosalts, or occurring as a native element)
ELEMENTO OSPITANTE : host element (a common element replaced in a rock by a tracer one)
ELEMENTO OSPITE : guest element (trace element replacing a common element in a rock mineral)
ELEMENTO PETROGENICO : petrogenic element (chemical element occurring primarily as oxides, silicates, fluorides and clorides, i.e. elements of the silicate rocks)
ELEMENTO STRUTTURALE DI UNA ROCCIA : fabric element
ELEMENTO TALASSOFILO : thalassophile element (a chemical element mainly concentrated in sea water)
ELEMENTO TALASSOXENO : thalassoxene element (a chemical element mainly concentrated on continents)
ELETTRODI NON POLARIZZABILI : non polarizable electrodes
ELETTRODO : electrode
ELETTRODO A VASO POROSO : porous pot electrode
ELETTROLISI : electrolysis
ELEUTEROMORFICO : eleuteromorphic (an adjective applied to new minerals formed during metamorphism, having forms indipendent from the previously existing ones)
ELEVAZIONE DELLA SPIAGGIA SOMMERSA PARALLELA ALLA COSTA : full
ELEVAZIONE STRUTTURALE : structural elevation (elevationof a specified stratigraphic surface above or below the datum plane)
ELICITICO : helicitic (an adjective applied to a relict structure in metamorphic rocks due to the presence of strings of oriented inclusions, often forming curved or contorted lines)
ELICTITE : helictite (stalactite branching out in every direction)
ELIGMITE : heligmite (stalagmite branching out in every direction)
ELIMINAZIONE DI LETTI : omission of beds (as a consequence of a fault)
ELISSOIDE INTERNAZIONALE : international ellipsoid (adopted in 1924 by the International Geophysical Union as an adequate approximation of the geoid)
ELUTRIAZIONE : elutriation (countercurrent washing)
EMANAZIONE : emanation (of magmatic gaseous products)
EMBRIOLOGIA : embriology
EMERA : hemera (subdivision of a stratigraphical zone including the vertical or time range of a given fossil species)
EMERGERE : to appear
EMERSIONE DI UN FONDO MARINO : exundation (uncovering of an area of the sea floor)
EMERSIONE DI UNA COSTA : emergence of coast (due to eustatic or tectonic movements)
EMETTERE BOLLE : to bubble
EMIDIATREMA : hemidiatreme (magmatic column which stuck fast without reaching the surface and distorted the stratification of the country rock)
EMISSIONE : emission (of volcanic material)
EMISSIONE DI VAPORE ACQUEO : evaporation discharge (in the atmosphere from the soil and the vegetation)
EMISSIONE GASSOSA : emission of gas
EMISSIONE INFUOCATA : fire spitting
EMISSIONI DI PROTONI SOLARI : solar proton events
ENCLAVE : inclusion (older rock or nodules of minerals enclosed in a magmatic intrusive body)
ENDEMICO : endemic
ENDOBATHOLITHIC DEPOSIT : endobatholitic deposit (formed inside a batholith largely uncovered by erosion)
ENDOGENO : endogenic
ENDOMORFISMO : endomorphism (changes produced in an intrusive rock by assimilation of country rock fragments)
ENERGIA CINETICA ERUTTIVA : kinetic eruptive energy
ENERGIA DI RILIEVO : relief energy, relief intensity
ENERGIA ENDOGENA : endogenic energy
ENIGMATITE : aenigmatite (silicato complesso di sodio, ferro e titanio)
ENTRATA IN SOLUZIONE COLLOIDALE : peptization
EOCENE : Eocene
EÖTVÖS : eötvös (unit of measure of the gravity gradient = 10-1 milligal per km)
EPACME : epacme (time span of development of a given systematic group)
EPICENTRO : epicenter (American English), epicentre
EPIFAUNA : epifauna (fauna living in the frontier benthic hydrodinamic layer)
EPIGENESI : superimposition
EPIGENETICO : epigenetic (an adjective applied to an element chronologically later than the including rock)
EPILIMNIO : epilimnion (surficial zone of a lake from the surface to the depth of wave mixing)
EPIMAGMA : epimagma (gas poor magma, semisolid magmatic residue of pasty consistency, due gas depletion and cooling)
EPIROGENESI : epirogenesis
EPIZONA : epizone (higher zone of metamorphism)
EPOCA : epoch
EPOCA METALLOGENETICA : metallogenetic epoch
EPSONITE : epsonite (vertically striated columns, pyramids or cones, occurring in limestones and dolomites on bedding planes, normally covered with a film of solution residue)
EQUIDIMENSIONALE : equant (crystal form)
EQUIDISTANZA DELLE CURVE DI LIVELLO : contour interval
EQUIDISTANZA DELLE ISOIPSE : contour interval
EQUIGRANULARE : equiform, equigranular (crystal form)
EQUILIBRIO DINAMICO : dynamic equilibrium
EQUILIBRIO GEOCHIMICO : geochimical balance (equilibrium between elements liberated by rock weathering and transported to the oceans, between sea water and sea bottom sediments)
EQUILIBRIO IN CONTINUO AGGIUSTAMENTO : dynamic equilibrium
EQUILIBRIO ISOSTATICO : isostatic equilibrium
EQUIVALENTE : homotaxial (an adjective applied to sedimentary formations geographically separated but having the same relative position in the geological series)
ERA : era
ERA CENOZOICA : Caenozoic, Tertiary, Tertiary era
ERA MESOZOICA : Mesozoic, Secondary, Secondary era
ERA NEOZOICA : Neozoic, Neozoic era, Quaternary
ERA PALEOZOICA : Palaeozoic, Primary, Primary era
ERA PRIMARIA : Palaeozoic, Primary, Primary era
ERA QUATERNARIA : Neozoic, Neozoic era, Quaternary
ERA SECONDARIA : Mesozoic, Secondary, Secondary era
ERA TERZIARIA : Caenozoic, Tertiary, Tertiary era
ERBE : grasslands
EREDITARIETÀ : heredity
EREDITARIO : hereditary
ERMATOPELAGO : reef cluster (group of contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous coral reefs)
EROSIONE : erosion (in the USA, any kind of degradation and denudation by any agent; in Europe, demolition of solid rock by rivers, glaciers, the wind or the sea)
EROSIONE A CALANCHI : gully erosion
EROSIONE A MARMITTA DEI GIGANTI : pothole excavation
EROSIONE COSTIERA : retreat of the coast
EROSIONE D’ACQUA CHIARA : clear water erosion (erosion caused by the increased erosional power of a river, e.g. downstream of a reservoir)
EROSIONE D’ACQUA LIMPIDA : clear water erosion (erosion caused by the increased erosional power of a river, e.g. downstream of a reservoir)
EROSIONE DEL SUOLO : soil erosion
EROSIONE DELLA SPIAGGIA : retreat of the beach
EROSIONE DI FONDOVALLE : removal of the valley fill
EROSIONE DIFFERENZIALE : differential erosion
EROSIONE EOLICA : wind erosion
EROSIONE FLUVIALE : stream erosion
EROSIONE GLACIALE : glacial erosion – STADIO INIZIALE DI EROSIONE GLACIALE (young stage of glacial erosion, with preglacial forms only locally affected by glacial erosion) – STADIO MATURO DI EROSIONE GLACIALE (mature stage of glacial erosion, with preglacial forms replaced by decidedly glacial forms) – STADIO AVANZATO DI EROSIONE GLACIALE (old stage of glacial erosion, with a definitely flattened relief)
EROSIONE LATERALE : lateral erosion
EROSIONE MARINA : marine erosion
EROSIONE PER SCORRIMENTO IDRICO LAMINARE : sheet erosion
EROSIONE PER SCORRIMENTO IDRICO LINEARE : rill wash
EROSIONE REGRESSIVA : headward erosion, headward migrating erosion (reactivated by a base level fall)
EROSIONE VERTICALE : vertical erosion
ERUZIONE : eruption
ERUZIONE ABORTIVA : embryonic eruption (in which the energy is too weak to take the volcanico beyond the phase of tremors)
ERUZIONE AREALE : areal eruption
ERUZIONE CENTRALE : central eruption
ERUZIONE DETRITICA : debris eruption
ERUZIONE DI FANGO : mud eruption
ERUZIONE ECCENTRICA : eccentric eruption
ERUZIONE EMBRIONALE : embryonic eruption (in which the energy is too weak to take the volcanico beyond the phase of tremors)
ERUZIONE ESPLOSIVA : explosive eruption
ERUZIONE ESTERNA : external eruption
ERUZIONE FREATICA : phreatic eruption
ERUZIONE FREATOMAGMATICA : phreatomagmatic eruption
ERUZIONE INDIRETTA : indirect eruption (explosive activity of residual gas included in the obsidian contained in the crater after the end of the main volcanic event)
ERUZIONE LATERALE : flank eruption
ERUZIONE LAVICA : lava eruption
ERUZIONE LINEARE : fissure eruption
ERUZIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic eruption
ERUZIONE SECONDARIA DI VAPORE : secondary steam eruption (from the contact of water with hot glowing cloud or lahar material)
ERUZIONE SOTTOMARINA : submarine eruption
ERUZIONE SUBACQUATICA : subaquatic eruption
ERUZIONE SUBAEREA : subaerial eruption
ERUZIONE SUBGLACIALE : subglacial erosion
ERUZIONE TERMINALE : summit eruption
ERUZIONE TERRESTRE : supramarine eruption
ERUZIONE VULCANICA MISTA : mixed volcanic eruption (with an explosive phase followed by an effusive phase)
ERUZIONI AVVENUTE IN TEMPI PREISTORICI : subrecent eruptions
ERUZIONI INTERMITTENTI : intermittent eruptions
ERUZIONI SUBRECENTI : subrecent eruptions
ESAEDRITE : hexahedrite (an iron meteorite with cubic cleavage)
ESALAZIONE GASSOSA : exhalation
ESARAZIONE GLACIALE : plucking
ESCAVARE : to cut, to excavate
ESCAVAZIONE : burrow, excavation, scour (erosion leading to the formation of holes on a plain surface)
ESCAVAZIONE ALLA BASE DI UNA FALESIA : undercutting
ESCAVAZIONE ALLUVIONALE : scouring
ESCAVAZIONE CIRCOLARE DI ORIGINE GLACIALE : kettle hole (from the melting of a pingo or underground dead ice)
ESCAVAZIONE DI CIRCO GLACIALE : cirque cutting
ESCAVAZIONE FLUVIALE : scouring
ESCAVAZIONE GLACIALE : scouring
ESCURSIONE DI MAREA : tidal range
ESEMPLARE DEVIANTE DALL’ESEMPLARE TIPO DELLA SPECIE : variety
ESEMPLARE NANO : dwarfish specimen
ESEMPLARE ORIGINARIO : holotype (specimen used as an anchor for the name and scientific description of a species)
ESFOLIAZIONE : exfoliation
ESINA : exine (inner cuticle protecting pollen granules and spores)
ESINITE : exinite (a maceral derived from micro or macrospore or cuticles)
ESKER : esker (a long often winding ridge of gravelly and sandy drift, in regions of former glaciation, deposited by subglacial streams)
ESOGENO : exogenico
ESOMORFISMO : exomorphism (changes caused in the country rock by magma intrusion)
ESONDAZIONE : exundation (uncovering of an area of the sea bottom), flood (in a river)
ESPANSIONE IN STRATI ROCCIOSI : expansion
ESPANSIONE SPONTANEA DI UNA ROCCIA : bump
ESPLOSIONE : detonation (caused by a volcanic event), explosion
ESPLOSIONE AL CENTRO DELLA LINEA DI SISMOGRAFI : straddle shot
ESPLOSIONE AL CENTRO DI UN VENTAGLIO : fan shooting (procedure of seismic analysis in which seismometers are located fan-wise around the shotpoint)
ESPLOSIONE D’ARIA: air shooting (for seismic prospection)
ESPLOSIONE DI TORBIERA RIALZATA : bog burst (destruction of the inclined surface of a raised bog after a period of intense rainfall)
ESPLOSIONE IN DIREZIONE OBLIQUA : dip shooting (seismic survey procedure to determine the dip of an interface between different parts of the Earth’s crust)
ESPLOSIONE INCLINATA : inclined explosion (in seismic survey)
ESPLOSIONE OBLIQUA : inclined explosion (in seismic survey)
ESPLOSIONE VULCANICA : discharge, volcanic explosion (in endogenous dynamics)
ESPLOSIONI INIZIALI : initial explosions (of a volcanic eruption)
ESPLOSIONI ULTRAVULCANICHE : ultravulcanian explosions (explosive activity of acid lava with emission of angular blocks, ash and lapilli)
ESPLOSIONI VULCANICHE IN SERIE CONTINUA : drum fire
ESPLOSIVITÀ : explosivity (in a volcanic eruption)
ESPOSIZIONE : aspect
ESPOSIZIONE DELLA COSTA A BASSA MAREA : uncovering
ESSUDAZIONE : exudation
ESTATE : summer
ESTAVELLA : estavelle (from French; opening in a limestone rock which can function alternatively as a source and a sink)
ESTENSIONE : extent (of a sedimentary unit)
ESTENSIONE AREALE : areal extent
ESTENSIONE LATERALE : lateral extent (of a fault, of a sedimentary unit, etc.)
ESTENSIONE ORIZZONTALE : horizontal extent (of a sedimentary unit)
ESTENSIONE TELESCOPICA DI PERFORATRICE : air leg
ESTENSIONE VERTICALE : vertical extent (of a fault)
ESTERNAMENTE ALLA STRUTTURA : off structure
ESTINGUERSI : to become extinct
ESTINZIONE : extinction (of species and other systematic groups)
ESTINZIONE DI UN LAGO : lake extinction
ESTRAPOLAZIONE DI UNA GRANDEZZA IN PROFONDITÀ IN BASE AI VALORI SUPERFICIALI : downward continuation
ESTREMITÀ : end, termination (e.g. of a fault)
ESTREMITÀ DI UNA FAGLIA : fault termination
ESTRUSIONE : extrusion (an eruption of viscous lava viscosa forming a cupola or a spine)
ESTUARIO : estuary
ESUMARE : to excavate
ESUMAZIONE : excavation, exhumation (e.g. of an ancient landscape)
ETÀ : age, stage (American English)
ETÀ GEOLOGICA ASSOLUTA : absolute age
ETÀ GLACIALE : ice age
ETEROBLASTICO : heteroblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of metamorphic crystalloblastic rocks in which the essential constituents are of two or more distinct orders of magnitude)
ETEROCRONIA : heterochrony (deviation from the typical sequence of development in the formation of organs or parts; chronological decoupling of the three basic features of organism growth: size, shape and time; non simultaneity, synonym of heterochronism)
ETEROCRONISMO : heterochronism (deviation from the typical sequence of development in the formation of organs or parts; chronological decoupling of the three basic features of organism growth: size, shape and time; non simultaneity, synonym of heterochrony)
ETEROCRONO : heterochronous
ETERODINAMICO : heterodynamic (having an heterogenous dynamism)
ETEROMESICO : heteromesical (an adjective related to deposits formed in different media and not necessarily synchronous)
ETEROMORFISMO : heteromorphism (consolidation of rocks of different mineral composition from magmas with similar chemical composition under different conditions of crystallization)
ETEROPICO : heteropical (an adjective applied to synchronous sedimentary deposits having different facies)
ETEROSPORIA : heterospory (production of spores of different sizes by the same plant specimen)
ETEROTASSICO : heterotaxial (an adjective applied to sedimentary formations geographically separated and having the different relative positions in the geological series)
ETEROTOPICO : heterotopical (an adjective applied to synchronous sedimentary deposits belonging to different geological provinces)
ETMOLITE : ethmolith
EUCARIOTA : eukaryote (with cells having differenziated nucleus and therefore DNA, or desoxyribonucleic acid, organized in chromosomes inside the nucleus)
EUCRISTALLINO : eucrystalline (a textural term referring to a well crystallized rock whose grains are visible by the naked eye, opposite to dyscrystalline)
EUEDRO : (a constituent of a crystalline rock bounded by its own faces)
EUTAXITE : eutaxite (aggregate of two chemically differentiated magmas)
EUTERI : eutheria
EUTIPO : heautype (specimen identified by the original author as belonging to the species he described, and designated as a basis for a supplementary description)
EUTROFICO : eutrophic (rich in supply of nutrient matter)
EUTROFIZZAZIONE : eutrophication
EVAPORATIVITÀ : evaporativity (from a water body at the same temperature as the atmosphere)
EVAPORAZIONE : drying up,evaporation (from a river, a lake, a marsh, an internal sea, etc.)
EVAPORAZIONE DAL SUOLO : soil evaporation
EVAPORITE : evaporite
EVAPOTRASPIRAZIONE : evapotranspiration
EVAPOTRASPIRAZIONE EFFETTIVA : actual evapotranspiration (AET)
EVAPOTRASPIRAZIONE POTENZIALE (ETP) : potential evapotranspiration (PET)
EVENTI PREMONITORI : premonitory events (e.g. of a volcanic eruption, such as tremors, swells and rising temperature)
EVENTI PROTONICI SOLARI : solar proton events
EVENTO ENDOGENO : endogenous event
EVENTO VULCANICO FISSURALE : fissure vent
EVOLUZIONE : evolution
EVOLUZIONE BIOLOGICA : descent (of species)
EVOLUZIONE PARALLELA : parallel evolution
EVOLUZIONISMO : descent (of species), theory of evolution
EXSURGENZA : exsurgence (from the French: debouchure of water descended from dispersed absorptions)
FACCIA DI DIACLASI : joint plane
FACCIA DI GIACITURA : natural bed (of a building stone, in the quarry from which it was extracted, corresponding to a bedding plane, a foliation plane, or joint plane)
FACCIA SUPERIORE : top side (of a stratigraphic unit)
FACCIA SUPERIORE APPARENTE : apparent top (of a stratigraphic unit)
FACCIA SUPERIORE REALE : true top (of a stratigraphic unit, point in a borehole where a bed is struck in a normal position)
FACIES : facies (a set of lithological and palaeontological characters of sedimentary deposit at a given point, see also biofacies, icnofacies, litofacies, facies metamorfiche, facies minerarie, facies di passaggio, facies di transizione, facies fossilifere, facies tettonica, facies vulcaniche)
FACIES DI PASSAGGIO : passage facies
FACIES DI TRANSIZIONE : passage facies
FACIES FOSSILIFERE : taphofacies
FACIES METAMORFICHE : metamorphic facies
FACIES MINERARIE : MINERAL FACIES : facies minerarie
FACIES TETTONICA : tectofacies (tectonic aspect of a stratigraphic unit)
FACIES VULCANICHE : volcanic facies
FACOLITE : phacolith (lens-shaped tectonically passive magmatic injection with a curved base)
FAGLIA : fault
FAGLIA A CERNIERA : hinge fault (rotatory fault with unilateral rotation)
FAGLIA A SCORRIMENTO CURVILINEO : curvilineal fault
FAGLIA A SCORRIMENTO RETTILIENO : translational fault
FAGLIA AD ANELLO : ring fault
FAGLIA ANORMALE : reverse fault
FAGLIA APERTA : open fault (in which the two faces do not touch each other)
FAGLIA ARCUATA : curved fault
FAGLIA ATTIVA : active fault
FAGLIA BEN DEFINITA : well defined fault
FAGLIA CHIUSA : collapsed fault, closed fault (in which the two faces are in contact)
FAGLIA COLLASSATA : collapsed fault (in which the two faces are in contact)
FAGLIA COMPLESSA : compound fault
FAGLIA COMPRESSA : closed fault (in which the two faces are in contact)
FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA : compression fault
FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA A BASSO ANGOLO E FORTE SCORRIMENTO ORIZZONTALE : overthrust
FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA SECONDARIA : block overthrust
FAGLIA CONTRODIREZIONALE : fault hading against the dip (dipping in opposite direction to the strata)
FAGLIA DEBOLMENTE INCLINATA : low dipping fault (< 45°)
FAGLIA DI SOLLEVAMENTO : upthrow fault
FAGLIA DI SPROFONDAMENTO : downthrow fault
FAGLIA DI TRASCINAMENTO : drag fault (caused by the stationary block by compressive force)
FAGLIA DIAGONALE : oblique fault, oblique slip fault (in relation to the strike)
FAGLIA DIRETTA : normal fault
FAGLIA DIREZIONALE : strike fault (dipping in the same direction as the strata)
FAGLIA DISTENSIVA : tension fault
FAGLIA DISTRIBUTIVA : distributive fault
FAGLIA ESUMATA : resurrected peneplain
FAGLIA FORTEMENTE INCLINATA : steep dipping fault (> 45°)
FAGLIA IN CUI LO SCIVOLAMENTO NETTO È PARALELLO ALLA TRACCIA DEL PIANO DI FAGLIA : trace slip fault
FAGLIA INATTIVA : dead fault
FAGLIA INVERSA : reverse fault
FAGLIA LIMITE : boundary fault
FAGLIA LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal fault (in relation to the strike)
FAGLIA MARGINALE : boundary fault
FAGLIA NASCOSTA : concealed fault
FAGLIA NORMALE : dip slip fault, normal fault
FAGLIA OBLIQUA : oblique fault (in relation to the strike)
FAGLIA ORIENTATA NELLA DIREZIONE DI DEFORMAZIONE DELLE ROCCE : lateral shearing fault (sometimes observed after earthquakes)
FAGLIA ORIZZONTALE : horizontal flexure
FAGLIA PARALLELA ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE : bedding fault
FAGLIA PERIFERICA : peripheral fault
FAGLIA PERPENDICOLARE : cross fault (relative to the strike)
FAGLIA PRINCIPALE : main fault
FAGLIA PROFONDA : profound fault
FAGLIA PROMINENTE : conspicuous fault
FAGLIA RAMIFICATA : branching fault
FAGLIA RIATTIVATA : revived fault
FAGLIA RICURVA : curved fault
FAGLIA RINGIOVANITA : rejuvenated fault scarp
FAGLIA ROTATORIA : rotary fault
FAGLIA SECONDARIA : minot fault
FAGLIA SECONDARIA DIVERGENTE AD ANGOLO ACUTO DALLA FAGLIA PRINCIPALE : splay faulting
FAGLIA SINGOLA : single fault
FAGLIA SUPERFICIALE : shallow fault
FAGLIA SUSSIDIARIA : auxiliary fault
FAGLIA TRASCORRENTE : tear fault
FAGLIA TRASFORME : strike slip fault
FAGLIA TRASVERSALE : transverse fault (relative to the strike), wrench fault
FAGLIA VERTICALE : vertical fault
FAGLIE A GRADINATE : step faults
FAGLIE A GRADINATE CON GRADINI COMPENSATI : step faults with throw adjustment (the faults being inclined forward and backward so that the different throws compensate each other)
FAGLIE A GRADINATE CONTRODIREZIONALI : step faults hading against the dip (dipping in opposite direction to that of the strata)
FAGLIE A GRADINATE DIREZIONALI : step faults hading with the dip (dipping in the same direction as the strata)
FAGLIE A RAGGERA : radial faults
FAGLIE A SCALINATE : step faults
FAGLIE ANTITETICHE : antithetic faults (having an orientation contrary to that of the main fault)
FAGLIE DI DISTENSIONE : tension faults
FAGLIE IN SCALA : echelon faults
FAGLIE INTERSECANTISI : intersecting faults
FAGLIE PICCOLE DIVERGENTI ALL’ESTREMITÀ DI FAGLIE NORMALI MAGGIORI : splays
FAGLIE SINTETICHE : synthetic faults (subsidiary faults having the same orientation as the main fault)
FAHLBAND : fahlband (from the Swedish, metamorphic rocks heavily impregnated with sulphur minerals)
FALDA DETRITICA : scree
FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : nappe, overthrust nappe
FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO ALLOCTONA : rootless nappe (nappe which has lost contact with its roots)
FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO DA TETTONICA GRAVITATIVA : downsliding nappe (a nappe formed by gravitational tectonics)
FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO DAL FRONTE INCLINATO VERSO IL BASSO : dipping fold nappe
FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO IL CUI FRONTE SI IMMERGE NEL BASAMENTO : plunging nappe
FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO PRIMARIA : primary nappe
FALDA FREATICA APPARENTE : apparent water table (small water table above the main one)
FALDA SOSPESA : perched aquifer (a water table held by an impermeable bed above the main water table)
FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO CON RADICI ESTERNE : nappes with external roots (nappes rooted in the forward part of the root zone)
FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO CON RADICI INTERNE : nappes with internal roots (nappes rooted in the backward part of the root zone)
FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO SOVRAPPOSTE : overlapping nappes
FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO SUBORDINATE : subordinate nappes
FALESIA ABBANDONATA : abandoned cliff
FALESIA AFFOGATA : plunging cliff
FALESIA DI SUBSIDENZA : plunging cliff
FALESIA DUNARE : dune cliff
FALESIA IMMERGENTESI DIRETTAMENTE IN ACQUA PROFONDA : plunging cliff
FALESIA LA CUI BASE È AL DI SOTTO DEL LIVELLO DEL MARE : plunging cliff
FALESIA LITORANEA : cliff, sea cliff
FALESIA MORTA : abandoned cliff, old cliff
FALESIA SECONDARIA : undercliff (a secondary cliff formed in a landslide or cliff-fall deposit of a major cliff)
FALESIA SOSPESA : elevated shore cliff
FALESIE ALLINEATE : line of cliffs
FALLA : breach inlet
FALSA FESSURAZIONE : strainslip cleavage (very fine plications seen on the cleavage surfaces of slates, due to a differential movement along each of a nearly parallel series of closely packed shear planes)
FALSA SCISTOSITÀ : false cleavage (extremely fine rumples on schistosity surfaces due to differential movement on a very thick set of nearly parallel sliding planes)
FALSI SERACCHI : false séracs (from French; ridges on a glacier probably caused by the flowing of the ice)
FALSO CAPPUCCIO DI DUOMO SALINO : false cap of a salt dome
FALSO SPESSORE VERTICALE : false vertical thickness (thickness of a stratigraphic unit measured along the vertical from the true top downward)
FAMIGLIA : family (systematic group below the suborder)
FANERITE : phanerite (a holocrystalline rock in which the crystals of the essential minerals can be distinguished by the naked eye)
FANERITE FINE : fine phanerite (a holocrystalline rock in which the crystals of the essential minerals can be distinguished by the naked eye, with diameters of most crystals less than 1 mm)
FANERITE GROSSOLANA : coarse phanerite (a holocrystalline rock in which the crystals of the essential minerals can be distinguished by the naked eye between 5 mm and 3 cm)
FANERITE MEDIA : medium phanerite (a holocrystalline rock in which the crystals of the essential minerals can be distinguished by the naked eye, with diameters of most crystals between 1 mm and 5 mm)
FANERITE MOLTO GROSSOLANA : very coarse phanerite (a holocrystalline rock in which the crystals of the essential minerals can be distinguished by the naked eye over 3 cm)
FANEROCRISTALLINO : phanerocrystalline (an adjective applied to the texture of a fanerite)
FANEROGAME : phanerogams
FANEROGENICO : phanerogenic (an adjective applied to a systematic group which is proved to descend from a known species found in a preceeding formation)
FANGHIGLIA ACIDA : acid sludge (reaction product by the treatment with sulphuric acid of heavy fractions in a refinery)
FANGO : mud (mixture of silt or clay with water)
FANGO A RADIOLARI : radiolarian ooze
FANGO ABISSALE : ooze (soft deep sea mud mainly formed by remains of animal skeletons)
FANGO ABISSALE A DIATOMEE : diatom ooze
FANGO ABISSALE A GLOBIGERINE : globigerina ooze
FANGO ABISSALE A PTEROPODI : pteropod ooze
FANGO BLU : blue mud (organic oceanic mud rich in iron sulfides)
FANGO CALCAREO : calcareous mud
FANGO CORALLINO : coral mud
FANGO GLACIALE : boulder mud
FANGO GLAUCONITICO OCEANICO : green mud
FANGO ROSSO ABISSALE : red clay (abyssal deposit mainly made up of ferruginous products from alteration of volcanic debris)
FANGO SOLFOROSO : sulphur mud
FANGO VULCANICO : volcanic mud
FANGOSO : muddy
FARAGLIONE : stack
FARAGLIONE A FUNGO : mushroom rock
FASCE AGRICOLE : field terraces
FASCIA DI MEANDRI : meander belt (in a river)
FASCIA INTERMEDIA DEL SUOLO : intermediate belt (between the evapotranspiration zone and the capillary fringe)
FASCIA OROGENETICA : orogenetic belt
FASCIO DI FAGLIE : fault bundle
FASCIO DI PIEGHE : fold bundle
FASCIO DI PIEGHE AMIGDALOIDE : amygdaloidal fold bundle
FASCIO DI PIEGHE ARCUATO : arcuate fold bundle
FASCIO DI PIEGHE RETTILINEO : rectilinear fold bundle
FASCIO DI PIEGHE SINUOSE : sinuous fold bundle
FASE ADDITIVA DI UN LAHAR : additive phase of a lahar
FASE DI CROLLO : crumbling phase
FASE DI INCUBAZIONE OROGENETICA : eoorogenic phase
FASE DI PIÚ INTENSA ATTIVITÀ : main phase (in a volcanic eruption)
FASE DI RIPOSO : repose period (of a volcano)
FASE DI RITIRO DI UN GHIACCIAIO : recessional stage
FASE DIASTROFICA : holoorogenic phase
FASE EROSIVA DI UN LAHAR : erosional phase of a lahar
FASE ERUTTIVA : eruptive phase (of a volcano)
FASE ESPLOSIVA : explosive phase (of a volcano)
FASE GASSOSA : gas phase (in a volcanic eruption)
FASE MAGMATICA : magmatic phase (in a volcanic eruption)
FASE MAGMATICA INIZIALE : initial magmatic phase (in a volcanic eruption)
FASE MAGMATICA POSTOROGENETICA : postorogenic magmatic phase
FASE MAGMATICA SINOROGENE : synorogenic magmatic phase
FASE MAGMATICA TARDOROGENETICA : late orogenic magmatic phase
FASE MORFOOROGENETICA : morphoorogenetic phase
FASE OROGENETICA : orogenetic phase
FASE OROGENETICA DI STABILIZZAZIONE : late orogenic phase
FASE PREPARATORIA : preparatory phase (of a volcanic eruption, during which premonitory events take place, such as tremors, swells and temperature increases)
FASE PRINCIPALE : main phase (in a volcanic eruption)
FASE SISMICA PRINCIPALE : long wave phase (of an earthquake)
FASE TARDOOROGENETICA : late orogenic phase
FASE TETTOGENETICA : holoorogenic phase
FASE VULCANICA DI SOLLEVAMENTO : upheaval phase (phase of a volcanic event during which the plug is uplifted by gas pressure)
FASI SISMICHE : seismic phases
FASI VULCANICHE : volcanic phases – 1) FASE INTRUSIVA (intrusive phase, injection of magma in the litosphere) – 1a) FASE ABISSALE (abyssal phase of injection in depth) – 1b) FASE IPOABISSALE (hypabyssal phase of injection close to the surface) – 2) FASE ERUTTIVA (extrusive phase, eruption, extrusion of magma at the surface)
FATTORE DI AMPLIAMENTO DINAMICO : dynamic magnification (of the pulsation of the recording device of the seismograph linked to the vibration periods of the ground and the pendulum and to damping)
FELSICO : felsic (a mnemonic term derived from feldspar and silica, which are actually present in an igneous rock; the term is also applied to rocks made up mainly of this group of minerals)
FELSITICO : felsitic (an adjective applied to the cryptocrystalline texture of the felsites)
FELSOFIRICO : felsophyric (an adjective applied to porphyritic rocks with a felsitic or cryptocrystalline matrix, introduced by Vogelsang)
FELTROSO : felty (an adjective applied to a philotaxitic texture in which the feldspar microlites of the groundmass have no general orientation)
FEMICO : femic (mnemonic term derived from iron and magnesium to remember one of the two groups of standard minerals, used in the classification system by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington)
FENOCRISTALLO : inset, phenocryst (the larger and more apparent crystals in porphyritis rocks)
FENOMENI CARSICI : karst phenomena
FENOMENI EFFUSIVI : effusive phenomena
FENOMENI PARAVULCANICI : paravolcanic phenomena
FENOMENI POSTVULCANICI : postvolcanic phenomena
FENOMENI PSEUDOVULCANICI : pseudovolcanic phenomena
FENOMENI VULCANICI : volcanic phenomena
FENOMENI VULCANICI ESPLOSIVI : explosive phenomena
FENOMENO DI DEGASSAZIONE : degassing phenomenon
FENOMENO DI RISONANZA SU SISMOGRAMMI MARINI : singing
FENOTIPO : phenotype (a type determined by the visible characters common to a systematic group)
FERRIMAGNETISMO : ferrimagnetism (antiferromagnetism of materials with two types magnetic ions, one of which predominates so that there is some similarity with ferromagnetism)
FERRITE : ferrite
FERRO DI PALUDE : bog iron ore (a deposit of hydrated iron oxyde in marshes or bogs)
FERRO METEORICO : (a meteorite consisting almost wholly of nickeliferous iron)
FERROMAGNETISMO : ferromagnetism (strong paramagnetism)
FESSURA : diaclase, fissure, joint, joint fissure
FESSURA CONCENTRICA SUL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : concentric rift
FESSURA DA DISSECCAMENTO : sun crack
FESSURA DI CONTRAZIONE : fissure of retreat
FESSURA DI DISSECCAMENTO : dessication fissure
FESSURA DI RAFFREDDAMENTO : cooling fissure
FESSURA DI RICRISTALLIZZAZIONE : true cleavage
FESSURA DI TENSIONE : tension fissure
FESSURA FUMAROLICA : fissure fumarole
FESSURA FUMAROLICA AD ORLI RILEVATI : ridged fissure fumarole
FESSURA FUMAROLICA PRESSOCHÉ OTTURATA DA INCROSTAZIONI : tunnel fumarole
FESSURA MAGMATICA : abyssal fissure
FESSURA METALLIFERA PROFONDA : ore channel
FESSURA NEL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : flank fissure
FESSURA PROFONDA : profound fissure
FESSURA RADIALE NEL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : radial rift
FESSURA SUPERFICIALE : shallow fissure
FESSURA TENSIONALE : tension fissure
FESSURA TERMICA : heat crack (crack due to conspicuous changes in temperature causing a rock to fall apart into pieces)
FESSURA TRASVERSALE NEL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : transverse rift
FESSURA VERA : true cleavage
FESSURA VULCANICA BEANTE : gaping volcanic fissure
FESSURABILE : cleavable
FESSURABILITÀ : cleavability
FESSURATO : fissured
FESSURAZIONE : fissuring
FESSURAZIONE PER SCIVOLAMENTO : strainslip cleavage (very fine plications seen on the cleavage surfaces of slates, due to a differential movement along each of a nearly parallel series of closely packed shear planes)
FESSURAZIONE SCISTOSA : shaly cleavage
FESSURE DI FAGLIA : fault fissures (fissures formed by a fault)
FESSURE PARALLELE IN SERIE IN FORMAZIONI VULCANICHE : gjas (from Icelandic: fissure resulting from tectonic action, from which lava flows quietly without explosive activity)
FESTONI : festoons (pointed parts of a layer occurring in cryoturbate formations)
FIAMMA : burning volcanic gas, flame
FIAMMA GASSOSA VULCANICA : blowpipe flame (flame by a Bunsen effect, gas flame from volcanic conduits)
FIAMMATURE DA STIRAMENTO : flames (drag phenomena occurring in the lower limb in an autochtonous sedimentary cover, caused by overthrust folding)
FIAMME : fiamme (from Italian, ribbon-like bands of vitreous lava)
FIANCO : flank (of an anticline or a syncline)
FIANCO A PENDENZA FORTE : steep flank (of an anticline or a syncline)
FIANCO A PENDENZA LIEVE : gentle flank (gently dipping side of an anticline or a syncline)
FIANCO ANORMALE DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : inverted limb of overturned fold
FIANCO ANTICLINALE : anticlinal limb of overturned fold
FIANCO CAPOVOLTO DI PIEGA CORICATA : reversed limb of recumbent fold, inverted limb of overturned fold
FIANCO INFERIORE DI ANTICLINALE CORICATO CON FORTE STIRAMENTO ORIZZONTALE : lower limb of the overthrust fold
FIANCO INTERMEDIO DI FLESSURA : limb of flexure
FIANCO MEDIANO ANORMALE DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : inverted middle limb of overturned fold
FIANCO MEDIANO CAPOVOLTO DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : inverted middle limb of overturned fold
FIANCO MEDIANO DI ANTICLINALE CORICATO CON FORTE STIRAMENTO ORIZZONTALE : middle limb of the overthrust fold
FIANCO MEDIANO STIRATO DI PIEGA CORICATA : stretched out middle limb of recumbenrt fold
FIANCO NORMALE : normal limb of overturned fold
FIANCO NORMALE INFERIORE DI PIEGA CORICATA : trough limb of recumbent fold
FIANCO NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PIEGA CORICATA : normal limb of recumbent fold
FIANCO PIANO : straight flank (of an anticline or a syncline)
FIANCO RIBASSATO DI FLESSURA : foot of flexure
FIANCO SINCLINALE DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : synclinal limb of overturned fold
FIANCO SOLLEVATO DI FLESSURA : head of flexure
FIANCO SUPERIORE DI ANTICLINALE CORICATO CON FORTE STIRAMENTO ORIZZONTALE : upper limb of the overthrust fold
FIANCO SUPERIORE DI PIEGA CORICATA : normal limb of overturned fold
FIARD : fiard (from Danish, an irregular inlet formed by glacial scour)
FIBRA : fiber (crystal form)
FIBROBLASTICO : fibroblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of metamorphic rocks having fibrous minerals formed during recristallization)
FIBROPALAGONITE : fibropalagonite (fibrous and showing double refraction, final phase of the formation of palagonite)
FIGURAZIONI INCISE : etched figures
FIGURAZIONI SCOLPITE : etched figures
FIGURE DI WIDMANSTÅTTEN : Widmanstätten figures (peculiar crystalline pattern exhibited by etching polished surfaces of iron meteorites)
FILA DI ELETTRODI : line electrode (for investigation of terrestria electromagnetism)
FILAMENTI LAVICI : Pelé’s hair
FILIAZIONE DI SPECIE : filiation of species
FILLITE : phyllite (fine-grained schistose rock from metamorphism of shales and other similar sediments, and therefore closely akin to slates, but having a coarser grain size as a result of somewhat advanced metamorphism, giving incipient segregation banding and a lustrous sheen given off by schistosity surfaces on account of colourless mica and chlorite)
FILLONITIZZAZIONE : phyllonitization (formation of rock of phyllitic appearance by mylonitization of coarser-grained rocks accompanied by varying amounts of new crystallization)
FILO A PIOMBO : plumbline
FILO DI FUMO : plume of smoke, wreath of smoke (caused by a volcanic event)
FILOGENESI : phylogenesis, phylogeny
FILONE : lode vein
FILONE A BAIONETTA : step vein
FILONE A DEPOSIZIONE STRATIFICATA : cockade ore
FILONE BRECCIFORME : brecciated vein
FILONE COMPOSITO : sheeted vein deposit (ore deposit occupying a group of closely spaced and parallel fractures or fissures separated by narrow country rock plates)
FILONE CONCORDANTE : bed vein
FILONE CONCREZIONATO : crustified vein
FILONE DI CONTATTO : contact vein
FILONE DI SOSTITUZIONE : replacement vein (a vein in which the walls have been mineralized too)
FILONE LENTICOLARE : lenticular vein
FILONE METALLIFERO : ore sill, ore vein
FILONE MINERARIO : mineral vein
FILONE MINERARIO A SCALINATE : ladder vein
FILONE MINERARIO DI PICCOLE DIMENSIONI : stringer
FILONE TRASVERSALE : countervein
FILONI LENTICOLARI APPIATTITI E IRREGOLARI : streaks
FINALITÀ : teleology
FINESTRA : inlier (of older rock surrounded from all sides by more recent ones, or of more recent rock surrounded from all sides by older rocks)
FINESTRA CARSICA : karst window
FIORDO : fjord (from Norse, long and deep glacial valley invaded by the sea, drowned glacial valley)
FIORE DI GESSO : (American English) oulopholite
FIRN : firn, firn snow (granular snow being turned into ice and therefore made up partly of snow and partly of ice formed in the accumulation area of a glacier)
FIRNHARSCH : firnharsch (from German; thick ice crust on firn snow caused by repeated thawing and refreezing)
FIRNIFICATION : firnification (recrystallization of snow, transformation of snow into ice)
FIRNSCHLEIER : firnschleier (from German; thin ice crust above the firn formed by intensive thawing and refreezing)
FIRST ARRIVAL : first arrival (initial impulse of seismic energy)
FISSILE : fissile
FISSILITÀ : fissility
FISSISMO E MOBILISMO : fixism and mobilism (historical concepts linked to the development of evolutionism and palaeontology)
FIUME : river
FIUME ALLOGENO : allogenous river, allogenous stream (a river coming from a nivoglacial area and flowing through a dry region, e.g.: the Nile)
FIUME ANACLINALE : anaclinal stream (oriented in a direction opposite to that of the geological strata)
FIUME ANASTOMOSATO : braided stream
FIUME ANTECEDENTE : antecedent river (a river which has hold its course during an orogenic phase, incising its channel as fast as the land was rising)
FIUME CATACLINALE : cataclinal river (a river oriented according to the inclination of the geological strata)
FIUME CATTURATO : captured river
FIUME COMPETENTE : competent river (a river flowing in a valley cut in hydrological conditions similar to the present ones)
FIUME CONSEGUENTE : consequent river (a river which drains in the direction of the original slope of the land)
FIUME DEVIATO : deflected river, diverted river (due to capture or spontaneous deviation)
FIUME DI FANGO GLACIALE DA EVENTO VULCANICO : glacier burst, jökulhlaup
FIUME DI FANGO ROVENTE : hot lahar, hot mudflow (caused by a volcanic eruption)
FIUME DI FANGO VULCANICO : mudflow, lahar (from Icelandic; caused by a volcanic eruption)
FIUME DI PIETRE : stone river (chaos of stones concentrated in elongated masses moving downslope or along the axis of a valley)
FIUME EPIGENETICO : superimposed river (a river whose valley has originally developed on less resistant strata and, after the erosion of such strata, is now fixed on harder underlying rock without showing any adaptation to the surface and structure of this formation)
FIUME EREDITATO : superimposed river (a river whose valley has originally developed on less resistant strata and, after the erosion of such strata, is now fixed on harder underlying rock without showing any adaptation to the surface and structure of this formation)
FIUME INADATTO : misfit river (flowing in a valley cut by a far stronger river flow)
FIUME INCOMPETENTE : misfit river (flowing in a valley cut by a far stronger river flow)
FIUME INSEQUENTE : insequent river
FIUME INVERTITO : inverted stream
FIUME LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal river (parallel to a mountain chain)
FIUME NAVIGABILE : navigable river
FIUME OBSEQUENTE : obsequent river (draining in a direction opposite to the original slope of the territory)
FIUME PIRATA : diverter
FIUME RESEQUENTE : resequent river (river draining according to the original slope originario of the land not because it follows an original consequent valley but due to successive adjustments to structure at deeper levels)
FIUME RINGIOVANITO : revived river
FIUME RISALITO DALLE MAREE PER UNA CONSIDEREVOLE DISTANZA : tidal river
FIUME SOTTERRANEO: subterranean river
FIUME SOVRAIMPOSTO : superimposed river (a river whose valley has originally developed on less resistant strata and, after the erosion of such strata, is now fixed on harder underlying rock without showing any adaptation to the surface and structure of this formation)
FIUME SUSSEGUENTE : subsequent river (a river draining in a direction parallel to the strike)
FIUME TORRENZIALE : torrential river
FIUME TRASVERSALE : right angled stream (river crossing a mountain chain at an approximately right angle)
FLEBITE : phlebite (veined gneiss)
FLESSURA : flexure
FLESSURA ANTICLINALE ASSOTTIGLIATA : supratenuous fold (due to the presence of an underlying rigid mass)
FLESSURA CONTINENTALE : shelf edge
FLESSURA ORIZZONTALE : horizontal flexure
FLOCCULAZIONE : flocculation (electrolytic aggregation of colloid particles)
FLOE : floe (broad piece of sea ice from 10 m to many km in diameter)
FLOTTAZIONE : flotation (process of concentration of a mineral in a fluid medium)
FLUIDITÀ : fluidity
FLUIDIZZAZIONE : fluidization
FLUIDO MADRE : mother liquor (residual magmatic solution which forms metal veins)
FLUIRE VERSO L’ALTO ALL’INTERNO DI UN CORPO D’ACQUA : to well up (by a current moving upward towards the surface)
FLUSSO : discharge (in hydrology: water flowing at a station, amount of water passing at a certain point in a unit of time usually measured in m3/sec), flow
FLUSSO A LETTO PIENO : bankfull discharge (of a river)
FLUSSO ACQUEO SUPERFICIALE : overland land
FLUSSO DI BASE : base flow (flow from an aquifer without contribution from precipitation)
FLUSSO DI CENERI : ash flow
FLUSSO DI DETRITI LAVICI : lava debris flow
FLUSSO DI LAVA DA VECCHI CONDOTTI VULCANICI : rootless vent
FLUSSO DI TERRA : earthflow (movement of clay sediments saturated with water, swifter than solifluction but slower than a mudflow)
FLUSSO EFFICACE : effective discharge (of a river)
FLUSSO FLUVIALE : streamflow
FLUSSO FORZATO : pressure flow
FLUSSO GLACIALE : motion of the glacier tongue
FLUSSO GRAVITATIVO : gravitational flow
FLUSSO IDRICO SOTTERRANEO : groundwater flow, groundwater runoff
FLUSSO IDRICO SOTTERRANEO IN DIREZIONE DI UN CORSO D’ACQUA SUPERFICIALE : underflow
FLUSSO IDRICO SUPERFICIALE : runoff (part of the precipitation which reaches a stream, drain or sewer, surficial water flow)
FLUSSO LAMINARE : laminar flow
FLUSSO LAMINARE LENTO SU UNA SUPERFICIE LISCIA : laminar streamflow
FLUSSO LAVICO : lava flow
FLUSSO LAVICO CLASTOGENO : clastogenetic lava flow
FLUSSO LAVICO LATERALE : flank outflow
FLUSSO LIBERO : gravitational flow
FLUSSO MEDIO : mean annual discharge (of a river)
FLUSSO PRINCIPALE : main stream (of a river)
FLUSSO PRINCIPALE CENTRALE : trunk stream (of a river)
FLUSSO TURBOLENTO : turbulent flow, turbulent streamflow (in the atmosphere or in a river, at high velocity on an irregular surface, with vortices)
FLUSSO VERTICALE VERSO L’ALTO IN UN CORPO D’ACQUA : upwelling (by a sea current from deeper levels towards the surface)
FLUTTUAZIONE : fluctuation (slight non hereditary genetic variation), shift
FLUTTUAZIONI DEL LIVELLO LACUSTRE : lake level changes
FLUTTUAZIONI DIURNE : diurnal variations (daily variations of the magnetic field)
FLYSCH : flysch (orogeno-marine tectofacies made of marl-shaly sediments, possibly with boulders and igneous rocks)
FOCE : mouth (of a river)
FOCOLAIO MAGMATICO : magma chamber
FOCOLAIO MAGMATICO CENTRALE : central hearth
FOIBA : jama (from Slovenian)
FOIBA : shaft cave
FOLGORITE : fulgurite (vitrified crust, often tubular, produced by fusion of sand by lighting)
FOLIAZIONE : foliation (cristallization forming thin sheets mineralogically diversified)
FOLIAZIONE APERTA : open foliation (crystallization in metamorphic rocks forming a laminated structure with evident discontinuities of the dominant minerals)
FOLIAZIONE CHIUSA : closed foliation (crystallization in thin laminae mineralogically diversified without evident discontinuities of the dominant minerals)
FONDENTESI VERSO IL BASSO CON ……. : passing up into …….
FONDERSI CON ……. : to grade into …….
FONDERSI VERSO IL BASSO CON ……. : to grade downward into …….
FONDO : floor (e.g. of a valley, of a lake, of the sea), lower side (of bedding)
FONDO DEL CRATERE : crater bottom
FONDO DI CALDERA : caldera bottom
FONDO DI CIRCO GLACIALE : cirque floor
FONDO DI FOSSA OCEANICA : deep
FONDO DI LAGO : lake floor
FONDO LACUSTRE PIATTO : lake central plain (central flat part of the bottom in some lakes)
FONDO LAGUNARE : lagoon floor
FONDO MARINO DI EROSIONE ATTUALMENTE EMERSO : plain of marine erosion (formed during an extended period of marine abrasion on a subsiding coast which has later emerged)
FONDO MARINO NUDO : hard ground (parts of the sea bottom which do not receive sediments)
FONDO ROCCIOSO DI UN TERRAZZO : rock floor of a terrace
FONDO VALLIVO PIATTO RISULTANTE DA UN PROCESSO DI DEGRADAZIONE : strath
FONDOVALLE : valley floor
FONTANA D’ACQUA : water fountain, water spurt (due to an underwater volcanic event)
FONTANA DI FUOCO : fire fountain
FONTANA DI LAVA : lava fountain
FONTANILE : exsurgence spring, resurgent spring, rising
FONTE : source, spring, riverhead
FONTE DI RIFORNIMENTO IDRICO : water supply source
FONTE DIFFUSA DI GAS : gas seepage
FORESTA PIETRIFICATA : petrified forest
FORESTA SOMMERSA : submerged forest
FORMA A VALLI SOVRAPPOSTE : trough in trough form (caused by two or more glaciations in the same valley)
FORMA DI PASSAGGIO : passage form (in evolutionary theory)
FORMARE IN SCORIE : to scorify (an adjective applied to lava)
FORMARSI ALL’INTERNO DELLA CROSTA TERRESTRE : to irrupt
FORMAZIONE : formation, system (stratigraphic unit made up of several rather homogenous beds)
FORMAZIONE A BRINA : hoarfrost formation (limestone formation of needle-like crystals in a cave)
FORMAZIONE DI DETRITI : detrition
FORMAZIONE DI FAGLIE : faulting
FORMAZIONE DI FESSURE : fissuring
FORMAZIONE DI GRANI : granulation
FORMAZIONE DI SPACCATURE : fissuring
FORMAZIONE DI UN LAGO PER SBARRAMENTO DI UN CORSO D’ACQUA : ponding
FORMAZIONE DI UN PEDIMENTO : pedimentation
FORMAZIONE DI UN PENEPIANO : peneplanation
FORMAZIONE DI UNA BOCCA DI LAGUNA : breaching
FORMAZIONE DI UNA BRECCIA : brecciation
FORMAZIONE DI UNA PALUDE : swamping
FORMAZIONE IN GROTTA ORIGINATA DA SGOCCIOLMENTO D’ACQUA : dripstone
FORMAZIONE STALATTITICA : pendent formation
FORME A CODA DI BUE : crag and tail forms (bedrock ridges shaped by a glacier accompanied by tails of morainic material located downvalley with respect to the glacial flow, rocks polished and striated by ice)
FORME ATTIVE : live forms
FORME CONCLUSIVE : final forms (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
FORME DEL RILIEVO : relief forms – FORME DEL RILIEVO SEMISPIANATE (flattish forms) – FORME DEL RILIEVO MODERATO (intermediate forms) – FORME DI ALTA MONTAGNA (alpine forms) (terminology used by geomorphologists who do not accept the Davisian concept of a cyclical development of the landscape)
FORME DELLO STADIO DI TARDA MATURITÀ : subdued forms (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
FORME DI COLLASSO VULCANICO : volcanic collapse forms
FORME DI FUSIONE GLACIALE : melt forms
FORME DI PAESAGGIO MULTICICLICHE : multiple cyclic relief (developed during succeding erosion cycles)
FORME DOVUTE AL COLLASSO DI STRUTTURE VULCANICHE : volcanic collapse forms
FORME GIOVANILI : young forms (in the cycle of erosion according to Davis)
FORME MATURE : mature forms (in the cycle of erosion according to Davis)
FORME MORTE : dead forms
FORME NORMALI : final forms (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
FORME ORIGINARIE : original forms (forms not yet attacked by erosion, e.g. a lava tableland just after consolidation)
FORME PRIMARIE : original forms (forms not yet attacked by erosion, e.g. a lava tableland just after consolidation)
FORME PRIMITIVE : initial forms, original forms (of the uneroded surface which has just emerged from the sea in the erosion cycle according to Davis, forms not yet attacked by erosion, e.g. a lava tableland just after consolidation)
FORME RINGIOVANITE : revived forms
FORME SECONDARIE : secondary forms (forms resulting from differential erosion of rock formations having a complex structure)
FORME SENILI : old forms (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
FORME STRUTTURALI : structural forms
FORME TETTONICHE : tectonic forms
FORME VIVE : live forms
FORME VULCANICHE ESPLOSIVE : volcanic explosion forms
FORME VULCANICHE NEGATIVE : negative volcanic forms (hollows brought about by collapse due to dearth of volcanic material)
FORME VULCANICHE POSITIVE : positive volcanic forms
FORME VULCANOTETTONICHE : volcano-tectonic forms
FORMULA INTERNAZIONALE PER LA GRAVITÀ NORMALE : international formula for normal gravity
FORO DELLA CARICA : shothole (in seismic prospection)
FORTE INCLINAZIONE : steep dip
FORTE RIFLUSSO DI CONTRONDATA : rip current (strong surface current of short duration flowing seaward from the shore, being the return movement of water piled up on the shore by incoming waves)
FORTE SPESSORE : great thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
FORTEMENTE PIEGATO : intensely folded
FORZA : force
FORZA ASCENSIONALE : ascending force
FORZA COERCITIVA : coercivity
FORZA DI CRISTALLIZZAZIONE : force of crystallization
FORZA DI GRAVITÀ : force of gravity
FORZE VULCANICHE : volcanic forces
FOSFATIZZAZIONE : phosphatization
FOSSA : fossa (from Italian, geosinclinal depression around a continent)
FOSSA DI ESPLOSIONE : esplosion graben (volcanic)
FOSSA DI ESPLOSIONE CON PIEGAMENTO ANTICLINALE DELLA ROCCIA INCASSANTE : explosion graben with tilted rims
FOSSA MARGINALE : marginal deep (long trench-like depression marginal to a mountain system or island arc)
FOSSA TETTONICA : fault trough, Graben (from German) fault trough, rift valley
FOSSA TETTONICA DELIMITATA DA FLESSURE : flexure trough
FOSSA VULCANOTETTONICA : volcano-tectonic trough
FOSSATO : ditch, moat (small depression between the lava dome and the crater wall)
FOSSATO DI TORBIERA : bog moat, lagg (marshy border of a raised bog, where drainage water of the raised bog is mixed with water from the surrounding area)
FOSSILE : fossil
FOSSILE A LUNGA LONGEVITÀ : persistent fossil
FOSSILE AD AMPIA DISTRIBUZIONE VERTICALE : persistent fossil
FOSSILE DERIVATO : derived fossil
FOSSILE GUIDA : facies fossil (characteristic of a given facies), key fossil, zone fossil (characteristic of a given area or zone)
FOSSILE PERSISTENTE : persistent fossil
FOSSILE RIMANEGGIATO : derived fossil
FOSSILE VIVENTE : living fossil
FOSSILI VEGETALI : vegetable remains
FOSSILIFERO : fossiliferous
FOSSILIZZARE : to fossilize
FOSSILIZZAZIONE : fossilization
FOTOGEOLOGIA : photogeology (a study of geological structures based on photointerpretation)
FOTOGRAMMETRIA : aerial photogrammetry, photogrammetry (measurements or map making based on aerial photos)
FOTOMOSAICO : photomosaic
FRAMMENTAZIONE DI UN BLOCCO : disruption (of a block of strata due to fault formation)
FRAMMENTI ROCCIOSI : rock fragments
FRAMMENTO RESIDUO DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : outlier
FRAMMENTO ROCCIOSO : wedge
FRAMMENTO VEGETALE : stub (of a trunk or a branch, included in peat)
FRANA : landslide
FRANA DI DETRITI : debris fall
FRANA DI ROCCIA FRESCA : rock fall, rock slide
FRANA DI UNA FALESIA : cliff landslide
FRANA INTERCRATERICA : intercrateral downfall
FRANA LUNGO UNA SUPERFICIE LUBRIFICATA : debris slide
FRANA PER CEDIMENTO : slump
FRANGENTE : breaker (on the sea shore)
FRANGENTE CHE TENDE A PIEGARSI CON FRAGORE : plunging breaker
FRANGENTE CHE TENDE A ROMPERSI GRADUALMENTE : spilling breaker
FRANGIA CAPILLARE : capillary fringe (fraction of regolith in which capillary tension and adsorption forces operate and bring about the rise of the water, a part of the soil immediately above the capillary surface)
FRANTUMAZIONE PER INIEZIONE DI ARIA COMPRESSA : airdox (for breaking coal in a mine by injection of high pressure air)
FRATTURA : fracture, jointing
FRATTURA A MEZZALUNA : slip fault (formed on the side of a volcano by a slide)
FRATTURA CAUSATA DA TERREMOTO : earthquake rift
FRATTURA DA SCIVOLAMENTO : shear joint
FRATTURA NEL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : volcanic rent (caused by a gas or lavic paroxysm)
FRATTURA PARZIALE : crack
FRATTURA SENZA SCORRIMENTO : fracture without displacement
FRATTURA SISMICA : earthquake rift
FRATTURA VULCANOTETTONICA : volcano-tectonic fracture
FRATTURABILE : jointable
FRATTURARSI : to joint
FRATTURATO : fractured, jointed
FRATTURAZIONE : fracturing
FRATTURAZIONE A LAMELLE SOTTILI : sheet jointing
FRATTURAZIONE CAUSATA DA FORZE TENSIONALI O DALLA GRAVITÀ : tension joint
FRATTURAZIONE CILINDRICA : cylindrical jointing (in andesitic rock)
FRATTURAZIONE COLONNARE : columnar jointing
FRATTURAZIONE CONCENTRICA : concentric jointing
FRATTURAZIONE CUBOIDALE : mural jointing
FRATTURAZIONE LAMELLARE : slab jointing
FRATTURAZIONE RETTANGOLARE : mural jointing
FRATTURAZIONE ROMBOIDALE : romboidal jointing
FRATTURAZIONE SFEROIDALE : spheroidal jointing (found in basalt, diabase and granite, the spheroids being composed of concentric shells)
FRATTURE AD ANELLO : ring fractures
FRATTURE APERTE ACCOMPAGNATI UNA FAGLIA : open gash fractures
FRATTURE DA SCIVOLAMENTO RAVVICINATE : closely spaced shear joints
FRATTURE PINNATE : feather joints (closely spaced shear joints arranged in a way similar to the barbs of a feather)
FREQUENZA POLLINICA : pollen percentage (quantity of spores or pollen grains of a given species expressed as a percentage in relation to pollen totals)
FRONTE : nappe front
FRONTE BASICO : basic front (zone enriched with basic constituents expelled from country rocks being granitized)
FRONTE DEL GHIACCIAIO : glacier terminus
FRONTE DELTIZIA : delta front
FRONTE DI ARRESTO FORZATO DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : damming up front of a nappe
FRONTE DI BARRIERA CORALLINA : reef front (upper part of the outer slope inside of a scogliera corallina above the dwindle-point of abundant living corals and coralline algae, i.e. about 25 m)
FRONTE DI CUESTA : cuesta scarp (steep slope in opposite direction to the inclination of the layers)
FRONTE DI DUNA : slip face (leeward side of a dune on which the sand is avalanching after having been blown over the crest
FRONTE DI FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO CONTRO UNA BARRIERA : zone of surging of a nappe (frontal zone in which a nappe is pushed against a barrier)
FRONTE DI FALESIA : cliff face
FRONTE DI GHIACCIAIO : snout
FRONTE D’ONDA SISMICA : wave front
FUGA DI GAS DAL MAGMA : exhalation
FULMINE GLOBULARE : globe lightning (during volcanic eruptions or storms)
FUMAROLA : fumarole
FUMAROLA ACIDA : acid fumarole
FUMAROLA ALCALINA : alkalic fumarole
FUMAROLA ALL’ACIDO CLORIDRICO : chlorine fumarole
FUMAROLA ARDENTE : flaming orifice
FUMAROLA CRATERICA : crater fumarole, primary fumarole
FUMAROLA CROICOLITICA : croicolitic fumarole (from partially cooled lava)
FUMAROLA DI ACIDO CARBONICO : carbonic acid fumarole
FUMAROLA DI IDROGENO SOLFORATO : sulphurated hydrogen fumarole
FUMAROLA DI VAPORE : steam fumarole
FUMAROLA ERUTTIVA : eruptive fumarole
FUMAROLA FREDDA : cold fumarole
FUMAROLA LEUCOLITICA : leucolitic fumarole (from hot lava)
FUMAROLA PERMANENTE : permanent fumarole
FUMAROLA PRIMARIA : crater fumarole, primary fumarole
FUMAROLA SECONDARIA : secondary fumarole (from a lava flows at a distance from their source, from glowing cloud deposits or from hot lahars)
FUMAROLA SOTTOMARINA : submarine fumarole
FUMAROLA SRADICATA : secondary fumarole (from a lava flows at a distance from their source, from glowing cloud deposits or from hot lahars)
FUMAROLA TEMPORANEA : temporary fumarole
FUMAROLA TERZIARIA : tertiary fumarole (the result of reactivation of a secondary fumarole from high temperature spots amid clastic ejecta, as well as upon lava flow after falls of rain or snow or upon lava coming into contact with streams or pools of water)
FUMI SOLFORICI : sulphur fumes
FUMO VULCANICO : volcanic fume
FUNGO SALINO : overhanging core
FUOCO CAUSATO DA COMBUSTIONE DI FOSFINA GASSOSA : will-o’-the-wisp
FUOCO DI SANT’ELMO : brush discharge, St Elmo’s fire (luminous electric phenomenon which occurs during storms and of volcanic eruptions)
FUOCO FATUO : will-o’-the-wisp
FUSINITE : fusinite (a maceral resembling charcoal)
FUSIONE CATASTROFICA DI UN GHIACCIAIO IN SEGUITO AD ERUZIONE VULCANICA : glacier burst, jökulhlaup (from Icelandic: catastrophic melt of a glacier due to a volcanic eruption)
FUSIONE DI GHIACCIAIO : melting
FUSIONE DI ROCCE DA PARTE DI GAS INCANDESCENTI : gas fluxing
FUSIONE E RIGELO DEL GHIACCIO : regelation
FUSITE : fusite (coal microlithotype containing over 95% of fusinite plus semifusinite and sclerotinite)
GABBROIDE : gabbroid (an adjective applied to the typical texture of basic rocks)
GAL : gal (unit of gravity acceleration = 1 cm/sec2)
GALASSIA : galaxy
GAMMA : gamma (unit of measure of magnetic intensity corresponding to 10-5 c.g.s. units)
GANGA : gangue
GANGA O ALTRO MATERIALE STERILE : waste
GANGA SILICATICA : skarn (from Swedish)
GAS FREATICI : phreatic gases (formed by heating of rain or sea water in the ground)
GAS IN SOLUZIONE : dissolved gasses
GAS INTERSTIZIALE : interstitial gas
GAS INTERSTIZIALI DEL SUOLO : ground air (interstitial soil gases which hold water infiltration velocity in check)
GAS MAGMATICI GIOVANILI : juvenile magmatic gases
GAS MAGMATICI RISORGENTI : resurgent magmatic gases (gas which the magma absorbs from adjacent rocks)
GAS MAGMATICO : magmatic gas
GAS NATURALE : natural gas
GAS VULCANICI : volcanic gases
GAS VULCANICO IN COMBUSTIONE : burning volcanic gas, flame
GASTROLITE : gastrolith (stone swallowed by an animal to grind food, later fossilized)
GELIVAZIONE : congelifraction (rock disintegration caused by freezing and refreezing)
GELIVITÀ : gelivity (resistance of a rock to disgregation by frost)
GELPALAGONITE : gelpalagonite (isotropic, intermediate stage in the formation of palagonite)
GEMINATO : twin (crystal structure)
GEMINAZIONE POLISINTETICA : polysynthetic twinning (repeated twinning in which the crystal is made up of thin lamellae alternately in reversed position)
GENE : gene
GENERAZIONE : generation (in palaeobiology and palaeontology generation of an organism; in mineralogy the term applies to a mineral of a magmatic rock, when the size of crystals are evidently different: because they belong to different generations formed at different stages of crystallization at different temperatures)
GENERE : genus (systematic group lower than the subfamily)
GENERE DI VITA : way of life
GENETICA : genetics
GENETICA DELLE POPOLAZIONI : population genetics
GENOCOTIPO : genocotype, genosyntype (two or more specimens on which the description of a genus is based, avoiding the designation of the genoholotype)
GENOEUTIPO : genoheautype (speciment identified by the original author as belonging to the genus he described, and designated as a basis for a supplementary description)
GENOIPOTIPO : genohypotype (a specimen identified as belonging to a given genus but not by the original describer of the genus)
GENOLECTOTIPO : genolectotype (specimen of the genocotype designated as type of a genus at a date later than the original description of the same genus)
GENOLOTIPO : genoholotype (holotype of a species designated by the describer of a genus as belonging to the type species of the genus)
GENOMETATIPO : genometatype (genotopotype identified by the same author as belonging to the genus he has described)
GENOPARATIPO : genoparatype (set of original specimens of an organism used in perfecting the description of a genus)
GENOPLESIOTIPO : genoplesiotype (specimen identified as belonging to a given genus but not by the same author who originally described the genus)
GENOTIPO : genotype (a type determined by the genetic characters common to a systematic group)
GENOTOPOTIPO : genotopotype (specimen of a genus collected at the same locality and in the same stratigraphic formation in which the genoholotype was found)
GEOANTICLINALE : geanticline (zone in a mobile belt of the Earth’s crust which tends to rise)
GEOBACINO : geobasin (broad unfolded subsidence basin)
GEOBIOSFERA : geobios (terrestrial part of the biosphere)
GEOCHIMICA : geochemistry
GEOCRATICO : geocratic (an adjective concerning dominance or enlargement of continental areas in relation to oceanic areas)
GEOCRONOLOGIA : geologic chronology
GEODEPRESSIONE : geodepression (old-fashioned concept of major downbendinng of the Earth’ crust as opposed to a geotumor)
GEODESIA : geodesy
GEOFISICA : geophysics
GEOFRATTURA : geofracture (fracture passing through the entire thickness of the Earth’s crust)
GEOGRAFIA FISICA : physical geography
GEOIDE : geoid
GEOISOTERME : geoisotherms
GEOLOGIA : geology
GEOLOGIA AGRARIA : agricultural geology
GEOLOGIA BASATA SU INFORMAZIONI RACCOLTE MEDIANTE PERFORAZIONI : subsurface geology
GEOLOGIA CIVILE : engineering geology
GEOLOGIA DEI GIACIMENTI METALLIFERI : ore geology
GEOLOGIA DEI GIACIMENTI MINERARI : geology of mineral deposits
GEOLOGIA ECONOMICA : economic geology
GEOLOGIA MINERARIA : mining geology
GEOLOGIA PETROLIFERA : petroleum geology
GEOLOGIA REGIONALE : regional geology
GEOLOGIA STORICA : historical geology
GEOLOGIA SUL TERRENO : field geology (geological investigation in the field)
GEOMORFOLOGIA : geomorphology
GEOSINCLINALE : geosyncline (old concept of historical interest, with the attendant classification) – AUTOGEOSINCLINALE (autogeosyncline or intracratonic geosyncline which developed as an isolated basin without forming uplands) – G. EPICONTINENTALE (epicontinental geosyncline) – EPIEUGEOSINCLINALE (epieugeogeosyncline or deep, narrow, peripheral geosyncline, close to the lines of uplift of a previous eugeosyncline) – EUGEOSINCLINALE (eugeogeosyncline or central area, more mobile, than a primary geosyncline) – ESOGEOSINCLINALE (exogeosyncline or intracratonic geosyncline marginal to an ortogeosynclinal belt and receiving sediments chiefly from the latter area) – G. INTERCONTINENTALE (intercontinental geosyncline) – G. INTRACONTINENTALE (intracontinental geosyncline) – G. MARGINALE (marginal geosyncline) – MIOGEOSINCLINALE (miogeosyncline or marginal parts of a primary geogeosyncline which are being folded) – MONOGEOSINCLINALE (simple geosyncline, monogeosyncline) – OROGEOSINCLINALE (orogeosyncline), PARALIAGEOSINCLINALE (paraliageosyncline or geosyncline crossing coastal plains) – G. POLICICLICA (polycyclic geogeosyncline) – POLIGEOSINCLINALE (compound geosyncline, polygeosyncline) – G. PRIMARIA (primary geosyncline) – G. SUBORDINATA (secondary geosyncline, subordinate geosyncline) – TAFROGEOSINCLINALE (taphrogeosyncline or geosyncline delimited by faults) – ZEUGOGEOSINCLINALE (zeugogeosyncline or intracratonic geosyncline developed as an isolated basin but containing deposits from complementary uplands)
GEOSUTURE : geosutures
GEOTETTOCLINO : geotectocline (central area of an orogenic belt characterized by the presence of peridotitic ultrabasic rocks)
GEOTUMORE : geotumor (old-fashioned concept of a large scale uplift of the crust as a consequence of physico-chemical reactions taking place in depth)
GESSO : chalk, gypsum
GESSOSO : gypsiferous
GETTO DI CENERE VULCANICA : jet of ash
GETTO DI FANGO : mud geyser
GETTO DI GAS : gas blast
GETTO DI GEYSER : geyser jet
GETTO DI VAPORE : steam blast
GEYSER : geyser (pulsating source)
GEYSER CALCAREO : lime containing geyser
GEYSER CARBONATICO : carbonate geyser
GEYSER DI FANGO : mud geyser
GEYSER SILICICO : siliceous geyser
GEYSERITE : geyserite (siliceous precipitate of geyser water)
GHIACCIAIO : glacier
GHIACCIAIO ALASKANO : piedmont glacier
GHIACCIAIO COMPOSITO : composite glacier
GHIACCIAIO DENDRITICO : trunk glacier
GHIACCIAIO DI ALTOPIANO : plateau glacier
GHIACCIAIO DI CIRCO : cirque glacier
GHIACCIAIO DI MAREA : tidewater glacier (a glacier of which the foot dips into tidewater and often produces icebergs)
GHIACCIAIO DI SALE : salt glacier
GHIACCIAIO DI TIPO ALPINO : alpine type glacier
GHIACCIAIO DI TIPO PIRENAICO : cirque glacier
GHIACCIAIO DI TIPO TURKESTANO : Turkestan type glacier
GHIACCIAIO HIMALAYANO : trunk glacier
GHIACCIAIO IN GROTTA : ice cave
GHIACCIAIO MONTANO : mountain glacier
GHIACCIAIO PEDEMONTANO : piedmont glacier
GHIACCIAIO PORTATORE : carrying glacier (a glacier which carries another one on its back, the latter being pulled into pieces when the carrying glacier moves at a greater speed)
GHIACCIAIO RIGENERATO : reconstructed glacier
GHIACCIAIO SOSPESO : hanging glacier
GHIACCIAIO SOTTOSTANTE : carrying glacier (a glacier which carries another one on its back, the latter being pulled into pieces when the carrying glacier moves at a greater speed)
GHIACCIAIO SOVRAPPOSTO : riding glacier (a glacier riding on top of another one after confluence, it disingrates if the carrying glacier moves more rapidly)
GHIACCIAIO TIPO MUSTAG : Mustag type glacier (glacier without névé basin but being fed by the snow-drowned valleys of a recently uplifted region)
GHIACCIAIO VALLIVO : valley glacier
GHIACCIAIO VALLIVO PRIVO DI BACINO DI RACCOLTA ED ALIMENTATO ESCLUSIVAMENTE DA VALANGHE : Turkestan type glacier
GHIACCIO : ice
GHIACCIO A PANETTONE : pancake ice
GHIACCIO ALLA DERIVA : drift ice, ice drift (on the sea, a lake, or a river)
GHIACCIO ATTACCATO ALLA COSTA : ice foot
GHIACCIO DI FONDO : anchor ice (attaches to a riverbed or to the sea bottom)
GHIACCIO DI GHIACCIAIO : glacier ice
GHIACCIO DI GROTTA : ice cave
GHIACCIO FLUVIALE : river ice
GHIACCIO FOSSILE : fossil ice (pleistocenic ice preserved in cold regions)
GHIACCIO GALLEGGIANTE SU UN CORSO D’ACQUA : drift ice (ice fragments drifting on a mainly ice-free sea, floating ice on a river or stream)
GHIACCIO IN AGHI : needle ice
GHIACCIO IN DISINTEGRAZIONE : rotten ice
GHIACCIO INCOERENTE ALLA SUPERFICIE DEL MARE : slush, sludge (accumulation of ice crystals either separated or only slightly frozen together forming a thin layer and giving the sea surface a greyish or leaden-tinted colour)
GHIACCIO MARINO : sea ice
GHIACCIO MARINO ALLA DERIVA : pack ice
GHIACCIO MARINO ATTACCATO ALLA SPIAGGIA : fast ice
GHIACCIO MARINO FRANTUMATO : brash ice (accumulation of marine ice fragments not larger than 2 metres)
GHIACCIO POLARE : polar ice
GHIACCIO PROFONDO : ground ice (in permanently frozen ground)
GHIACCIO SCAVATO AD ALVEARE IN SEGUITO A SCIOGLIMENTO : rotten ice
GHIACCIO STAGNANTE : dead ice
GHIAIA : gravel
GHIAIA ARROTONDATA : roundstone
GHIAIA DILAVATA : lag gravel
GHIAIA DISCOIDALE : ellipsoidal stone
GHIAIA ELLISSOIDALE : ellipsoidal stone
GHIAIA GROSSOLANA E ARROTONDATA : shingle
GHIAIA TABULARE : ellipsoidal stone
GHIAIOSO : gravelly
GIACIMENTI IDROTERMALI RIGENERATI : secondary hydrothermal deposits
GIACIMENTI MINERARI DI CONTATTO : contact metamorphic deposit
GIACIMENTI MINERARI DI SOSTITUZIONE DA FLUIDI : topomineralische Reaktionslagerstätte (from the German; mineral deposits formed in rocks liable to easy substitution by pneumatolytic or hydrothermal agencies)
GIACIMENTI MINERARI IDROTERMALI : idrothermal deposits
GIACIMENTI MINERARI IDROTERMALI SECONDARI : secondary hydrothermal deposits
GIACIMENTI PIROMETASOMATICI : contact metamorphic deposit
GIACIMENTO : deposit, mineral deposit, seam
GIACIMENTO APOMAGMATICO : apomagmatic deposit (laid in an environment which reveals only indirect links with the original magma, such as dykes and contact metamorphism)
GIACIMENTO CIRCOLARE DI PIOMBO E ZINCO : circle (American Middle West English: lead or zinc deposit approximately circular in a silex clayey breccia inside sink holes or shafts in Palaeozoic limestones or dolomites)
GIACIMENTO DI METALLO PREZIOSO CONCENTRATO : Edelfall (from German)
GIACIMENTO DI SEGREGAZIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic segregation deposit
GIACIMENTO DI ZONA DI SCIVOLAMENTO : shear zone deposit
GIACIMENTO FILONIANO : vein deposit
GIACIMENTO IN ANTICLINALE : saddle reef (ingl. australiano), saddle vein
GIACIMENTO IN SINCLINALE : trough vein
GIACIMENTO MADRE : mother lode (original deposit from which mineralized vein derive)
GIACIMENTO METALLIFERO : ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO : mineral deposit, reef (Australian and South African English)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO ACROBATOLITICO : acrobatholithic deposit (formed at the top of a batholith still largely not yet uncovered by erosion)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO ALLUVIONALE : alluvial ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO APOMAGMATICO : cryptomagmatic deposit (deposited in an environment which shows no link with the eruptive mother rock)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO CRIPTOBATOLITICO : cryptobatholithic deposit (formed in the ceiling of a batolith not unconvered by erosion)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO DI CRISTALLIZZAZIONE PRECOCE : early magmatic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO DI CRISTALLIZZAZIONE TARDIVA : late magmatic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO DI SEGREGAZIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic injection deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO DI SEGREGAZIONE PERIFERICA : marginal deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO EFFUSIVO O SUPERFICIALE : volcanic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO ELUVIALE : eluvial ore deposit (formed nearly in situ but mostly dislocated by slow slumping)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO EMBATOLITICO : embatholithic deposit (formed in or outside the rim of an intrusive rock complex of which the exposed area is nearly equal to that of the invaded rock)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO EPIBATOLITICO : epibatholithic deposit (formed in or outside the outer rim of an intrusive body of which small parts of the barren core are already exposed by erosion)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO EPIGENETICO : epigenetic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO EPITERMALE epithermal deposit (formed close to the surface by ascending thermal waters at a temperature < 175°C)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO FORMATO DA ACQUE ASCENDENTI : hypogene ore
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO FORMATO DA INCLUSIONE ECONOMICAMENTE NON SFRUTTABILI : magmatic disseminated ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO INTRAMAGMATICO : intramagmatic deposit (formed mainly inside its eruptive parental rock)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO INTRUSIVO : plutonic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO IPOTERMALE : hypothermal deposit (formed by mineralizing waters at a temperature between 300°C and 500 °C, at high pressure and in genetic connection with intrusive rocks which consolidate at moderate depth)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO LEPTOTERMALE : leptothermal deposit (formed in intermediate conditions between those of a mesothermal and an epithermal deposit)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO MAGMATICO : magmatic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO MESOTERMALE : mesothermal deposit (formed by mineralizing waters at a temperature between 175°C and 300 °C, in genetic connection with intrusive rocks which consolidate at considerable depth)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO NON ALTERATO : protore
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO PERIMAGMATICO : perimagmatic deposit (formed mainly beyond the rim of its eruptive parental rock)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO PNEUMOTETTICO : pneumotectic deposit (a transitional deposit from straight magmatic to hydrothermal, in which the effects of mineralizing agents are very apparent)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO RESIDUO : residual ore deposit (accumulation of valuable minerals formed by removal of undesired constituents of rocks or lodes during weathering or by leaching)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO SECONDARIO FORMATO DA CONCENTRAZIONE MECCANICA : placer (mineral deposit formed by mechanical concentration of mineral particles, e.g. alluvial gold deposit)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO SINGENETICO : syngenetic ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO STRATIFORME : bedded ore deposit
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO SUPERFICIALE : subvolcanic deposit (mineral deposit of magmatic origin formed at moderate or shallow depth)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO TELETERMALE : telethermal deposit (mineral deposit formed near the Earth’s surface by enfeebled hydrothermal solutions, according to Graton)
GIACIMENTO MINERARIO XENOTERMALE : xenotermal deposit (formed at high temperature and depth from low to moderate)
GIACIMENTO MISTO : offset deposit (mineral deposit formed by magmatic segregation and hydrothermal activity injected a short distance from its parental rock)
GIACIMENTO ORTOMAGMATICO : liquid magmatic deposit (segregated from liquid magma)
GIACIMENTO PETROLIFERO : oil deposit
GIACIMENTO TELEMAGMATICO : telemagmatic deposit (an ore deposit of magmatic origin but far removed from the original source)
GIACITURA : attitude (of strata)
GIACITURA DISTURBATA : disturbed attitude
GIACITURA INDISTURBATA : undisturbed attitude
GIACITURA NATURALE : natural bed (of a building stone in the quarry from which it was extracted, corresponding to a bedding plane, a foliation plane, or joint plane)
GIACITURA ORIGINARIA : original attitude
GIACITURA TETTONICA : structural position
GIAIETTO : jet
GIALLO-ARANCIONE CUPO : buff
GIGANTISMO : gigantism
GILSONITE : gilsonite (asphaltic rock)
GIURASSICO : Jurassic
GIUSTAPPORRE : to contact
GLACIAZIONE : glaciation
GLACIOLOGIA : glaciology
GLACIS : glacis, pediment
GLANZSTREIFENKOHLE : (from German) clarain, a lithotype formed mainly by vitrinite
GLEY : gley (yellowy and grey mottling in the soil produced by partial oxidation and reduction of iron caused by intermittenti waterlogging)
GLIPTOLITO : wind-faceted stone
GLOBI BASALTICI : basalt globes, basalt nodules
GLOBO DI FUOCO : globe lightning (during volcanic eruptions or storms)
GLOBO TERRESTRE : Earth globe, terrestrial globe
GLOBOSFERITE : globosphaerite (spherical crystallites, called globulites, grouped in spheroidal shape)
GLOBULITE : globulite (spherical crystallite)
GLOMEROFIRICO : glomerophyric (an adjective applied to rocks having cumulophyric structure)
GNEISS : gneiss (irregularly banded metamorphic rock with rather poor schistosity due to the preponderance of quartz and feldspar over micaceous minerals, formed by regional metamorphism especially at higher grade)
GOCCIA DI LA PELÉ : tear shaped bomb
GOCCIOLAMENTO DELL’ACQUA DALLE FOGLIE E DAI TRONCHI FINO A RAGGIUNGERE IL SUOLO : throughfall
GOLA : gorge
GOLA DI CATTURA FLUVIALE : diverter gorge
GOLA DI VULCANO : throat (of a volcano)
GOLFO : gulf
GOMITO DI CATTURA FLUVIALE : elbow of capture
GONDITE : gondite (rock composed mainly of spessartite, rodonite and quartz, e.g. Central India)
GONFIARE : to swell
GONFIORE DI LAVA : intumescence of lava
GONFIORE MAGMATICO DELLA CROSTA : magmatic blister (caused by differential heating of magma)
GORGO : whirl
GRABEN : rift valley
GRADAZIONE DI FACIES : facies change
GRADIENTE DI DISCESA DELLO STRATO : gradient of the bed
GRADIENTE DI GRAVITÀ : gradient of gravity (partial derivative with respect to distance of the acceleration of gravity)
GRADIENTE GEOTERMICO : geothermal gradient
GRADIENTE POTENZIALE : potential gradient (difference of head between two planes of equal pressure head situated at an infinitely small distance from each other)
GRADIENTE TERMICO : temperature gradient
GRADINATA DI TERRAZZI : terrace flight
GRADINATE PEDEMONTANE : piedmont benchlands, piedmont flats
GRADINI : steps
GRADINI DI FAGLIA : fault steps
GRADINI LUNGO I PENDII DI VALLI TRIBUTARIE : Ecke (from German; steps on between tributary valleys, originated as dissected terraces of the main valley; literal meaning: “corners”)
GRADINO : step
GRADINO DA DISLOCAZIONE SISMICA : earthquake scarplet
GRADINO DI DIFFLUENZA : diffluence step (valley step caused by weakening of glacial action due to diffluence)
GRADINO DI EROSIONE : cyclic nick, break of fluvial profile
GRADINO DI FLESSURA : monoclinal scarp (a scarp caused by a flexure)
GRADINO DI SBOCCO : discordant lip (height difference between a tributary bed and the bed of the main river)
GRADINO GLACIALE : glacial step
GRADINO NEL PROFILO DI UNA VALLE : knickpoint, nickpoint
GRADINO ROCCIOSO : rock step (step in the profile of a valley due to an hard rock outcrop)
GRADINO SISMICO : earthquake scarplet
GRADINO VALLIVO : confluence step (gradino vallivo discendente verso valle causato dal rafforzamento dell’azione glaciale a causa della confluenza)
GRADO DI APPIATTIMENTO : degree of flatness
GRADO DI ASSORTIMENTO : degree of sorting (measure of the size distribution of sedimentary particles)
GRADO DI CARBOGENESI : rank of coal (in natural carbonization)
GRADO DI CORICAMENTO DI UNA PIEGA : degree of the overturn
GRADO DI DIVERGENZA NEI CARATTERI DELLA PROLE DI UNA SPECIE : degree of variation (degree of divergence in the characters of a species’ offspring)
GRADO DI INCLINAZIONE : amount of dip (of geological strata)
GRADO DI REGIONALITÀ DELLA COMPENSAZIONE ISOSTATICA : degree of regionality
GRADO DI ROTONDITÀ : degree of roundness
GRADO DI SATURAZIONE : degree of saturation
GRADO DI VERGENZA : degree of the overturn
GRAFFI DI FAGLIA : fault scratches
GRAFICO DEL TEMPO DI VIAGGIO : travel time curve (graphival representation of the travel time as a function of the distance from the epicenter to the point of observation)
GRAFOFIRICO : granophyric, graphophyric, micropegmatitic (an adjective applied by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington to textures characterized by intergrowth of quartz and feldspar, the feldspar crystals containing irregular shreds of quartz)
GRAHAMITE : grahamite
GRANA DI UN GHIACCIAIO : grain of a glacier
GRANELLO DI POLLINE : pollen grain
GRANITIZZAZIONE : granitizazion (process whereby solid rocks are turned into granite without passing a magmatic stage)
GRANITO : granite
GRANITO ANOROGENICO : anorogenic granite (intruded into the crust independentently of orogenetic episodes)
GRANITO AUTOCTONO : autochtonous granite
GRANITO PARAUTOCTONO : parautochtonous granite (a mobilized portion of an autochtonous granite which has moved higher in the crust or, more usually, into tectonic domains of lower pressure, and therefore shows variable marginal relations, in some places migmatitic, in others of a different type)
GRANITO POSTOROGENETICO : postkinematic granite, postorogenic granite, posttectonic granite (emplaced in the crust after an orogenic event)
GRANITO SINCINEMATICO : synkinematic granite (whose emplacement took place during orogenesis)
GRANITO SINOROGENICO : synorogenic granite (whose emplacement took place during orogenesis)
GRANITO SINTETTONICO : syntectonic granite (whose emplacement took place during orogenesis)
GRANITOIDE : granitoid (typical texture of acid and intermediate igneous rocks)
GRANOBLASTICO : granoblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of metamorphic nonschistose rocks which are composed essentially of equidimensional elements)
GRANOFIRICO : granophyric, graphophyric, micropegmatitic (an adjective applied by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington to textures characterized by intergrowth of quartz and feldspar, the feldspar crystals containing irregular shreds of quartz)
GRANULARE : granular (an adjective applied to a holocrystalline minerals and rocks in which most grains are roughly of the same size)
GRANULARE ALLOTRIOMORFO : allotriomorphic granular (an adjective applied to the texture of igneous rocks whose main minerals are almost entirely xenomorphic)
GRANULARE IPAUTOMORFICO : hypautomorphic granular, hypidiomorphic granular (an adjective applied to the texture of igneous rocks in which some of the constituents are euhedral, some subhedral and the rest anhedral; well exemplified by most granites, hence this texture is also called granitic)
GRANULARE IPIDIOMORFICO : hypautomorphic granular, hypidiomorphic granular (an adjective applied to the texture of igneous rocks in which some of the constituents are euhedral, some subhedral and the rest anhedral; well exemplified by most granites, hence this texture is also called granitic)
GRANULARE PANIDIOMORFICO : panidiomorphic granular (an adjective applied to the texture of igneous rocks when the chief minerals are predominantly idiomorphic, best developed among lamprophyres)
GRANULARITÀ : granularity
GRANULAZIONE : granulation
GRANULITE : granulite (even-grained metamorphic rock lacking micaceous minerals or amphiboles, and hence not obviously schistose, produced by regional metamorphism of the highest grade)
GRANULITICO : granulitic (an adjective applied to the typical texture of granulites)
GRANULO : grain (crystal shape), grain, granule (a sedimentary particle having a diameter between 4 and 64 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
GRANULOMETRIA : grain size distribution, grain size frequency distribution
GRAPTOLITI : graptolites
GRAVIMETRIA : gravimetry
GRAVIMETRO : gravimeter
GRAVIMETRO IN CUI L’INDICATORE VIENE REGOLARMENTE RIPORTATO A ZERO : null reading type of gravimeter
GRAVITÀ : gravity
GRAVITAZIONE : gravitation
GREISEN : greisen, ialomictite (pneumatolyzed rock occurring mainly near the margins of granite plutons, forming bands and vein-like bodies with indefinite margins that grade into unaltered granite, and being mostly composed of quartz and mica, with topaz and sometimes tourmaline, fluorite, apatite, rutile, cassiterite, wolframite)
GREISENITIZZAZIONE : greisenitization (process whereby grainite is transformed into greisen)
GROSSOLANITÀ : coarseness
GROSSOLANO : coarse
GROTTA : cave, grotto (American English: a branch of the National Speleological Society of the USA)
GROTTA A BASSA TEMPERATURA CON CONCREZIONI DI GHIACCIO : ice cave
GROTTA A GALLERIA : tunnel cave
GROTTA A SVILUPPO PREVALENTEMENTE ORIZZONTALE : tunnel cave
GROTTA A SVILUPPO PREVALENTEMENTE VERTICALE : shaft cave
GROTTA ATTREZZATA : commercial cave
GROTTA DI FAGLIA : fault cave (cave developed along a fault)
GROTTA DI SBOCCO : effluent cave (cave from which a stream issues or has issued)
GROTTA EFFLUENTE : effluent cave (cave from which a stream issues or has issued)
GROTTA ENDOGENA : endogenous cave (cave formed within a rock complex due to dissolution by underground water circulation)
GROTTA ESOGENA : exogenous cave (cave formed in the open by atmospheric agents)
GROTTA RESPIRANTE : breathing cave (a cave from which air is alternatively blown out and sucked in at the entrance)
GROTTA SOFFIANTE : blowing cave
GROTTA SVILUPPATASI LUNGO UNA FESSURA : fissure cave
GROVACCHE : graywacke (dark-coloured hard rock formed by coarse grains, especially quartz and feldspars)
GROVIGLIO VEGETALE : log jam (in the bed of a river)
GRU AD ARIA COMPRESSA : air hoist
GRUPPO DI DIACLASI : joint set
GRUPPO DI FAGLIE : group of faults
GRUPPO DI FAGLIE PARALLELE : fault set
GRUPPO DI LACCOLITI : compound laccolith
GRUPPO DI LAVORO EQUIPAGGIATO PER RILEVAZIONI : party (equipped for geological, geomorfological, palaeontological, seismic, speleogical, etc. surveys)
GRUPPO DI VULCANI : volcanic cluster
GRUPPO DI VULCANI A SCUDO : volcanic shield cluster (e.g. the Hawaii Islands)
GRUPPO FILOGENETICO : bioseries, gens (group of species with many common characters and linked among them with continuity in time and space)
GUADO : shoal (fluvial or in a tidal zone)
GUANO : (from Spanish) guano
GUANO DI PIPISTRELLO : bat droppings, bat guano
GUMBO : gumbo (American English, sticky clay encountered in oil-well drilling)
GUYOT : guyot, tablemount (submarine extinct volcano deeper than 200 m)
GYTTJA : gyttja (from Swedish, sediment containing various amounts of organic debris deposited in conditions varying from aerobic to anaerobic)
HABITAT : habitat (of a biological species)
HAMADA : rocky desert
HAMMADA : rocky desert
HARTSCHIEFER : Hartschiefer (from German, strongly banded and partly schistose rock, formed by intense dynamic metamorphism and associated to other rocks of mylonitic type)
HORNFELS : hornfels (metamorphic rock produced by contact metamorphism, composed of a mosaic of equidimensional grains without preferred orientation)
HORST VULCANOTETTONICO : volcano-tectonic horst, vulcano-tectonic horst
HUM : hum (residual hill from the destruction of a limestone highland)
HUMIC : umico
HUMMOCK : hummock (heaps of marin ice formed by repeated fragmentation events)
HUMUS : humus (dark organic fraction of the soil)
HUSH : hush (Northern England; a large and often deeply cut gully obtained artificially by hydraulic mining, i.e. by man-made floods having the object of finding and exploiting mineral veins)
HUSHING : hushing (Northern England; hydraulic mining carried out by causing man-made floods in order to find and exploit mineral veins; a practice called streaming in Dartmoor, Devon, and Cornwall)
IALOCRISTALLINO : hyalocrystalline (an adjective applied to a hypocristalline rocks with a ratio of crystals to glass lower than 5 to 3 and higher than 3 to 5)
IALOFITICO : hyalophitic (an adjective applied to a texture resembling ophitic texture, in which the spaces of an open network of feldspar laths are occupied by glass; also resembling intersertal texture but with a more abundant and continuous groundmass)
IALOMICTITE : greisen, ialomictite (pneumatolyzed rock occurring mainly near the margins of granite plutons, forming bands and vein-like bodies with indefinite margins that grade into unaltered granite, and being mostly composed of quartz and mica, with topaz and sometimes tourmaline, fluorite, apatite, rutile, cassiterite, wolframite)
IALOPILITICO : hyalopilitic (an adjective relating to a texture of volcanic rocks, especially  andesites, of which the groundmass consists essentially of glass and lath-shaped or needlelike feldspar microlites, e.g. in andesities)
IATALE : hiatal (adjective applied to an inequigranular texture of igneous rocks in which the sizes of the crystals do not vary gradually, but form a broken series, with hiatuses, or where two or more sizes are noticeably different from one another as in porphyritic and poikilitic textures)
IATO STRATIGRAFICO : stratigraphical break
IATO STRATIGRAFICO STRUTTURALE : structural stratigraphical hiatus
IBRIDO : hybrid
ICEBERG : iceberg (broad floating mass of ice)
ICEBERG TABULARE : tableberg (large ice mass of tabular shape)
ICNOFACIES : ichnofacies
IDATOGENESI : hydatogenesis (formation of mineral veins by chemical deposition from aqueous solutions)
IDATOGENO : hydatogenous (an adjective applied to a mineral formed by chemical deposition from aqueous solutions)
IDIOADATTAMENTO : idioadaptation (adaptation and specialization of acquired characters)
IDIOBLASTICO : idioblastic (an adjective applied to the minerals in metamorphic rocks bounded by their own crystal faces)
IDIOBLASTO : idioblast (a crystallized component of metamorphic rocks formed by recrystallization or neomineralization and bounded by its own faces)
IDIOMORFICO : idiomorphic (an adjective applied to crystals bounded by their own crystal faces)
IDRATAZIONE : hydratation, hydration
IDROBIOSFERA : hydrobios (aquatic part of the biosphere)
IDROBIOSFERA MARINA : halobios (marine part of the biosphere)
IDROCHIMICA : hydrochemistry (chemical makeup of the sedimentary load of the sea, river or lake)
IDROCLASTO : hydroclast
IDRODINAMICA : hydrodynamics
IDROESPLOSIONE : hydroexplosion
IDROGEOLOGIA : geohydrogeology, hydrogeology
IDROLOGIA : hydrology
IDROLOGIA SOTTERRANEA : groundwater hydrology
IDROMETASOMATISMO : hydrometasomatism (metasomatic alteration of the rocks caused by water)
IDROTERMALE : hydrothermal
IGNIMBRITE : ignimbrite
IGROSCOPICITÀ : hygroscopicity (quantity of water absorbed by dry soil in a secluded space above 10% sulphuric acid at 18 °C temperature, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the dry soil)
IMBIBIZIONE : imbibition
IMBRICAZIONE : imbrication (piling up of clasts in a river bed, a beach, a compressive fault)
IMMERSIONE DI CROSTA SIALICA NEL SUBSTRATO E SUA FUSIONE : downsucking
IMMOBILITÀ : immobility
IMPATTO DELLA PIOGGIA : raindrop impact
IMPERCETTIBILE SCIVOLAMENTO DI SUOLO : soil creep
IMPERMEABILE : impervious
IMPERMEABILITÀ : impermeability
IMPIANTO DI ASSORBIMENTO : absorption plant (in which the liquid components of oil are separated from gas fractions by absorption in suitable oil)
IMPRONTA DI ANIMALE : footprint
IMPRONTA DI GRANDINE : hailstone imprint
IMPRONTA DI PIOGGIA : rain print
IN CIMA A ……. : on top of …….
IN DISCORDANZA STRATIGRAFICA : unconformable
IN EQUILIBRIO DI UMIDITÀ : air dry (aggettivo indicante la condizione di un minerale avente contenuto di umidità in equilibrio con quello atmosferico)
IN SITU : in situ, on the spot
INACIDIMENTO : acid drift
INARCAMENTO : upfolding
INARCAMENTO DEL PIANO DI FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA : uparching
INARCAMENTO DI TENSIONE IN GROTTA : sag arch
INCASTRATO FRA I BLOCCHI : jammed between the blocks
INCIDERE : to incise
INCISIONE : etching (on the surface of a rock outcrop), incision (by a river or stream)
INCISIONE AL LIMITE DI ESARAZIONE GLACIALE : ice scour notch
INCISIONI : etchings (on the surface of a rock outcrop)
INCLINARSI : to dip (of a layer referring to the plane of the horizon)
INCLINAZIONE : inclination (in geophysics: angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the horizontal plane), tilt (in tectonic geology: of a geological stratum)
INCLINAZIONE ABERRANTE : abnormal dip (of geological strata)
INCLINAZIONE ANORMALE : abnormal dip (of geological strata)
INCLINAZIONE DELL’ASSE DI UNA PIEGA O DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : pitch
INCLINAZIONE DI UN GIACIMENTO : plunge, pitch, rake (vertical angle between the horizontal plane and the elongation of an orebody)
INCLINAZIONE INIZIALE : initial dip (dip of beds immediately prior to folding)
INCLINAZIONE ORIGINARIA : original dip (dip of beds immediately after deposition)
INCLINAZIONE OSSERVATA : apparent dip (of geological strata)
INCLINAZIONE PREVALENTE : principal dip (predominating dip of beds)
INCLINAZIONE REALE : true dip
INCLINAZIONE SUL PIANO ORIZZONTALE : dip (in geophysics: angle between the magnetic field and the plane of the horizon, in stratigraphy: inclination of a geological layer or of a mineral deposit on the horizontal plane)
INCLINAZIONE VERA : true dip (of the magnetic field)
INCLUDERE : to enclose
INCLUSI DI ROCCIA INCASSANTE IN VENE METALLIFERE : Gangestein (from German)
INCLUSIONE : inclusion (older rock or nodules of minerals enclosed in a magmatic intrusive body)
INCLUSIONE ACCIDENTALE : accidental inclusion, exogenous enclosure, xenolith
INCLUSIONE ANALOGA : autolith, cognate inclusion, endogenous inclusion (an igneous rocky fragment included in a magmatic rock to which it is lithologicaly similar and probably derived from the same parental magma)
INCLUSIONE ENDOGENA : autolith, cognate enclosure, endogenous enclosure (igneous rock fragment included in a magmatic rock to which it is lithologically similar, and probably derived from the same magma)
INCLUSIONE ESOGENA : accidental inclusion, exogenous enclosure, xenolith (exogenous rock fragment included in a magmatic rock)
INCLUSIONE PNEUMATOGENETICA : pneumatogenetic inclusion (formed at depth by the action of magmtic gases)
INCLUSIONE PNEUMATOGENICA : pneumatogenic inclusion (a nodule of minerals formed by the action of magmatic gases)
INCLUSIONE POLIGENETICA : polygenetic inclusion (formed by reaction of magma or its volatile elements with exogenous inclusions)
INCLUSO : inclusion (older rock or nodules of minerals enclosed in a magmatic intrusive body)
INCONTRO : junction (of folds or systems of folds)
INCRESPATURE MARINE : ripples
INCRINATO : cracked
INCRINATURA : crack
INCRINATURA SOTTILISSIMA : hair crack
INCROSTARE : to incrustate
INCROSTATORI : encrusters (algae, foraminiferans, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, brachiopods, bivalves, serpulid polichaetes, ascidians, cirripedes)
INCROSTAZIONE : incrustation (fossilization process)
INCROSTAZIONE ROCCIOSA IN GROTTA : crust stone (of limestone or other minerals)
INCURVAMENTO DEL PIANO ASSIALE : warping of the axial plane
INDEBOLIMENTO DI UNA PIEGA : dying out of a fold
INDENTAZIONE COSTIERA : reentrant
INDICATORE DI SPIAGGIA : beach placer (a placer set on a beach as a reference marker to measure the advance or retreat of the beach)
INDICATORE REGISTRANTE DEL SISMOGRAFO : indicator
INDICE ALCALI-CALCAREO : alkali lime index (basis of the chemical classification of igneous rocks formulated by Peacock: the weight percentage of silica in a sequence of igneous rocks on a variation diagram, where the weight percentages of CaO and K2O + Na2O are equal)
INDICE DI AGGLOMERAZIONE : agglomerating value (index of the binding, or sintering, qualities of coal sujected to given heat treatment)
INDICE DI APPIATTIMENTO : flatness index
INDICE DI COLORAZIONE : colour index (indicanting the percentage of dark minerals in a rock)
INDICE DI ESPLOSIVITÀ : explosivity index (percentage of material emitted during explosive activities in comparison with total volcanic emission)
INDICE DI FLUSSO DI BASE (IFB) : base flox index (BFI) : low flow of a river from the sources and the groundwater store without resupply from intense precipitation
INDICE DI FORMA ORIZZONTALE DI RIPPLE MARKS : horizontal form index of ripple marks (ratio of the horizontal projection of the stoss-side slope to the horizontal projection of the length of the lee slope)
INDICE DI RIPPLE MARKS : ripple index (ratio between wavelength and breadth of ripple marks)
INDICE DI ROTONDITÀ : roundness index
INDICE DI VORTICITÀ AREALE (IVA) : vorticity area index (VAI) (area of a terrestrial emisphere, north or south, where vorticity is higher than a given value)
INDIGAMENTO : diking (building of dikes around an area to be reclaimed)
INEQUIGRANULARE : inequigranular (an adjective applied to a rock texture mainly composed of crystals of a different order of magnitude)
INERTINITE : inertinite (a comprehensive term indicating the macerals of coal fusinite, semifusinite and micrite)
INFAUNA : infauna (fauna of organisms living inside bottom sediments)
INFILTRAZIONE DI ACQUA : water infiltration
INFILTRAZIONE DI SALSEDINE NELLA FALDA FREATICA : salt water intrusion
INFRASTRUTTURA DELLA CROSTA : infrastructure of the crust
INGHIOTTITOIO : shaft cave, shallow hole, sink, sinkhole
INGHIOTTITOIO COSTIERO : coastal shallow hole
INGOLFATA : aired up (said of oil pump which no longer sucks because the sucking chamber has become filled with air)
INGRANDIMENTO SISMOGRAFICO MECCANICO : mechanical magnification
INGRANDIMENTO SISMOGRAFICO OTTICO : optical magnification
INGRANDIMENTO STATICO : static magnification (ratio between the pulse of the seismograph indicator and the respective pulse of the gravity centre of the stationary mass)
INGRESSIONE MARINA : ingression coast
INGRESSO DI UN IMMISSARIO IN UN LAGO : lake inlet
INGRESSO DI UNA BAIA : bay mouth
INIEZIONE : injection (intrusion of magmatic fluids forming metal veins)
INIEZIONE DISCORDANTE : discordant injection
INIEZIONE MAGMATICA ABISSALE : abyssal injection
INIEZIONE MAGMATICA IPOABISSALE : hypabyssal injection
INIEZIONE MAGMATICA PASSIVA : passive injection
INIEZIONE MAGMATICA PERIFERICA : satellite injection
INIEZIONE MAGMATICA SATELLITE : satellite injection
INIEZIONE TRASVERSALE ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE DEGLI STRATI : discordant injection
INIZIARE : to come in (a term applied to a fault)
INIZIO : entrance (in tectonic geology: of a fault), onset (in seismic geology: of a seismic phase) – INIZIO DI FASE SISMICA : anaseismic onset (moving upwards and corresponding to a compressive wave) – INIZIO DI FASE SISMICA : kataseismic onset (moving downwards and corresponding to a dilatation wave)
INNALZAMENTO SECOLARE DEL LIVELLO MARINO RELATIVAMENTE ALLE COSTE : secular sinking
INONDAZIONE : flood
INONDAZIONE IMPROVVISA : freshet (sudden flood caused by violent rainfall or rapid snowmelt)
INONDAZIONE IMPROVVISA E VIOLENTA : flash flood (caused by torrential rain)
INQUINAMENTO : pollution
INQUINAMENTO AD ORIGINE PUNTIFORME : point source pollution (e.g. from a sewer outlet)
INQUINAMENTO DI ORIGINE DIFFUSA : diffuse source pollution (e.g. from fields or pastures)
INQUINAMENTO IDRICO : water pollution
INSABBIAMENTO : sanding up (filling up with sand deposits)
INSABBIAMENTO DI UNA BAIA : filling up
INSATURO : unsaturated
INSELLAMENTO : structural saddle (between structurak highs along the crests of anticlines)
INSERZIONE : emplacement (of a magmatic body)
INSET : inset, phenocryst (the larger and more apparent crystals in porphyritic rocks)
INSETTI : insects
INSOLAZIONE : insolation
INSUFFLAZIONE DI ARIA : air drilling (for cooling or cleaning of equipment or spazes in a mine)
INSUFFLAZIONE DI GAS : gas drilling (for cooling or cleaning of equipment or spazes in a mine)
INTACCATURA ALLA BASE DI UNA FALESIA : notch (formed by the undermining of a cliff by wave erosion)
INTACCATURA NELL’ORLO DI UN CRATERE : notch in the rim of a crater, cleft in the rim of a crater
INTACCATURA NELL’ORLO DI UN VULCANO : cleft in the rim of a crater, notch in the rim of a crater
INTENSITÀ : strength
INTENSITÀ APPARENTE : apparent strength
INTENSITÀ VERA : general strength (intensity which an earthquake would have had in undisturbed crystalline rocks)
INTERCALATO : intercalated
INTERCALAZIONE : intercalation
INTERCALAZIONE LENTICOLARE : lenticular intercalation
INTERCOTIDALE : intertidal
INTERDIGITARSI : to dovetail into, to interfinger (of different beds with each other)
INTERDIGITAZIONE : interdigitation, interfingering, intertonguing (of different stratigraphic formations)
INTERFACCIA : boundary plane (between two seismic media with different elastic properties)
INTERFACCIA TRA GAS NATURALE E PETROLIO : gas oil interface
INTERGRANULARE : intergranular (an adjective applied to a texture in which the interstitial augite between crystals of plagioclase occurs in an aggregate of grains and not in large crystals in optical continuity)
INTERNO DELLA TERRA : interior of the Earth
INTERPRETAZIONE MONODINAMICA : monodynamism
INTERRUZIONE NELLA SEDIMENTAZIONE COSTIERA : ravinement (break in sedimentation in combined river delta and shallow-water marine deposits caused by periodic invasions of the sea over the delta area)
INTERRUZIONE STRATIGRAFICA : stratigraphical break
INTERSERTALE : intersertal (an adjective applied to a texture common in basaltic rocks in which the hypocrystalline or glassy groundmass occurs only as angular patches in the interstices of the abundant crystals, e.g. in basalts)
INTERSEZIONE FRA TERRAZZI DIVERSAMENTE INCLINATI : terrace intersection
INTERSTIZI INTERCOMUNICANTI : continuous interstices (within a rock)
INTERSTIZIO : interstice (in a rock formation); pore (in pollen analysis, circular or slightly oval opening in the exine of pollen grains)
INTERSTIZIO CAPILLARE : capillary interstice (an interstice in a rock of such a breadth as to hold the water by capillarity above the groundwater allowing it to move)
INTERSTIZIO ISOLATO : discontinuous interstice (interstice not communicating with other interstices within a rock)
INTERSTIZIO ORIGINARIO : original interstice (interstice opened in a rock by the process which led to its formation
INTERSTIZIO SECONDARIO : secondary interstice (interstice opened in a rock due to processes occurring after its formation)
INTERSTIZIO SUBCAPILLARE : subcapillary interstice (interstice in a rock smaller than a capillary interstice in which molecular attraction spans the entire space and water is held immovable against gravity by the forces of adhesion alone)
INTERSTIZIO SUPERCAPILLARE : supercapillary interstice (interstice in a rock larger than a capillary interstice in which water is not held at an appreciable height above a water table or hydrostatic pressure level)
INTERVALLO DI EROSIONE : erosion interval
INTERVALLO DI RITORNO : recurrence interval (probable return frequency of a flood at a given energy level)
INTERVALLO DI TEMPO : time interval
INTERVALLO DI TEMPO SEGNATO DALL’OROLOGIO A CONTATTO SUL SISMOGRAMMA : time mark
INTERVALLO TRA DUE LINEE ISOPIESTICHE : piestic interval
INTINA : intine (external cuticle of pollen granules and spores)
INTRAPPOLATO NEL BASAMENTO : entrapped in the basement
INTRECCIO TUBOLARE SUL PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE : bedding plane spongework : (intricate underground network of tubular channels developed above the bedding plane)
INTRUSIONE : intrusion, irruption
INTRUSIONE CONCORDANTE : concordant injection
INTRUSIONE IN UNA FRATTURA CONICA : cone sheet
INTRUSIONE LAMINARE : sill (in volcanology)
INTRUSIONE MAGMATICA IPOABISSALE : hypabissal intrusion (less deep-seated igneous activity, such as the formation of laccoliths and sills)
INTRUSIONE MAGMATICA PROFONDA : abyssal intrusion
INTRUSIONE TABULARE : dike, dyke
INTRUSIONI LACCOLITICHE SINCRONE : compound laccolith
INVASIONE DEL MARE : marine invasion
INVERNO : winter
INVERSIONE : reversal (of strata)
INVERSIONE DEL RILIEVO : relief inversion (development of depressions replacing previous reliefs on account of differential erosion)
INVERSIONE DI UN FIUME : river inversion
INVERTEBRATI : invertebrates
INVERTITO : overturned (of a fold)
INVOLUZIONE DI FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO : involution of nappes : (surrounding of an older nappe by a younger one, folding of two nappes one upon the other)
IOLITI : hyoliths (problematic marine Cambrian phylum)
IPERCRISTALLINO : percrystalline (an adjective applied to igneopus rocks of glass and crystals in which the ratio of crystal to glass is higher than 7 to 1)
IPERMELANICO : ypermelanic (an adjective applied to rocks wherein dark minerals range from 90% to 100%)
IPERTROFIA : hypertrophy (excessive growth of a species)
IPIDIOMORFICO : hypidiomorphic (an adjective applied to crystals bounded only in part by their own crystal faces)
IPOABISSALE : hypabissal (an adjective applied to minor intrusive rocks formed at an intermediate depth between the plutonic rocks and the effusive formations)
IPOABISSALE : hypabyssal (an adjective applied to rocks of minor intrusions, such as dikes, sills and small laccoliths, which occupy an intermediate position between the plutonic bodies and the volcanic formations)
IPOAUTOMORFICO : hypautomorphic (an adjective applied to crystals bounded only in part by their own crystal faces)
IPOCENTRO : hypocenter (American English), ipocentre
IPOCENTRO A GRANDE PROFONDITÀ : deep focal depth (> 300 km)
IPOCENTRO A PROFONDITÀ INTERMEDIA : intermedial focal depth (60-300 km)
IPOCENTRO SUPERFICIALE : shallow focal depth (< 60 km)
IPOCRISTALLINO : hypocrystalline
IPOGENO : hypogene (adjective applied to geological action under the Earth’s surface and to the products of that action, e.g. to hydrothermal action of ascending waters forming ore deposits or to the deposits so formed)
IPOGEO : hypogeal, subterranean
IPOLIMNIO : hypolimnion (deep zone of a lake below the depth at which mixing caused by waves occurs)
IPOMAGMA : hypomagma (comparatively immobile magma from which the pyromagma derives)
IPOOROGENE : hypoorogene (orogene which originates in the downsucking of sialic masses at depth)
IPOTESI DEL RIGONFIAMENTO VULCANICO : elevation crater hypothesis (hypothesis of the swelling of the volcano due to gas pressure)
IPOTESI DEL RIPIEGAMENTO : buckling hypothesis (dated concept whereby the deep marginal troughs and the negative gravitational anomalies linked to them are regarded as a result of foundering of the crust into the substrate as a result of compressive lateral forces)
IPOTESI DELLA FUSIONE INTERNA : internal melting hypothesis (as a cause of the collapse of a volcanic cone)
IPOTESI DELLA TASCA DI GAS : gas pocket hypothesis (hypothesis stating that a gas pocket on top of the magma chamber causes a paroxysmal gas escape after an eruption has lowered the level of the magma)
IPOTESI DELL’ACCUMULAZIONE : accumulation hypothesis (hypothesis on the formation of volcanic cones by accumulation of material)
IPOTESI DELLE CORRENTI CONVETTIVE SUBCROSTALI : hypothesis of convection currents
IPOTESI DI FORMAZIONE DELLE CALDERE PER COLLASSO : cylinder coring collapse hypothesis (caused by abrasive action of the volcanic gas)
IPOTESI NEBULARE : nebular hypothesis (historical concept)
IPOTESI PLANETESIMALE : planetesimal hypothesis
IPOTESI SULL’ATTIVITÀ DEL GAS MAGMATICO COME CREATORE DI CONDOTTI ALL’INTERNO DELL’EDIFICIO VULCANICO : gas fluxing hypothesis
IPOTESI SULL’EVOLUZIONE DELLA TERRA E L’OROGENESI : hypotheses on earth evolution and mountain building
IPOTESI TETRAEDRICA : tethraedral hypothesis (historical, and truly rather comical concept formulated by Lowthian in 1875, according to which the Earth tends to shrink forming a tethraedron)
IPOTIPO : hypotype, plesiotype (specimen identified as belonging to a given species but not by the same author who originally described the species)
IRRUZIONE MAGMATICA : irruption
ISOCORA : isochore (line showing the varying thickness of a stratigraphic interval regardless of the degree of the dip)
ISOCRONA : isochrone (line of equal travel time of a seismic wave)
ISOGEOTERME : isogeotherms
ISOGRADA : isograd (line on a map joining points at which metamorphism proceeded at similar values of pressure and temperature)
ISOIPSA FREATICA : water table isohyps (line at the water table surface connecting points at equal elevation relative to a reference surface)
ISOIPSA STRUTTURALE : structural contour line
ISOIPSE STRUTTURALI : structure contours
ISOLA : island
ISOLA CALDERICA : caldera island (a volcanic island in which the only caldera emerges from the water)
ISOLA CONTINENTALE : continental island
ISOLA CORALLINA : coral island
ISOLA CRATERICA : crater island (volcanic island in which only the crater emerges from the water)
ISOLA DI ACCUMULO SEDIMENTARIO : island formed by aggradation
ISOLA DI EMERSIONE : upheaved island
ISOLA DISTACCATA : detached island
ISOLA FLUVIALE : river island
ISOLA FLUVIALE MOBILE E TEMPORANEA : char
ISOLA IN PALUDE LITORANEA : marsh island (an island in a littoral marsh )
ISOLA OCEANICA : oceanic island
ISOLA PRINCIPALE RISPETTO AD UN’ISOLA MINORE ADIACENTE : mainland, main island in comparison to a lesser adjacent island
ISOLA RICONGIUNTA ALLA TERRAFERMA : attached island
ISOLA ROCCIOSA : rocky island
ISOLA SEPARANTE I PIANI DI MAREA DAL MARE APERTO : Wadden Island (from the Dutch: Wadden Eiland)
ISOLA VULCANICA : volcanic island
ISOLAMENTO : isolation
ISOLAMENTO RIPRODUTTIVO : reproductive isolation
ISOLETTA : islet
ISOLOTTI DI TERRA NUDA : tundra ostioles (in a periglacial environment)
ISOLOTTI TERROSI : tundra ostioles (in a periglacial environment)
ISOMESICO : isomesical (an adjective related to deposits laid down in identical media but not necessarily synchronous)
ISOMORFO : isomorph (an adjective applied to an organism having sufficient similarity with another, although phylogenetically different)
ISOPACA : isopach (line connecting points of equal thickness of a bed)
ISOPACA ZERO : zero isopach (line connecting points of zero thickness of a stratigraphic formation)
ISOSTASÍA : isostasy
ISOTERMA : isotherm (connecting points of equal temperature)
ISOTERMA DI ADSORBIMENTO : adsorption isotherm (rapporto fra quantità di sostanza adsorbita e la sua pressione o concentrazione a temperatura costante)
ISOTOPICO : isotopical (an adjective applied to synchronous sedimentary deposits belonging to the same geological province)
ISOTOPO : isotope
ISPESSIMENTO : thickening
ISPESSIMENTO DI CERNIERA A PIEGA : thickening of the bed
ISPESSIMENTO DI UN DEPOSITO MINERARIO : swell
ISPESSIRE : to thicken (an adjective applied to bedding)
ISTERESI : hysteresis (a bivariate relation in which the dependent variable forms a loop and therefore different values according to whether the independent variable is increasing or decreasing)
ISTERESI MAGNETICA : magnetic hysteresis
ISTMO : isthmus
ITABIRITE : itabirite (e.g. Itabira, Brasile)
KAKSA : kaksa (from Chinese: cassiterite bearing alluvial sand, a term used in the islands of Bangka and Billiton)
KAMES : kames (fan-like meltwater deposits formed on the stoss slope of an obstructive moraine, mounds of fluvioglacial material left behind by a melted glacier)
KARREN : clints
KAWAH : kawah (from Bahasa Indonesia, a very broad term), crater, crater lake, solfatara field
KEGELBERG : Kegelberg (from German, according to Schneider), normal volcanic cone
KOLONG : kolong (from Malay: cassiterite bearing alluvial sand, a term used in the islands of Bangka and Billiton)
KULIT : kulit (from Malay: cassiterite bearing eluvial sand, a term used in the islands of Bangka and Billiton)
LACCOLITE : laccolith
LACCOLITE A CALOTTA SFERICA : symmetric laccolith
LACCOLITE ASIMMETRICO : asymmetrical laccolith
LACCOLITE COMPOSITO : composite laccolith (formed by multiple intrusions by magmas of various composition)
LACCOLITE DIFFERENZIATO : differentiated laccolith (showing magmatic differentiation)
LACCOLITE DISCORDANTE : discordant laccolith
LACCOLITE INTERFORMAZIONALE : interformational laccolith (laccolithic intrusion squezeed into a plane of unconformity)
LACCOLITE MULTIPLO : multiple laccolith (a laccolith formed by multiple intrusions of the same magma)
LACCOLITE OMOGENEO : homogenous laccolith
LACCOLITE SEMPLICE : simple laccolith
LACCOLITE SEMPLICE DIVISO : divided simple laccolith (a term including composite, multiple and grouped laccoliths)
LACCOLITE SIMMETRICO : symmetric laccolith
LACCOLITE TRASVERSALE ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE DEGLI STRATI : discordant laccolith
LACCOLITI RAGGRUPPATI : compound laccolith
LACUNA STRATIGRAFICA STRUTTURALE : structural stratigraphical hiatus
LAGERART : Lagerart (from German: worthless syngenetic minerals accompanying ore minerals in ore veins)
LAGERGESTEIN : Lagergestein (from German: enclosed pieces of older rock in a sedimentary ore deposit)
LAGHETTO : small lake
LAGHI IN SOLCHI GLACIALI : groove lakes
LAGO : lake
LAGO AI PIEDI DI UNA CASCATA : plunge pool (formed under a fall)
LAGO AMARO : bitter lake
LAGO ARTIFICIALE : reservoir
LAGO BORACIFERO : borax lake
LAGO CARSICO : karst lake
LAGO COSTIERO : coastal lake
LAGO CRATERICO : crater lake
LAGO D’ACQUA DOLCE : fresh water lake
LAGO DELTIZIO : delta lake
LAGO DESERTICO : desert lake
LAGO DI ASFALTO : asphalt lake
LAGO DI BACINO CARSICO : polje lake
LAGO DI BARRIERA VULCANICA : volcanic barrier lake (a lake formed by damming of drainage by volcanic debris and tuffs)
LAGO DI CIRCO : tarn (Cumbria, Northern England)
LAGO DI CIRCO GLACIALE : cirque lake
LAGO DI CONCA EOLICA : wind erosion lake
LAGO DI CONOIDE : talus cone lake
LAGO DI DEPRESSIONE MORENICA : pit lake
LAGO DI DISGELO : thaw lake
LAGO DI DOLINA : dolina lake, sinkhole pond
LAGO DI EROSIONE : erosional lake
LAGO DI EROSIONE FLUVIALE : river erosion lake
LAGO DI FAGLIA : fault structure lake
LAGO DI FOSSA TETTONICA : fault trough lake
LAGO DI FRANA : landslide lake
LAGO DI GHIACCIAIO : glacier lake
LAGO DI MEANDRO MORTO : oxbow lake
LAGO DI PIANURA : lowland lake
LAGO DI PIEGA TETTONICA : fold structure lake
LAGO DI PLAYA : playa lake (shallow lake occupying a playa)
LAGO DI POLJE : polje lake
LAGO DI SBARRAMENTO : barrier lake, landslide lake
LAGO DI SBARRAMENTO ARTIFICIALE : reservoir
LAGO DI SBARRAMENTO GLACIALE : ice barrier lake
LAGO DI SBARRAMENTO LAVICO : lava dam lake, lava dammed lake (lake formed through damming of the drainage by a lava flow)
LAGO DI SBARRAMENTO MORENICO : moraine dammed lake, morainial lake
LAGO DI SCARSA PROFONDITÀ : shallow lake
LAGO DI SINCLINALE : synclinal lake
LAGO DI SPROFONDAMENTO : cave in lake
LAGO DI VALLATA : finger lake
LAGO DI VALLE GLACIALE : glacial valley lake
LAGO EFFIMERO DESERTICO : playa lake (shallow lake occupying a playa)
LAGO GLACIALE : glacial lake
LAGO GLACIALE PEDEMONTANO : glacial piedmont lake
LAGO IN BACINO ROCCIOSO : rock basin lake
LAGO IN VALLE TETTONICA : warped valley lake
LAGO INTERDUNARE : dune lake
LAGO LAVICO : lava lake (e.g. Hawaii)
LAGO MONTANO : mountain lake
LAGO MORENICO : morainial lake
LAGO PERMANENTE : permanent lake
LAGO PREALPINO : alpine border lake
LAGO PROGLACIALE : proglacial lake
LAGO RELITTO : relic lake (lake separated from a larger one by diastrophism)
LAGO RESIDUALE : relic lake (lake separated from a larger one by diastrophism)
LAGO SALATO : salt lake
LAGO SENZA EMISSARIO : lake without outlet
LAGO SOTTERRANEO : underground lake
LAGO TEMPORANEO : temporary lake
LAGO TERMOCARSICO : thaw lake
LAGO TETTONICO : tectonic lake
LAGO VULCANICO : volcanic lake
LAGUNA : lagoon
LAGUNA AD ANELLO : lagoon moat (between an inner island and an outer ring-shaped coral reef)
LAHAR CAUSATO DA ROTTURA DELLA PARETE DI UN LAGO VULCANICO : outbreak lahar
LAHAR DA ERUZIONE : eruption lahar (lahar caused by a volcanic eruption)
LAHAR DI PIOGGIA : rain lahar (caused by the rain on a volcanic cone)
LAMA STALATTITICA : cave blade
LAMELLA : folia (crystal form)
LAMELLA : lamel (thin layer about 1 mm thick)
LAMELLA IN GHIACCIAIO : lamina in a glacier
LAMELLARE : lamellar, shaly
LAMELLE BLU DI GHIACCIAIO : blue bands of glacier (blue bands in the glacial tongue caused by the presence of ice with a low air content)
LAMELLE SCISTOSE : folia
LAMINA : lamina (very thin layer less than 1 cm thick), plate (crystal form)
LAMINA INTRUSIVA INTRAFORMAZIONALE : interformational sheet
LAMINA PIATTA : blade (crystal form)
LAMINARE : banded, flaggy
LAMINATO : laminated, squeezed out
LAMINAZIONE : lamination (alternation of blue layers with low air content and white layers with high low content in the ice of a glacial tongue)
LAMINAZIONE CAUSATA DA UNA TEMPESTA NEI SEDIMENTI DI UNA PALUDE SALMASTRA LITORANEA : storm surge lamination
LAMINAZIONE DI MAREA : tidal lamination (lamination caused by tides in channel, tidal flat or marsh sediments)
LAMINE ACCESSORIE : accessory plates (used in the petrographic microscope to determine the optical characters of a mineral, they include quartz wedge, as well gypsum and mica plates)
LAMINE DI FALDA : dislodged slices of a nappe (fragmentation slices of a nappe carried and lodged into the more recent strata)
LAMPO ELETTRICO : lightning flash (between two volcanic clouds or between a volcanic cloud and the earth)
LAMPROFIRICO : lamprophyric (an adjective applied to the texture of lamprophyres, igneous rocks in which the most important minerals are predominantly idiomorphic)
LANCIA A PRESSIONE : airlance (length of piping used to free an oil plant, or other industrial plant, py means of compressed air)
LAPIÉS : clints (narrow channels or furrows separated by ridges or crests, caused by the solvent action of rainwater on a limestone surface)
LAPILLI : lapilli
LAPILLI COMPATTI : dense lapilli, lapilli di lava compatta
LAPILLI CRISTALLINI : crystal lapilli
LAPILLI DI LAVA COMPATTA : dense lapilli
LAPILLI FILIFORMI : Pelé’s hair
LARGHEZZA DI UN RICOPRIMENTO : width of the overturn
LARGHEZZA DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : width of the overturn
LARGHEZZA SVILUPPATA DI UNA PIEGA CORICATA : unfolded width of the overturn
LASTRA DI GHIACCIO MARINO ALLA DERIVA DI DIAMETRO INFERIORE A 10 METRI : ice cake
LASTRA DI GHIACCIO MARINO ALLA DERIVA FRA I 10 E I 200 M DI DIAMETRO : small floe
LATERITE : laterite (red surficial layer of iron and aluminium hydroxides)
LATERIZZAZIONE : laterization
LATI DI UN BATOLITE : batholith walls
LATO : flank (of an anticline or a syncline), side (of a rock mass along a fault plane)
LATO A MONTE : stoss side
LATO A PENDENZA RIPIDA : steep flank (of an anticline or a syncline)
LATO A VALLE : lee side (in climatology, geomorphology, sedimentology)
LATO DI PIEGA RIVOLTO VERSO FONDO DI SINCLINALE : basinward limb
LATO FRONTEGGIANTE IL VENTO PREVALENTE : windward side (in a dune or other relief)
LATO INFERIORE : lower side (of bedding)
LATO MEDIANO : middle limb (of an anticline or a syncline)
LATO MEDIANO ATTENUATO : reduced middle limb (of an anticline or a syncline)
LATO PIATTO : straight flank (of an anticline or a syncline)
LATO SOLLEVATO DI UN BLOCCO FAGLIATO E BASCULATO : heaved side of a tilted fault block
LATO SOTTOVENTO DI UNA DUNA : lee side
LATO SUPERIORE : top side (of a stratigraphic unit)
LATTE GLACIALE : glacier milk (glacial stream of high turbidity due to suspended rock dust)
LAVA : lava
LAVA A BLOCCHI : block lava
LAVA A CORDE : ropy lava
LAVA A GUANCIALI : pillow lava
LAVA A PIATTAFORMA : bench lava (e.g. Kilauea)
LAVA A POMICE : foamy lava
LAVA AA : aa lava (typical of shield volcanoes of the hawaiian type, it tends to form large blocks thereby forming an irregular surface)
LAVA BRECCIATA PRIMARIA : eutaxite (aggregate of two chemically differentiated magmas)
LAVA CLASTOGENA : clastogenetic lava
LAVA COLANTE : flow lava
LAVA DERMOLITICA : fluent lava
LAVA ESTREMAMENT FLUIDA : highly mobile lava
LAVA ESTREMAMENTE VISCOSA : highly viscous lava
LAVA FARINOSA : farinaceous lava
LAVA FLUENTE : flow lava
LAVA FLUIDA : mobile lava
LAVA FUSA : molten lava
LAVA GLOBULARE : globular lava
LAVA HELLUHRAUN : helluhraun (from Icelandic: a lava flow of basaltic volcanoes resembling to the pahoehoe lava of the Hawaii)
LAVA MOBILE : mobile lava
LAVA MOLTO FLUIDA : very fluid lava
LAVA MOLTO MOBILE : very fluid lava
LAVA PAHOEHOE : pahoehoe lava (from Hawaiian: a lava flow of basaltic shield-volcanoes of the hawaiian type, thinner than aa lava and tending to form a solid surface without intervening blocks)
LAVA PAHOEHOE A BLOCCHI : slab pahoehoe
LAVA PAHOEHOE A CONCHIGLIE : shelly pahoehoe
LAVA PAHOEHOE A FILAMENTI : filamented pahoehoe (pahoehoe lava having a lacy or filamented appearance)
LAVA PAHOEHOE A FRATTAGLIE : entrail pahoehoe (with the surface similar to twisted entrails)
LAVA PAHOEHOE A PELLE DI ELEFANTE : elephant hide pahoehoe (with the surface covered by variously shaped swells)
LAVA PAHOEHOE A PELLE DI SQUALO : sharkskin pahoehoe (with the surface covered by tiny spicules and spines formed by degassing of the surface)
LAVA PALEOVULCANICA : palaeovolcanic lava
LAVA PIPERNOIDE : clastogenetic lava
LAVA SOLIDIFICATA : frozen lava
LAVA SPUMOSA : foamy lava
LAVA TEFRICA : agglutinate, tephric lava
LAVA VETRIFICATA IN SUPERFICIE : fluent lava
LAVA VISCOSA : viscous lava
LAVAGGIO CONTROCORRENTE : elutriation
LECTOTIPO : lectotype (cotype specimen designated as a type of a species at a date later than the original description of the same species)
LEGANTE : cement
LEGENDA : legend (of a map)
LEGGE BIOGENETICA : biogenetic law (old theory whereby ontogeny is regarded as a recapitulation of phylogeneny of the group)
LEGGE DEI VOLUMI UGUALI : law of equal volumes (in the replacement of minerals by metasomatism)
LEGGE DELLA TETRAPLASIA : law of tetraplasy, law of the four inseparable factors of evolution (heredity, ontogeny, natural selection, evironment)
LEGGE DELL’IRREVERSIBILITÀ DELL’EVOLUZIONE : law of irreversibility in evolution
LEGNO CARBONIZZATO NERISSIMO : jet
LENTE : lens (sedimentary unit)
LENTE SABBIOSA GRANDEMENTE ALLUNGATA : shoestring sand
LENTE SABBIOSA INCIDENTALE : stray sand
LENTICOLARE : lenticular (shape of a sedimentary unit)
LEPIDOBLASTICO : lepidoblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of metamorphic schistose rocks with minerals of a flaky or scaly habit formed during recrystallization, the most frequent minerals being mica and chlorite)
LEPTINITE : leptynite (from Scandinavian languages: even-grained metamorphic rock lacking micaceous minerals or amphiboles, and hence not obviously schistose, produced by regional metamorphism of the highest grade)
LEPTINOLITE : leptynolite (a fissile or schistose variety of hornfels containing mica, quartz and feldspar, with or without minerals such as andalusite and cordierite)
LEPTITE : leptite (from French; even-grained metamorphic rock lacking micaceous minerals or amphiboles, and hence not obviously schistose, produced by regional metamorphism of the highest grade)
LETTI ACCESSORI : subordinate beds
LETTI ADIACENTI : adjacent beds
LETTI AL PIEDE DI UN DELTA : bottom set beds
LETTI ALTERNATI : alternating beds
LETTI ASSOCIATI : associated beds
LETTI DEL DELTA SOMMERSO : fore set beds (submerged sedimentary beds covering the slope of a delta)
LETTI DI TRANSIZIONE : transition beds (between different geological formations)
LETTI INCASSANTI : enclosing beds
LETTI IRREGOLARI DI NODULI LAVICI : globular lava
LETTI LAVICI ACCUMULATI : accumulated lava beds
LETTI ROSSI : red beds (sedimentary red-coloured beds deposited in a continental environment and formed by argillites, silt and sandstone)
LETTO : bed (a stratigraphic unit made up by several layers or strata)
LETTO A CICLI SEDIMENTARI : graded bed (lithological and textural sequence of beds repeated many times in the stratigraphic column, produced by a cyclic deposition of sediments)
LETTO A FLUSSO ELEVATO : high water bed
LETTO A FLUSSO MEDIO : mean water bed (of a river)
LETTO CARATTERISTICO : key bed
LETTO COMPETENTE : competent bed (a river bed strong enough to transmit stresses)
LETTO DEL PIANO DI FAGLIA FRONTEGGIANTE IL BLOCCO SPROFONDATO : inner fault face
LETTO DI ACQUA ALTA : high water bed
LETTO DI ACQUA BASSA : mean water bed (of a river)
LETTO DI OSSA : bone bed
LETTO DI SCORIE VULCANICHE : bed of scoriae
LETTO DI TUFO : tuff bed
LETTO FLUVIALE : river bed
LETTO FLUVIALE SECCO : ouadi, wash
LETTO GUIDA : key bed
LETTO INCLUDENTE : confining bed (impermeable geological formation above an aquifer)
LETTO INCOMPETENTE : incompetent bed (layer not sufficiently rigid to transmit particular stresses but which crush or fllow under them)
LETTO INTERCALATO : intercalation
LETTO INTERFORMAZIONALE : intercalation
LETTO LAVICO : lava bed
LETTO MAGGIORE DI UN CORSO D’ACQUA : high water bed
LETTO MINERARIO : ore bed
LETTO NATURALE : natural bed (of a building stone in the quarry from which it was extracted, corresponding to a bedding plane, a foliation plane, or joint plane)
LETTO NORMALE : mean water bed (of a river)
LETTO ORDINARIO : mean water bed (of a river)
LETTO PER LETTO : lit par lit (a term applied to a structure in migmatites due to the presence of numerous granitic laminae and streaks parallel to schistosity surfaces of a foliated rock)
LETTO RIGIDO : competent bed (a bed strong enough to transmit stresses)
LETTO SOGGIACENTE : underlying bed
LETTO SOTTILE : thin bed
LETTO SOVRAPPOSTO : capping bed
LETTO SPESSO : thick bed
LETTO TENERO : incompetent bed (layer not sufficiently rigid to transmit particular stresses but which crush or fllow under them)
LETTURE DI TENDENZA E INCLINAZIONE : strike and dip readings (of a stratum)
LEUCOCRATICO : leucocratic (an adjective applied to rocks mainly made up by light coloured minerals)
LEVEE (or LEVÉE) : (from French, usually written in English without accent) levee (or levée) (in fluvial geomorphology: formed by river sediments; in vulcanology: formed by the rims of a collapsed volcanic channel)
LEVÉE NATURALE : levee (or levée) (from French, usually written in English without accent; in fluvial geomorphology: formed by river sediments; in vulcanology: formed by the rims of a collapsed volcanic channel)
LEVELLED FAULT : levelled fault (a fault without differences in topographic height)
LEVIGATURA GLACIALE : polish (due to glacial movements)
LEVIGAZIONE DEL PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE : polish (due to of folding movements)
LEVIGAZIONE DEL PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE IN SEGUITO A PIEGAMENTO : polishing due to folding
LEVIGAZIONE GLACIALE : polishing
LIBERO DALLA NEVE : snow free
LIGNITE : lignite (product of diagenesis of peat)
LIGNITE BITUMINOSA : pitch coal
LIMAN : liman (a drowned river valley on a low coast, protected from the open sea by a barrier beach)
LIMITE DI ZONA A STRIATURE GLACIALI : limit of glacial polish
LIMITE INFERIORE AL QUALE LE ONDE MARINE POSSONO MUOVERE LE PARTICELLE DEL FONDO : wave base
LIMITE INFERIORE DEL TENORE DEL METALLO : lower limit of the tenor of the ore
LIMITE INFERIORE DELLE NEVI PERMANENTI : snow line
LIMITE SUPERIORE DELL’ABRASIONE CAUSATA DALLE ONDE : wave base
LIMNOBIOSFERA : limnobios (fresh water hydrobiosphere, fresh water part of the biosphere)
LIMONITE : limonite, loam
LIMONITE CONCREZIONATA CONCHIGLIFORME : conchilite
LIMONITICO : loamy
L’INCLINAZIONE DEGLI STRATI DIMINUISCE FINO A ……. : beds flatten out to …….
LINEA AGONICA : agonic line (line connecting all points with no magnetic declination, those where magnetic north and and true north coincide)
LINEA ASSIALE ANTICLINALE : anticlinal axis
LINEA ASSIALE SINCLINALE : synclinal axis
LINEA CONGIUNGENTE I PUNTI PIÚ BASSI DI UN SISTEMA A PIEGHE : trough line minimum
LINEA CONGIUNGENTE LE PARTI PIÚ BASSE DI UNA PIEGA SINCLINALE : trough line
LINEA COSISMICA : homoseismal line (line on the surface of the Earth connecting points of equal earthquake intensity)
LINEA DEL FIRN : firn line (dividing line between the reception basin and the ablation basin of a glacier)
LINEA DEL FIRN : névé line (line on the glacier surface separating the accumulation and the ablation area)
LINEA DELLA VERA INCLINAZIONE : true dip line
LINEA DI ALTA MAREA : high water line (intersection between the high tide level and the coast)
LINEA DI BASSA MAREA : low water line (intersection between the low water level and the coast)
LINEA DI COSTA : coast line, shoreline
LINEA DI COSTA DI UNA BARRIERA SEDIMENTARIA VERSO IL LARGO : outer shoreline
LINEA DI COSTA DI UNA BARRIERA SEDIMENTARIA VERSO LA TERRAFERMA : inner shoreline
LINEA DI CRESTA : crest line (a line linking the highest parts of a system of folds)
LINEA DI CRESTA ABBASSATA : plunging crest line (in a fold system)
LINEA DI CRESTA ONDULATA : undulated crest line
LINEA DI FLUSSO IDRICO SOTTERRANEO : flow line
LINEA DI FRATTURA NEL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : line of volcanic rent
LINEA DI INTERSEZIONE DI UNA FAGLIA CON IL PIANO DI CAMPAGNA : fault line
LINEA DI MASSIMA VELOCITÀ DI UNA CORRENTE FLUVIALE O DI UN GHIACCIAIO : thread of maximum velocity
LINEA DI MATERIALE ABBANDONATO SULLA SPIAGGIA : drift line
LINEA DI RIVA LACUSTRE : shoreline
LINEA DI SVILUPPO : phylogenetic series
LINEA DI TENDENZA : strike line (of a layer)
LINEA DI VALLE : thalweg
LINEA ISOGALICA : isogal line (line of equal gravitational anomaly)
LINEA ISOGAMICA : isogam (line of equal magnetic anomaly)
LINEA ISOPIESTICA : piezometric contour
LINEA ISOSISMICA : isoseismal line (connecting points of equal earthquake intensity)
LINEA PLEISTOSISMICA : innermost isoseismal line (line on the surface of the Earth surrounding the area hit strongest by an earthquake)
LINEA ZERO : zero isopach (line connecting points of zero thickness of a stratigraphic formation)
LINEAZIONE : lineation (in lithology: parallel alignement of linear elements of the fabric in metamorphic rocks; in tectonic geology: linear parallelism of striae, scratches, furrows, etc. of a fault)
LINEE CHE SEGNANO IL TEMPO SUL SISMOGRAMMA : timer lines
LINEE DI EGUALE ATTIVITÀ VULCANICA : lines of equal volcanic activity (lines connecting points of equal volcanic activity, lines of equal volcanic activity)
LINEE ISANOMALE : isanomalic lines (lines of equal anomaly, gravitational, magnetic, etc.)
LINGUA DI LAVA : lava tongue
LINGUA GLACIALE : glacier tongue
LINNOLOGIA : limnology
LINOFIRICO : linophyric (an adjective applied to the texture of a lynophyre)
LINOFIRO : linophyre (a term used by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington for porphyritic rocks in which the phenocrysts are arranged in lines or streaks)
LIQUAZIONE : liquation (process of differentiation of magma by separation of two chemically different fractions which have become immiscible due to physical or chemical changes, this may result in the formation of some sulphide ore deposits)
LISCIVIAZIONE : leaching (washing out of organic matter and mineral salts from the soil due to infiltration of rain into the soil), podzolization
LITIFICAZIONE : consolidation, diagenesis (sum of the processes which turn an incoherent sediment into a compact rock, excluding metamorphism)
LITOFACIES : lithofacies, lithological facies (complex of lithological characters of a sedimentary deposit at a given point)
LITOFISA : lithophyse (sferulites made up by concentric spheres with empty spaces)
LITOGENETICO : lithogenetic
LITOIDE : lithoidal (an adjective applied to crystalline rocks)
LITOIDITE : lithoidite (rhyolite devoid of phenocrysts)
LITOMORFICO : lythomorphic (a term applied a deuteromorphic constituents of a rock whose shapes have been modified by magmatic corrosion)
LITORALE : shore (coastal strip extending from the low-water line to the landward limit of effective wave action)
LITORALE ALLUVIONALE : alluvial plain shoreline
LITOSFERA : litosphere
LITOTIPI : litho types (types of coal observable with the naked eye)
LITOTIPO COSTITUITO DA FUSITE : fusain
LITOTIPO COSTITUITO DA MICROLITOTIPI RICCHI DI VETRINITE : vitrain
LITOTOPO : lithotope (area of uniform sedimentation)
LIVELLAMENTO : degradation
LIVELLO ARTESIANO: artesian head
LIVELLO DELL’ACQUA : water level (in a sea, a river, a lake)
LIVELLO DELL’ACQUA IN UN ACQUIFERO ARTESIANO : capillary head
LIVELLO DI ALTA MAREA : high water level
LIVELLO DI BASE DELL’EROSIONE CARSICA : base level of karst erosion
LIVELLO DI BASE DI EROSIONE : base level of erosion
LIVELLO DI BASSA MAREA : low water level
LIVELLO DI CIRCO GLACIALE : cirque floor level
LIVELLO DI COMPENSAZIONE ISOSTATICA : compensation level
LIVELLO DI DENUDAMENTO : Grenzgipfelflur (from the German, maximum height which mountains cannot exceed due to the increased intensity of degradational forces with rising altitude)
LIVELLO DI DENUDAMENTO : top level of denudation (maximum height above which mountains cannot grow due to increased intensity of degradation forces with rising altitudine)
LIVELLO DI ESPLOSIONE : level of explosion
LIVELLO DI FALDA FREATICA : water table (upper surface of the saturation zone in a permeable rock)
LIVELLO DI FIRN : névé field level
LIVELLO DI INCISIONE PRESSOCHÉ CONTINUO LUNGO UN VERSANTE VALLIVO FORMATO ALLO STADIO DI MATURITÀ DI UN PRECEDENTE CICLO DI EROSIONE : strath
LIVELLO DI MEZZA MAREA : half tide level (intermediate level between high and low tide)
LIVELLO DI RIFERIMENTO : datum plane, structural datum (plane to which are referred the corrections of elevation in gravimetric measurements)
LIVELLO DI SATURAZIONE : water table (upper surface of the saturation zone in a permeable rock)
LIVELLO DI SPIANAMENTO PARZIALE : valley-floor side strips (nearly plain surface between the wash slope and the true valley bottom)
LIVELLO DI TRACIMAZIONE : overflow level
LIVELLO DI UN POZZO CORRISPONDENTE AD ASSENZA DI DISCARICA : static head
LIVELLO FREATICO : groundwater level (level of the water table measured in wells)
LIVELLO GENERALE DI BASE DI EROSIONE : general base level of erosion
LIVELLO IDROSTATICO : hydrostatic level
LIVELLO LACUSTRE : lake level
LIVELLO LOCALE DI BASE : (from German) Vorflut
LIVELLO LOCALE DI BASE DI EROSIONE : local base level of erosion
LIVELLO MASSIMO DELLE VETTE : top level of denudation (maximum height above which mountains cannot grow due to increased intensity of degradation forces with rising altitudine)
LIVELLO MEDIO DEL MARE : mean sea level
LIVELLO MEDIO DELLA CROSTA TERRESTRE : mean sphere level
LIVELLO PIEZOMETRICO : piezometric surface
LIVELLO POTENZIOMETRICO : potentiometric surface (level that can be reached by the water table inside an aquifer)
LIVELLO STATICO : static level (water table level not influenced by extraction)
LIVELLO STATICO DELL’ACQUA IN UN POZZO : standing level
LIVELLO TEMPORANEO DI BASE DI EROSIONE : local base level of erosion
LOBO ALLUVIONALE : floodplain lobe (zone of alluvial plain surrounded by a meander of a river)
LOBO DI MEANDRO : meander lobe (in a river)
LOBO FLUVIALE : floodplain lobe (zone of alluvial plain surrounded by a meander of a river)
LOBO FRONTALE DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : frontal lobe (hinge anticline in the frontal zone of a nappe)
LOBO LAVICO : lava tongue
LOCALITÀ : locality (of a fossil find)
LOCALITÀ TIPO : type locality (of a stratigraphic formation or a fossil, from which the formation or the fossil derive their name)
LOCALIZZATO AL DI SOPRA : situated above
LOCALIZZAZIONE PETROLIFERA : oil occurrence
LOESS RIMANEGGIATO : reworked loess
LOESS SABBIOSO : sandy loess
LONGULITE : longulite (elongated crystallite)
LOPOLITE : lopolith (disc- or spoon-shape magmatic intrusion)
LOTTA PER LA VITA : struggle for life (old term of Darwinian origin)
LOTTA PER L’ESISTENZA : struggle for esistence (old term of Darwinian origin)
LUBLINITE : lublinite (soft mxture of water and limestone in a cave)
LUCE DA INCANDESCENZA : blaze (bright light of a body at high temperature)
LUCE INTENSA : glare
LUNA : moon
LUNGA E AMPIA DEPRESSIONE DEL FONDO MARINO CON SEZIONE VERTICALE ARROTONDATA : trough
LUNGA E SOTTILE LINGUA DI TERRA SPORGENTE A MARE O IN UN LAGO : tongue
LUNGA E STRETTA DEPRESSIONE DEL FONDO MARINO : trench
LUNGHEZZA DEL DISPOSITIVO SISMOGRAFICO : spread length
LUNGHEZZA DELL’INDICATORE : indicator length (length of mathematical pendulum which would yield pulses equal to those of the indicator)
LUNGHEZZA D’ONDA DI RIPPLE MARKS : wave length of ripple marks
LUNGHEZZA EQUIVALENTE DEL PENDOLO : length of equivalent pendulum (mathematical pendulum = physical pendulum)
LUTITE : lutite, pelite (cemented rock from silty and clayey material)
MAAR ASCIUTTO : dry maar (flat and dry volcanic basin formed by a single eruption or sporadic ones)
MAAR BASALTICO : basaltic maar (volcanic lake formed by a single explosion or by sporadic explosions of basaltic magma)
MAAR DI TUFO : tuff maar (volcanic lake from a single explosion or spasmodic explosions of tufa material)
MAAR FALSO : false maar (volcanic lake seemingly formed by a single explosion or by sporadic explosions but in reality having a different origin)
MAAR GASSOSO : gas maar (volcanic lake formed by a single violent gas vent or by few gas vents)
MACERALE : maceral (microscopic homogenous components forming a coal, as minerals form a rock
MACERALE DERIVATO DA LEGNO O CORTECCIA : vitrinite
MACROCLASTI : coarse grained clastics (sediments with particles over 2 mm in diameter)
MACROEVOLUZIONE : macroevolution
MACROMUTAZIONE : macromutation
MACROPOLISCHEMATICO : macropolyschematic (a term applied to a body of rock or mineral deposit composed of macroscopically distinguishable elements with different fabrics)
MACROSPORA : macrospore
MADRE DEL CARBONE : fusain
MAFICO : mafic (a mnemonic term for the ferromagnesian minerals, which are actually present in an igneous rock; the term is also applied to rocks made up mainly of this group of minerals)
MAGMA : magma
MAGMA ANATETTICO : anatectic magma (formed by remelting of preexisting rocks that have passed through the stage of migma)
MAGMA CENTRALE : central magma (magma as it appears at the surface during an eruption)
MAGMA CHE RIEMPIE IL CONDOTTO VULCANICO : magma column
MAGMA CRATERICO : crateral magma (magma as is appears at the surface during an eruption)
MAGMA IBRIDO : hybrid magma (by mixing of chemically different magmas)
MAGMA INDIFFERENZIATO DI UNA REGIONE COMAGMATICA : parental magma
MAGMA INTERCROSTALE : intercrustal magma
MAGMA LATENTE : latent magma
MAGMA ORIGINARIO : parental magma
MAGMA PALINGENETICO : palingenetic magma, palingenic magma (magma formed by refusion of pre-existing rocks)
MAGMA POVERO DI GAS : gas poor magma
MAGMA PRIMORDIALE : primary magma
MAGMA RESIDUO : rest magma (after crystallization of the greater part of its silica content, the residue, rich in volatile substances, metals and rare elements, constitutes the mother substance for the formation of metal veins)
MAGMA RICCO DI GAS : gas rich magma
MAGMA SPUGNOSO RICCO DI GAS : pyromagma (spongy magma rich of gas)
MAGMA SUBCROSTALE : latent magma
MAGMATICO LATENTE : latent magmatic
MAGNETISMO : magnetism
MAGNETISMO DELLE ROCCE : rock magnetism
MAGNETIZZAZIONE INDOTTA : induced magnetization
MAGNETIZZAZIONE INVERSA : reversed magnetization (magnetizazion opposed to the present geomagnetic field)
MAGNETIZZAZIONE IRREVERSIBILE : magnetic hysteresis
MAGNETIZZAZIONE RESIDUA : remanent magnetization, residual magnetization (part of magnetization which remains when the external magnetic field disappears)
MAGNETIZZAZIONE REVERSIBILE : reversible magnetization
MAGNETIZZAZIONE RIMANENTE : remanent magnetizaion, residual magnetization (part of magnetization which remains when the external magnetic field disappears)
MAGNETIZZAZIONE SPONTANEA : spontaneous magnetization
MAGNETIZZAZIONE TERMOSTABILE : thermoremnant magnetization (magnetization acquired by cooling of material under the Curie point)
MAGNETODEFORMAZIONE : magnetostriction (mechanical deformation caused in a material by magnetization)
MAGNETOMETRO : magnetometer
MAGNETOMETRO ASTATICO : astatic magnetometer (nearly insensitive to external magnetic fluctuations)
MAGNETOMETRO AVIOTRASPORTATO : airborne magnetometer
MAGNETOMETRO ORIZZONTALE : horizontal magnetometer
MAGNETOMETRO VERTICALE : vertical magnetometer
MAL STRATIFICATO : poorly bedded
MALPAESE : scorched area (by volcanic activity)
MAMMELLONATO : mammillary
MAMMIFERI : mammals
MAMMIFERI APLACENTALI : metatheria
MAMMIFERI OVIPARI : prototheria
MAMMIFERI PLACENTALI : eutheria
MANGROVIA : mangrove
MANIFESTAZIONI DI VULCANESIMO SECONDARIO : paravolcanic phenomena
MANIFESTAZIONI VULCANICHE CHE NON RAGGIUNGONO LA SUPERFICIE : cryptovolcanism
MANTELLO : mantle
MANTELLO ALLUVIONALE DI UN TERRAZZO : alluvial cover of a terrace
MANTELLO AUTOCTONO : autochtonous mantle (lower part of the sedimentary mantle which remains attached to the substrate while the remainder of the sedimentary cover undergoes gravitational sliding)
MANTELLO DI CENERE VULCANICA : coating of ash
MANTELLO DI LAVA SOLIDIFICATA : coating of lava
MANTELLO DI MATERIALE DISGREGATO : residual soil
MANTELLO DI SCORIE VULCANICHE : mantle of scoriae
MANTELLO INTERNO : inner mantle
MANTELLO SEDIMENTARIO : sedimentary mantle (total thickness of sediments overlying a crystalline basement or a massif)
MANTELLO SEDIMENTARIO ATTACCATO : attached sedimentary mantle (sedimentary mantle attached to the crystalline basement)
MANTELLO SILICICO : silicate mantle
MANTELLO VULCANICO : volcano mantle (emerging part of the volcano)
MARE : sea
MARE ADIACENTE : marginal (sea) basin
MARE DI SABBIA : sand sea
MARE INTERNO : inland sea
MARE MARGINALE : adjacent sea
MARE PROFONDO : deep sea
MAREA : tide
MAREA ASCENDENTE : rising tide
MAREA CON LA LUNA IN QUADRATURA : neap tide
MAREA DISCENDENTE : falling tide
MAREA IN RITIRO : falling tide
MAREA MORTA : neap tide
MAREA VIVA : spring tide (tide of increased range occurring semi-monthly as a result of the moon being new or full)
MAREMOTO : sea wave, seismic sea wave, seaquake, tsunami
MARGARITE : margarite (linear string of spherical crystallites, i.e. globulites)
MARGINE ATTIVO : active margin (continental margin characterized by earthquakes, volcanism and mountain-building, due to convergent or transform movements of plates)
MARGINE DELTIZIO : delta margin
MARGINE INTERNO DELL’ATOLLO : lagoonward rise
MARGINE LAGUNARE ESTERNO : lagoon slope
MARGINE LAGUNARE INTERNO : lagoon margin
MARGINE PASSIVO : passive margin (stable continentale margin, with no plate movements)
MARMITTA DEI GIGANTI : pothole, rock mill
MARMITTA DEI GIGANTI DI CASCATA : plunge pool (formed under a fall)
MARMITTA DEI GIGANTI SOTTO UN GHIACCIAIO : moulin pothole (cut in the rock under a glacier)
MARMITTA DI EROSIONE : pothole, rock mill
MARMO : marble
MARMORIZZAZIONE : marbling, marmarization (transformation of limestone into marble)
MARNA : marl
MARNOSO : marly
MARSUPIALI : metatheria
MASSA DI GHIACCIO SEMIARENATA SU UNA COSTA : growler
MASSA DI LAVA INTRUSA AL DI SOTTO DI LETTI DI TUFO : intrusive dome
MASSA DI PLICHE : mass of rumples (small scale folds mostly in alternating hard and soft beds)
MASSA MINERALIZZATA : ore body
MASSA OSSIDATA FERROSA SUPERFICIALE : gossan
MASSA STAZIONARIA : stationary mass (chief element of any seismograph)
MASSACRO : massacre
MASSE DI COMPENSAZIONE : compensation masses (masses which bring about a compensation effect)
MASSERELLA LAVICA INFORME : lava rag
MASSI LEVIGATI DA ESARAZIONE GLACIALE : polished boulders
MASSICCIO : massif (substantive), massive (adjective: not stratified)
MASSICCIO AUTOCTONO : autochtonous massif
MASSICCIO ERUTTIVO : eruptive body (by injection or extrusion at the surface)
MASSICCIO INTERMEDIO : intermediary massif
MASSICCIO MONTANO SPIANATO : truncated uplands (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
MASSICCIO SALINO : salt plug
MASSICCIO SOPRAELEVATO VULCANOTETTONICO : volcano-tectonic horst, vulcano-tectonic horst
MASSIMA CAPACITÀ DI RITENZIONE DELL’ACQUA : maximum water holding capacity (by a layer of the soil; in the British Isles: amount of water held by a layer of soil in equilibriun with the lower lying groundwater; in North America: average moisture content in a disturbed soil sample one centimetre thick after reaching equilibrium with the groundwater in which it is immersed to a depth of one millimetre)
MASSIMA PROFONDITÀ DELLA TRAIETTORIA SISMICA : maximum depth of the seismic ray
MASSIMA VELOCITÀ DI INFILTRAZIONE DELL’ACQUA : infiltration capacity
MASSIMO SISMICO : maximum long wave phase (maximum reached by the main seismic phase)
MASSO : boulder (a particle having a diameter above 256 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
MASSO ERRATICO : erratic block
MASSO VULCANICO A CROSTA DI PANE : breadcrusted boulder
MATERIALE DEPOSITATO DALLA PARTE DI RISACCA ASCENDENTE CHE NON DEFLUISCE IMMEDIATAMENTE : washovers (held by a bar or a berm)
MATERIALE DETRITICO : debris, detritus
MATERIALE DI DERIVA : drifted material (material, usually organic, deposited on a beach after drifting)
MATERIALE DI FONDO : bedload
MATERIALE DISCIOLTO : dissolved material
MATERIALE IN SOLUZIONE : solute load
MATERIALE MOBILE : mobile material (of a massif)
MATERIALE PIROCLASTICO : pyroclastics, tephra
MATERIALE SCIOLTO : loose material
MATERIALE STABILE : stable material (of a massif)
MATERIALI PARENTALI : cognate ejecta (piroclastic material derived both from fluid lava and from solidified material inside the volcanic vent, a term including essential ejecta and accessory ejecta)
MATERIALI PIROCLASTICI ESSENZIALI : essential ejecta (derived from fluid lava)
MATRICE : groundmass
MEANDRI DIVAGANTI : free swinging meanders
MEANDRO : curve, fluvial meander, meander (of a river)
MEANDRO DI TERRAZZO : terrace meander
MEANDRO INCASSATO : incised meander, ingrown meander, intrenched meander
MEANDRO INCISO : incised meander, ingrown meander, intrenched meander
MEANDRO MORTO : oxbow lake
MEANDRO TAGLIATO : cutoff meander
MECCANICA DEI SUOLI : soil mechanics
MECCANISMO DI ERUZIONE : mechanism of eruption
MEDIO BACINO : middle course (of a river)
MEGABRECCIA : megabreccia
MEGAFENOCRISTALLO : megaphenocryst (a phenocryst which is visible to the unaided eye)
MEGAONDULAZIONE : megaripple (in a sandy river bed; sometimes called “dune” altough such term is best avoided, as it may cause confusion with eolian forms)
MEGAPORFIRITICO : megaporphyritic (an adjective applied to a prophyritic texture in which the phenocrysts are visible to the unaided eye)
MELANOCRATICO : melanocratic (an adjective applied to igneous rocks wherein mafic, i.e. dark minerals predominate, being without exception over 50%)
MELIKARIA : melikaria (boxwork of crack fillings weathered out from a septarian nodule)
MELILITE : melilite (calcium, aluminium and magnesium silicate, crystallized in the tetragonal system, in alkaline igneous and contact metamorphic rocks)
MENISCO : meniscus (plur. menisci)
MERISMITE : merismite (chorismite characterized by irregular penetration of the units in the fabric)
MESA : (from Spanish) table mountain
MESCOLAMENTO : mixing (procedure in seismic survey whereby the energy recorded by each seismograph is divided over a number of adjacent traces on the seismogram, so that each seismogram trace derives its energy from a number of adjacent seismometer stations)
MESCOLANZA SEDIMENTARIA CONFUSA : disordered deposit
MESOCRATICO : mesocratic (an adjective applied to igneous rocks made up in roughly equal amounts of dark and light coloured minerals, more exactly applied to igneous rocks containing between 30% and 60% of dark minerals)
MESOSIDERITE : mesosiderite, siderolite (heterogenous meteorite of nickeliferous iron and silicates)
MESOSTASI : mesostasis (a term used by Gumbel for the final products of magmatic solidification)
MESOTIPO : mesotype (an adjective applied to igneous rocks containing between 30% and 60% of dark minerals: a term proposed by Shand instead of mesocratic)
MESOTROFICO : mesotrophic (moderately supplied with nutrient matter)
MESOZOICO : Mesozoic, Secondary, Secondary era
MESOZONA : mesozone (intermediate zone of metamorphism)
MESSA A TERRA : contact resistance (of an electric device)
METABASITE : metabasite (metamorphosed basic rocks ranging from uralite-diabases and urlaite-porphyries to amphibolitic schists)
METABENTONITE : metabentonite (recrystallized bentonite unable to absorb water in significant amount)
METABLASTISMO : metablastism, ultrametamorphism (metamorphism of the highest grade with or without introduction of new material by diffusion, but always without magmatic phase; can form migmatites and also granites)
METABOLISMO : metabolism
METACOLLOIDI : metacolloids (minerals solidified from colloidal solutions)
METALIMNIO : metalimnion, thermocline (thermal discontinuity layer between epilimnion and hypolimnion)
METALLIFERO : ore bearing
METALLIZZAZIONE TUBOLARE : ore pipe
METAMORFICO GRANULOSO : hälleflinta (from Swedish, an adjective applied to metamorphic granulose rocks of horny aspect, which are compact or porphyritic and sometimes banded , having a mineral composition with quartz, feldspar, micas, chlorite, etc., and originating from rhyolite or corresponding volcanic tuffs)
METAMORFISMO : metamorphism
METAMORFISMO A FASI SOVRAPPOSTE : polymetamorphism
METAMORFISMO AUTOMETAMORFICO : deuteric metamorphism (inside a volcanic magma by volatile components of the magma itself)
METAMORFISMO CAUSTICO : caustic metamorphism, optalic metamorphism (thermal metamorphism caused by the indurating, burning and fritting effects produced by lavas and small dikes on the rocks with which they come into contact)
METAMORFISMO CINETICO : kinetic metamorphism (due to mechanical stresses occasioned by orogenetic forces)
METAMORFISMO DI CARICO : load metamorphism
METAMORFISMO DI CONTATTO : contact metamorphism
METAMORFISMO DI INIEZIONE : injection metamorphism (formation of migmatite by injection of magma in deep-seated rocks)
METAMORFISMO DINAMICO : dynamometamorphism, kinetic metamorphism (in consequence of strong mechanical deformations caused by powerful orogenetic forces)
METAMORFISMO LOCALE : local metamorphism
METAMORFISMO OPTALICO : caustic metamorphism, optalic metamorphism (thermal metamorphism caused by the indurating, burning and fritting effects produced by lavas and small dikes on the rocks with which they come into contact)
METAMORFISMO REGIONALE : regional metamorphism
METAMORFISMO REGRESSIVO : diaphtoforesis, regressive metamorphism (a process whereby minerals of inferior grade grow at the expense of corresponding minerals at a higher level of metamorphism)
METAMORFISMO STATICO : static metamorphism (phase of regional metamorphism not induced by orogenesis)
METAMORFISMO TERMICO DI CONTATTO : thermal contact metamorphism
METAMORFOSI : metamorphosis
METARMOSI : metharmosis (chemical changes taking place in marine sediments removed from contact with water)
METASOMATICO : metasomatic
METASOMATISMO : metasomatism (replacement of a minerale by another preserving the original volume)
METASOMATITE : metasomatite (rock formed by metasomatism)
METATIPO : metatype (topotype identified by the same author as belonging to the species he has described)
METAZOI : metazoans
METEORITE : meteor
METEORITE FERROSA : (a meteorite consisting almost wholly of nickeliferous iron)
METEOROLOGIA : meteorology
METODI BASATI SULLA BOBINA ORIZZONTALE : horizontal loop methods (used to determine the equipotential lines of the magnetic field)
METODI BASATI SULL’INDUZIONE MAGNETICA : inductive methods (to determine the equipotential lines of the magnetic field)
METODI DI INDUZIONE MAGNETICA CON BOBINA VERTICALE : vertical loop methods
METODI DI ORIENTAMENTO : direction finding methods (methods for the determination of the magnetic field)
METODI DI PROSPEZIONE GEOCHIMICA : geochemical prospection method (based on the determination of trace elements in vegetation, soils, waters, etc.)
METODI DI RESISTIVITÀ : resistivity methods (electrical exploration methods in which current is introduced in the ground by two contact electrodes and potential differences are measured between two other electrodes)
METODI ELETTROMAGNETICI : electromagnetic methods
METODI ELETTROMAGNETICI GALVANICI : galvanic electromagnetic methods (to determine the equipotential lines of the magnetic field)
METODI RADIO : radio methods (electrical exploration methods based on the passage of radio waves through the ground)
METODO A CINQUE ELETTRODI : partitioning method (a resistivity method in which a special electrode configuration is used, consisting of five electrodes instead of the usual four, in order to provide a check on the observations)
METODO COMPENSATIVO : compensation method (for measuring voltage differences)
METODO DEI PROFILI BIDIMENSIONALI : two dimensional method (simplified method to calculate the effect on gravity of geological structures in section, in which these structures are assumed to be infinitely long at right angles to the section)
METODO DI BULLARD : Bullard’s method (for the calculation of the gravitative anomaly)
METODO DI ELTRAN : Eltran method (for investigations on terrestrial eletricity)
METODO DI ESPLORAZIONE ELETTRICA EQUIPOTENZIALE : equipotential line method (method of electric exploration to determine equipotential lines)
METODO DI INDUZIONE AD ANELLO : ring induction method
METODO DI POLARIZZAZIONE SPONTANEA : self potential method (electrical method in which one determines the spontaneous electrical potentials caused by electrochemical reactions of ore bodies)
METODO PER LA MISURAZIONE DEI POTENZIALI ELETTRICI TERRESTRI RELATIVI : potential drop ratio method
MIAROLITICO : drusy, miarolitic (an adjective applied to magmatic rocks containing interstitial spaces which become filled with crystals)
MIAROLITICO : miarolitic (an adjective applied to the structure of certain plutonic rocks containing vacant interstitial spaces or little cavities of irregular shape into which crystals of the rock constituents project)
MIAROLITITE : miarolithite (chorismite with drusy crystallizations distributed within the mass of the aggregate)
MICASCISTO : mica schist
MICRINITE : micrinite (amorphous maceral derived from moist mud)
MICROCRISTALLO : microcrystal, microlite
MICROEVOLUZIONE : microevolution
MICROFAGLIE COMPRESSIVE INTRACUTANEE : intracutaneous fold overthrusts (small fold overthrusts formed within the basal part of a sedimentary mantle by the downsliding movement)
MICROFALESIA : bluff, nip (short steep slope cutting off a salt marsh from the seaward edge)
MICROFALESIA DI SPIAGGIA : beach scarp
MICROFENOCRISTALLO : microphenocryst (a phenocryst of microscopic size)
MICROFIRICO : microphyric (an adjective applied to a texture of porphyritic rocks which can only be detected by using the microscope)
MICROGRAFICO : micrographic (an adjective applied to a graphic texture or intergrowth at a microscopic scale)
MICROLITE : microcrystal, microlite
MICROLITICO : microlitic (an adjective relating to the texture of the groundmasses of volcanic rocks in which there is a felty aggregate of differently oriented or parallel microlites in a base which is often glassy)
MICROLITOTIPI : microlitho types (coal types observable at the microscope)
MICROMUTAZIONE : micromutation
MICROPALEONTOLOGIA : micropalaeontology
MICROPEGMATITICO : granophyric, graphophyric, micropegmatitic (an adjective applied by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington to textures characterized by intergrowth of quartz and feldspar, the feldspar crystals containing irregular shreds of quartz)
MICROPORFIRITICO : microporphyritic (an adjective applied to a texture of porphyritic rocks which can only be detected by using the microscope)
MICROSPORA : microspore
MIGMA : migma (masses of crystallized silicates containing small amounts of supercritical solutions of pegmatitic character)
MIGMATITE : migmatite (rock formed by cooling of migma)
MIGMATIZZAZIONE : migmatization
MIGRARE : to migrate
MIGRAZIONE : migration, shifting (in geomorphology: migration of creeks; in oil geology: underground movement of oil or gas not occasioned by artificial means; in palaeontology: migration of organisms; in seismic survey: correction applied in reflection shooting in the case of dipping boundary planes)
MIGRAZIONE : shifting
MIGRAZIONE CAPILLARE : capillary migration (water movement in the soil due to capillarity)
MILLEPIEDI : millipedes
MILLIGAL : milligal (= 10-3 gal)
MILONITE : mylonite (rock resulting from extreme processes of crushing, lamination and pulverization)
MILONITE LAMINATA : laminated mylonite
MILONITIZZAZIONE : mylonitization (deformation of a rock by extreme microbrecciation, due to mechanical forces with a definite direction, without noteworthy chemical reconstitution of granulated minerals)
MINERALE : mineral
MINERALE DI FERRO ARGILLOSO : clay band, clay ironstone
MINERALE DI GANGA : gangue mineral (not metallic mineral, or metallic but worthless mineral, associated with ore minerals)
MINERALE FERROSO CARBONATICO IN TERRENO CARBONIFERO : black band ironstone
MINERALE FERROSO PISOLITICO : bean iron ore
MINERALE METALLICO : ore
MINERALE METALLICO AD ALTO TENORE : high grade ore
MINERALE METALLICO COMPLESSO : complex ore (an ore containing more than one metal)
MINERALE METALLICO CONTENENTE UN SOLO METALLO : simple ore
MINERALE METALLICO ECONOMICAMENTE SCARSO : lean ore
MINERALE METALLICO ECONOMICAMENTE SFRUTTABILE : pay ore
MINERALE METALLICO NON CONCENTRATO : crude ore (in the conditions in which it leaves the mine)
MINERALE METALLICO SEMPLICE : simple ore
MINERALE OSPITANTE : palasome
MINERALE OSPITE : guest mineral, metasome (mineral formed by metasomatism)
MINERALE PORFIRICO DI RAME : porphyry copper ore
MINERALE PRIMARIO : primary ore (ore deposited during the original period of metallization)
MINERALE PRIMITIVO : protore
MINERALE SECONDARIO : secondary ore (ore altered or concentrated after the original period of metallization)
MINERALE SOSTITUITO PER METASOMATISMO : palasome
MINERALE SUPERGENE : supergene ore (resulting from the action of descending surface waters)
MINERALE TRASCINATO : drag ore (fragments of mineral wrenched from a deposit and dragged)
MINERALI ACCESSORI : accessory minerals
MINERALI ACCESSORI CARATTERIZZANTI : characterizing accessory minerals (of which the presence in a rock, though not essential, is regarded as sufficiently significant to require the inclusion of their name in that of the rock)
MINERALI ACCESSORI SOSTITUENTI UN COMPONENTE ESSENZIALE DI UNA ROCCIA IGNEA : stellvertretende Gemengteteile, vikariirende Übergemengteile (from German)
MINERALI ALLOGENI : allothigenic minerals, allogenes, secondary minerals (formed after the formation of the bedrock)
MINERALI ANTISTRESS : antistress minerals (minerals whose formation in metamorphic rocks is favoured by temperature and hydrostatic pressure but not by the shear stress, e.g. anorthite, potash feldspars, pyroxenes, forsterite, andalusite, etc.)
MINERALI AUTIGENICI : authigenic minerals (minerals formed in situ)
MINERALI CHIAVE : standard minerals (a number of selected minerals in terms of which the chemical composition of a rock is expressed in the system of classification of the igneous rocks of Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington; two groups of standard minerals are distinguished: salic and femic minerals)
MINERALI CRISTALLIZATI DA ROCCE MAGMATICHE PRIMARIE : pyrogenic ore minerals
MINERALI CRITICI : critical minerals (minerals or associations of minerals stable only in a given metamorphic facies; they are transformed when a different metamorphic facies sets in)
MINERALI DA STRESS : stress minerals (minerals whose formation in metamorphic rocks is thorught to be favoured by shearing stress, such as sericite, chlorites, albite, epidote, amphiboles, kyanite, chloritoid, talc, etc., see shear stress)
MINERALI DELL’ARGILLA : clay minerals (aluminium hydrosilicates)
MINERALI DI CONTATTO : contact minerals (minerals formed by contact metamorphism)
MINERALI DI EXSOLUZIONE : exsolution minerals (by separation of a minerals from one other in a cooling solution)
MINERALI DI GANGA SINGENETICI IN VENE METALLIFERE : Gangart (from German)
MINERALI DI ORIGINE COLLOIDALE : colloid minerals
MINERALI DISTINTIVI : characterizing accessory minerals (of which the presence in a rock, though not essential, is regarded as sufficiently significant to require the inclusion of their name in that of the rock)
MINERALI ESSENZIALI : essential minerals (whose presence are absence in a rock affects its classification)
MINERALI FELSICI : felsic minerals (a mnemonic term derived from feldspar and silica, which are actually present in an igneous rock)
MINERALI MAFICI : mafic minerals (a mnemonic term for the ferromagnesian minerals, which are actually present in an igneous rock)
MINERALI NASCOSTI : occult minerals (which, according to the chemical analysis, should be present in a holocrystalline igneous rock but which for various reasons cannot be detected by microscopical investigation)
MINERALI NON SATURI : unsaturated minerals (unstable in the presence of free silica, under such conditions as are realized in rock magma, because they can combine with it to form higher silicates)
MINERALI NORMATIVI : normative minerals (selected minerals in terms of which the chemical composition of a rock is expressed in the classification system of igneous rocks by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington)
MINERALI OCCULTI : occult minerals (which, according to the chemical analysis, should be present in a holocrystalline igneous rock but which for various reasons cannot be detected by microscopical investigation)
MINERALI PESANTI : heavy minerals (with specific gravity higher than 2,9, corresponding to that of bromoform)
MINERALI PIROGENETICI : pyrogenetic minerals, pyrogenic ore minerals (first minerals to solidify in magma)
MINERALI PRIMARI : primary minerals (formed in the original ore-forming or rock forming episode)
MINERALI SATURI : saturated minerals (capable of crystallizing also in the presence of an excess of silica)
MINERALI STANDARD : standard minerals (a number of selected minerals in terms of which the chemical composition of a rock is expressed in the system of classification of the igneous rocks of Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington; two groups of standard minerals are distinguished: salic and femic minerals)
MINERALI TIPOMORFICI : typomorphic minerals (minerals that are stable in a given metamorphic facies, although not all of them change when the facies changes)
MINERALIZZAZIONE : mineralization
MINERALIZZAZIONE IRREGOLARE : stockwork (rocky mass irregularly fractured whose fractures have been mineralized)
MINERALOGIA : mineralogy
MINETTE : minette (from French: oölitic iron ore, e.g. Lorraine, Luxembourg)
MINIBATOLITE : boss, minibatolith, stock
MINIBATOLITE COMPOSITO : composite boss, composite stock
MINIBATOLITE DIFFERENZIATO : differentiated boss, differentiated stock
MINIBATOLITE MULTIPLO : multiple boss, multiple stock
MINIBATOLITE OMOGENEO : homogenous boss, homogenous stock
MINIBATOLITE SEMPLICE : simple boss, simple stock
MINIMO DELLA LINEA DI CRESTA : crestal line minimum (lower point in the crest line of a fold system)
MIOCENE : Miocene
MIRIAPODI : myriapods
MIRMECHITE : myrmekite (an intergrowth of plagioclase and vermicular quartz, usually synantetic, between crystals of plagioclase and potash feldspar forming fringes around the former at the contact with the latter)
MIRMECHITE ANTIPERTITE : myrmekite antiperthite (myrmekitelike intergrowth of predominant plagioclase and vermicular orthoclase)
MIRMECHITE PERTITE : myrmekite perthite (myrmekitelike intergrowth of microcline and vermicular plagioclase)
MISURA DELLA DEVIAZIONE DALLA DISTRIBUZIONE : skewness (statistical measure statistica of the deviation of a distribution, e.g. a granulometric distribution towards coarser or finer categories)
MISURA DELLA GRAVITÀ : gravity determination
MISURATORE DELL’ACCELERAZIONE DI GRAVITÀ : gravimeter
MISURATORE DI VIBRAZIONI : vibrograph (apparatus used to record swift vibrations caused by artificial earthquakes)
MISURAZIONE : rating
MODA : mode (the actual mineral composition of a rock expressed quantitatively in percentage by weight or volume as distinguished from the norm or standard mineral composition which is calculated from the analysis of the rock)
MODA NORMATIVA : normative mode (standard mineral composition of a rock, chemical composition of an igneous rock expressed in terms of standard minerals)
MODELLO DELLA REGINA ROSSA : Red Queen model (simplistic model of unidirectional continuous biological evolution, made inapplicable by the many environmental biomechanical, genetic, onogenetic limitations)
MODO DI VITA : way of life
MOFETA : mofeta (exhalation of CO and CO2)
MOHO : Mohorovicic discontinuity (transition between Earth’s crust and mantle)
MOLASSA : molasse (late-orogenic tectofacies usually a paralic rock association with conglomeratic to sandy or argillaceous, carbonatic and carbonaceous sediments with little igneous rock)
MOLLA A LUNGHEZZA ZERO : zero length spring (a special kind of gravimeter spring in which the length is proportional to the force applied)
MOLLISOL : mollisol (layer of soil which thaws and refreezes in permafrost areas)
MOLLUSCHI : mollusks
MOLO : harbour jetty, landing wharf, pier, quai (from French)
MOMENTO MAGNETICO : magnetic moment
MONADNOCK : monadnock (torso mountain spared by erosion due to greater resistance of the component rocks)
MONOCLINO : monocline
MONODINAMISMO : monodynamism
MONOFILETICO : monophyletical (an adjective applied to descent from one single ancestor)
MONOGENICO : monogenic (relativo ad a vera specie derivante from a single unico ceppo ancestrale) 2689 (an adjective applied to a true species deriving from a single ancestral type)
MONOLETE : monolete (spore with a linear scar)
MONOLITO LAVICO : spine (lava plug pushed upward in the crater by gas pressure; the “finger of La Pélée” grew over 300 m on 4 July 1903)
MONOSCHEMATICO : monoschematic (a term applied to a body of rock or mineral deposit whose fabric is identical throughout)
MONOTREMI : prototheria
MONTAGNA : mountain
MONTAGNA A PILASTRO TETTONICO : horst mountain
MONTAGNA MODELLATA DA OGNI LATO DA CIRCHI GLACIALI : glacial horn
MONTAGNA RESIDUALE : torso mountain
MONTAGNA RESIDUALE LONTANA DA LINEE DI DRENAGGIO : mosor (a torso mountain which could maintain itself because of its remotenes fromm main drainage lines)
MONTAGNA RESIDUALE PER RESISTENZA LITOLOGICA : monadnock (torso mountain spared by erosion due to greater resistance of the component rocks)
MONTAGNA SORGENTE SU UN PENEPIANO : torso mountain
MONTAGNE A PIEGHE : fold mountains
MONTAGNE A STRUTTURA FAGLIATA : fault block mountain
MONTAGNE ALLO STADIO DI TARDA MATURITÀ : subdued mountains (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
MONTAGNE COPERTE DI DETRITI : waste-covered mountains
MONTAGNE DI INARCAMENTO DI STRATI A CUPOLA : dome mountains
MONTAGNE FRATTURATE : fault block mountain
MONTAGNE MARGINALI : bordering mountain chains
MONTE A CUNEO DI FAGLIA : fault wedge mountain (faulted and folded mountain, fractured dipping mountain)
MONTE TABULARE : table mountain
MONTICELLI DI TERRA : earth hummocks (from half metre to one metre high, covered by vegetation, formed by periglacial phenomena in a tundra environment)
MORENA : moor
MORENA DEPOSTA : deposited moraine
MORENA DI ABLAZIONE : ablation moraine
MORENA DI FONDO : basal moraine, ground moraine (after the withdrawal of the ice, or inside an active glacier; in glaciology), basal lava moraine, solidified lava dragged at the bottom of a lava flow (in volcanology)
MORENA DI RITIRO : recessional moraine, stadial moraine (end moraine formed during a considerable pause in the retreat of a glacier)
MORENA DI SPINTA : push moraine, thrust moraine, upsetted moraine (accumulation of glacial drift pushed or plowed up into ridges by the thrust of the advancing ice)
MORENA FRONTALE : end moraine, frontal moraine (mass of debris piled up in front of a glacier during a stationary stage)
MORENA FRONTALE DI SCORIE LAVICHE : end moraine
MORENA IN CORSO DI TRASPORTO : moraine in transit (carried by a glacier)
MORENA INDIFFERENZIATA : boulder clay (unstratified, unsorted and unwashed moraine deposits containing grains of any size from boulders to clay)
MORENA INTERNA : englacial moraine
MORENA LATERALE : lateral moraine
MORENA LATERALE DEPOSTA DA UN GHIACCIAIO ORMAI RITIRATOSI : flank moraine
MORENA LAVICA MEDIANA : medial pseudomoraine (solidified lava material surfacing in the central zone of the flow)
MORENA LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal moraine (a moraine rampart formed by deposits of the medial and englacial moraines of a former glacier)
MORENA MARGINALE : border moraine
MORENA MEDIANA : medial moraine
MORENA STADIALE : recessional moraine, stadial moraine (end moraine formed during a considerable pause in the retreat of a glacier)
MORENA SUBGLACIALE : ground moraine (after the withdrawal of the ice, or inside an active glacier)
MORENA SUPERFICIALE : surface moraine
MORFOGENESI : morphogenesis
MORFOLOGIA : morphology
MORTALITÀ DI MASSA : massacre
MOSTRANTE ORLI CON TRACCE DI EROSIONE : subangular
MOVIMENTI COMPLESSI : componental movements (of elements of every size inside a rock such as crystal slippage, movements of grains, indirect movements, etc.)
MOVIMENTI EUSTATICI POSITIVI : positive movements (rise of the sea level in relation to the earth)
MOVIMENTI NEGATIVI : negative movements (in oceanography: lowering of sea level in relation to the coast, negative eustatic movements; in tettonics: negative orogenic movements)
MOVIMENTI OROGENICI POSITIVI : positive movements
MOVIMENTO ASCENDENTE DELLA MAREA : flood current
MOVIMENTO DI FONDO : bed material movement in suspension
MOVIMENTO DISCENDENTE DELLA MAREA : ebb current
MOVIMENTO EUSTATICO : eustatic movement
MOVIMENTO MICROSISMICO : microseismic movement
MOVIMENTO PLUTOGENETICO : plutogenic movement (displacement of igneous rocks in depth and at the surface due to magmatic pressure)
MOVIMENTO SECOLARE DEL RILIEVO : secular movement
MULINO A CORRENTE D’ARIA : aerofall mill (mulino per la macinazione di minerale con corrente d’aria per rimuovere le particelle)
MULINO GLACIALE : glacier mill (cylindrical glacier cavity where the swirling water cuts a pothole in the underlying rock)
MUMMIA : mummy
MUMMIFICARE : to mummify
MURAGLIA CORALLINA : reef wall (elongated rocky coral mass built in situ)
MURO DI FUOCO : curtain of fire (thickly spaced fire fountains emitted by a linear eruption or by an explosion trough)
MURO DI LAVA : dike wall (a dike protruding after erosion of the country rock)
MURO LAVICO : dike wall (a dike protruding after erosion of the country rock)
MURO PROTETTIVO A RASO : bulkhead, seawall (for coastal protection against erosion)
MUSEOLOGIA : museology
MUTAMENTO GLOBALE DEL LIVELLO MARINO : eustatic movement
MUTAZIONE : mutation
NANISMO : nanism
NEBULITE : nebulite (nebulitic migmatite almost completely granitized showing vague relics of the original texture)
NECK : neck (of lava or fragmentary material)
NECK AVVENTIZIO : adventive neck
NECK COMPOSITO : composite neck (formed by different successive magmatic effusions)
NECK DI DETRITI NON VULCANICI : neck of nonvolcanic detritus
NECK DI LAVA : neck of lava
NECK DI MATERIALE AGGLOMERATO O TUFO CON VENE, DICCHI O INTRUSIONI IRREGOLARI DI LAVA : neck of agglomerate or tuff with veins, dikes or irregular intrusions of lava
NECK DI MATERIALE AGGLOMERATO O TUFO VULCANICO CON TAPPO CENTRALE DI LAVA : neck of agglomerate or tuff with a central plug of lava
NECK DI MATERIALE FRAMMENTARIO : neck of fragmentary material
NECK DI TUFO VULCANICO AGGLOMERATO : neck of volcanic agglomerate tuff
NECK TIPO ALB : neck of the Alb type (Swabia)
NECK TIPO CAPO : neck of the Cape type (Southern Africa)
NECK TIPO FIFE : neck of the Fife type (Scotland)
NECK VULCANICO : volcanic neck, volcanic plug (erosion remnant of a volcano showing the dismantled chimney fill made of solidified lava)
NECTON : nekton (marine organisms capable of swimming)
NEL MEZZO : in the middle (of a stratigraphic formation)
NEMATOBLASTICO : nematoblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of metamorphic rocks having minerali with thin crystals formed during recristallization)
NEOGENE : neogene
NEOMINERALIZZAZIONE : neomineralization
NEOMORFICO : neomorphic (a adjective applied to the deuteromorphic constituents of a rock regenerated by zones of secondary growth in crystalline continuity from solutions or molten rocks)
NEOMORFO : neomorph (in palaeobiology: new character, not inherited from an ancestor)
NEOTENIA : neoteny (indefinite prolungation of the conditions of immaturity)
NEOVULCANESIMO : neovulcanism
NEOVULCANICO : neovolcanic
NEOZOICO : Neozoic, Neozoic era, Quaternary
NEVE : snow
NEVE ACQUOSA : snow slush (new snow fallen at a temperature above zero, or old one drenched with rain water)
NEVE ASCIUTTA : dry snow (snow falling at a temperature below zero)
NEVE COMPATTATA DAL VENTO : drifted snow, Packschnee (from German)
NEVE FRESCA : new fallen snow
NEVE GRANULARE : granular snow
NEVE GROSSOLANA GRANULARE PROFONDA : depth hoar (due to evaporation by radiant heat from the underlying rock at the bottom of a snow layer)
NEVE INCROSTATA : crusted snow (formed at the surface of a snow layer due to freeze and thaw)
NEVE LEGGERA : dust snow
NEVE MOLLE : loose snow
NEVE PENITENTE : penitent snow (from South American Spanish: “nieve penitente”, surface melt forms of firn ice formed as a result of constant insulation in tropical regions and having the shape of pillars aligned in east-west rows)
NEVE PERENNE : eternal snow
NEVE PRIMAVERILE : spring snow (very coarse old snow formed in springtime of old snow subject to frequent thawinf and refreezing)
NEVE PULVERULENTA : powder snow
NEVE SELVAGGIA : dust snow
NEVE SOSPESA : snow cornice
NEVE VECCHIA : old snow
NEVICATA : snowfall
NEVISCHIO : sleet (wet snow, snow falling at a temperature above zero)
NIVAZIONE : nivation (alternating freezing and thawing around the fluctuating margins of snow accumulations)
NODO MONTANO : mountain knot
NODULARE : nodular (an adjective applied to colloform mineral aggregates with a nodular or bulbed surface)
NODULI CARBONATICI : carbonate nodules
NODULO : nodule
NODULO ARGILLOSO : clay gall (formed by transport of clay rolled in eaolic or water-born sediments)
NODULO ARGILLOSO CORAZZATO : armoured mud ball
NODULO DI CARBONATO DI CALCIO NEL LOESS : loess nodule
NODULO DI MANGANESE : manganese nodule
NODULO DI SILEX : chert nodule
NODULO OLIVINICO : nodule of olivine
NON DISLOCATO : unfaulted (an adjective applied to bedding)
NORMA : norm (standard mineral composition, chemical composition of an igneous rock expressed in terms of standard minerals, it may or may not correspond to their actual mineral composition or mode)
NUBE ARDENTE : glowing cloud, nuée ardente (from French)
NUBE ARDENTE DI ESPLOSIONE VERTICALE : vertically initiated domal nuée ardente
NUBE DI CENERI : ash cloud (mixed with gas)
NUBE DI GAS VULCANICO ELETTRIFICATA : electrified ash cloud (due to friction among particles)
NUBE DI VAPORE : vapour cloud
NUBE GASSOSA : gas cloud
NUBE PELEANA DI ESPLOSIONE : directed domal avalanche
NUBE VULCANICA A CAVOLFIORE : cauliflower cloud
NUBE VULCANICA A FORMA DI PINO : pine tree cloud, pine tree shaped cloud
NUCLEAZIONE : nucleation (causing vapour condensation, in meteorological or volcanic events)
NUCLEO CENTRALE CRISTALLINO : central massif (of an autocthonous massif)
NUCLEO CENTRALE DI UNA PIEGA : core of fold
NUCLEO CENTRALE DISTACCATO DI UNA PIEGA : detached core of a fold (by strangling)
NUCLEO DI MEANDRO : meander core
NUCLEO TERRESTRE : core of the Earth, Earth’s core
NUMERO DI HORTON : Horton’s law of stream number (inverse relation between the order of streams and their number)
NUNATAK : nunatak (mountain peak emerging from an area entirely covered by ice)
NUNATAK VULCANICO : dagala (from Sicilian) steptoe (standard English) kipuka (from Hawaiian) (a geologically older area surrounded by younger lava)
OASI : oasis
OBELISCO LAVICO : spine (lava plug pushed upward in the crater by gas pressure; the “finger of La Pélée” grew over 300 m on 4 July 1903)
OBLITERAZIONE DELLA STRATIFICAZIONE : obliteration of bedding, obliteration of cleavage (by filling up through crystallization)
OBTRUZIONE : obtrution (formation of assemblages of well preserved fossils due to burial of newly dead organisms in a rapidly accumulating sediment)
OCEANO : ocean
OCEANOGRAFIA : oceanography
OFFSHORE : offshore
OFITICO : ophitic (an adjective applied to a texture common in dolerites, characterized by the fact that the crystals of plagioclase are partly or wholly enclosed by the augite crystals)
OFTALMITE : ophthalmite (chorismite consisting of coarsely lenticular augenlike, boulderlike or nodular elements in a matrix)
OGIVE : ogives (low ridges or alternating light and dark coloured bands in the form of upturned ogive arches on the surface of a glacier, caused by differential melting of the laminated firn and glacier ice and the greater velocity of the ice flow in the middle of the glacier)
OLIGOCENE : Oligocene
OLIGOELEMENTI : trace elements
OLIGOTROFICO : oligotrophic (poor in nutrients)
OLISTOLITE : olistolith (exotic elements of an olistostrome)
OLISTOSTROMA : olistostrome (sedimentary deposit occurring within normal geological sequences and characterized by heterogenous material accumulated through sliding)
OLOBLASTO : holoblast (crystal of a metamorphic rock formed during metamorphism and therefore devoid of a pre-existing core)
OLOCENE : Holocene
OLOCRISTALLINO : holocrystalline
OLOIALINO : holohyaline (an adjective applied to an entirely glassy rock)
OLOLEUCOCRATICO : hololeucocratic (an adjective applied to igneous rocks made up completely or almost completely of felsic, i.e. light coloured minerals)
OLOMELANOCRATICO : holomelanocratic (an adjective applied to igneous rocks made up completely or almost completely of mafic, i.e. dark, minerals)
OLOSIDERITE : holosiderite (a meteorite consisting almost wholly of nickeliferous iron)
OLOTIPO : holotype (specimen used as an anchor for the name and scientific description of a species)
OLOTURODEI : holothuroidea
OMACONIDE : Homakonide (from German, according to Schneider; small volcanic cone inside a larger crater)
OMATE : Homate : (from German, according to Schneider; low volcanic cone with a broad crater)
OMBRA SISMICA : seismic shadow zone (region between 110° and 140° from the epicenter where, due to the refraction at the surface of the Earth’s core, no direct seismic waves can penetrate)
OMBRE DI TENSIONE : strain shadows (wavy extinction in homogenous minerals such as quartz, due to strain; a crystal between crossed Nicols showing dark shadows which move across it as the stage is rotated, owing to the directions of extinction varying from point to point)
OMEOBLASTICO : homeoblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of crystalloblastic rocks in which the essential constituents are approximately of equal size)
OMEOGENESI : homoeogenesis (parallel evolution, old fashioned term synonym of parallel evolution)
OMEOMORFIA : homomorphism, homomorphy, homoeomorphy (similarity of form with a different internal structure)
OMEOSTASI : omeostasy (conservation of equilibrium in physiological processes)
OMINIDE : hominid
OMOCLINO : homocline (a zone with tilted strata equally dipping in every direction)
OMODINAMICO : homodynamic (having equal dynamism)
OMOGENESI : homoeogenesis (parallel evolution, old fashioned term synonym of parallel evolution)
OMOLOGIA : homology
OMOLOGO : homologous
OMOMORFIA : homomorphism, homomorphy, homoeomorphy (similarity of form with a different internal structure)
OMOMORFISMO : homomorphism, homomorphy, homoeomorphy (similarity of form with a different internal structure)
OMOSPORIA : homospory (production of spores of equal size by the same plant specimen)
ONDA AEREA DI COMPRESSIONE : gust
ONDA ALLUVIONALE : flood wave
ONDA ANOMALA : sea wave, seismic sea wave, tsunami
ONDA DI CRESCITA : flood wave
ONDA DI GRAVITÀ : gravity wave
ONDA DI LOVE : Love wave (transverse wave in the horizontal plane thus without vertical component)
ONDA DI MAREA RISALENTE UN ESTUARIO : bore
ONDA DI TRASLAZIONE : solitary wave
ONDA FREATICA : groundwater wave (rise of the water table that progresses horizontally away from an area where in certain periods exceptionally large water supplies are added to the saturation zone)
ONDA OSCILLATORIA : oscillatory wave
ONDA RITORNATA ALL’EPICENTRO DOPO ESSERE PASSATA PER GLI ANTIPODI : w wave
ONDA SISMICA LONGITUDINALE : primary wave (the first longitudinal wave reaching the observatory, symbol P)
ONDA SISMICA PRIMARIA : primary wave (the first longitudinal wave reaching the observatory, symbol P)
ONDA SISMICA RIFLESSA : reflected seismic wave
ONDA SISMICA RIFRATTA : later arrival (refracted wave reaching the seismograph later than the early arrival of the seismic energy)
ONDA SISMICA SECONDARIA : secondary wave (the first transversal wave reaching the observatory, symbol S)
ONDA SISMICA SUPERFICIALE : ground roll (in seismic prospection : disturbance of the ground caused by the shot)
ONDA SISMICA TRASFORMATA : transformed seismic wave (a wave transformed from longitudinal into transversal or inversely, due to reflection or refraction on a surface of discontinuity)
ONDA SISMICA TRASVERSALE : secondary wave (the first transversal wave reaching the observatory, symbol S)
ONDA SOLITARIA : solitary wave
ONDA W : W wave (seismic long wave, which starting from the focus, returns through the antipode of the epicenter to the seismograph)
ONDATA DI RISACCA : uprush
ONDATE : waves
ONDATE CHE PROVOCANO DISTACCO DI UN CLASTO DALL’ALTRO : eddy shedding (in the lee of a keystone in fluvial geomorphology)
ONDAZIONI : undations (old-fashioned concept of differential vertical movements due to density changes in the crust caused by chemico-physical processes)
ONDE : waves
ONDE BREVISSIME CONTROLLATE DALLA CAPILLARITÀ : ripples
ONDE COSTRUTTIVE : costructive waves (acting on a beach and depositing sediments)
ONDE DI RAYLEIGH : Rayleigh waves (seismic waves with elliptic vibrations with horizontal and vertical components and having a constant velocity of propagation)
ONDE DI SABBIA : sand waves (large beach undulations formed by swift currents)
ONDE DI SCIVOLAMENTO : shear waves (in a river)
ONDE DISTRUTTIVE : destructive waves (waves acting on a beach removing sediments)
ONDE IN ASSENZA DI VENTO : swell waves
ONDE LONGITUDINALI : longitudinal waves (of an earthquake)
ONDE MORTE : swell waves
ONDE SISMICHE : seismic waves
ONDE SUPERFICIALI : surface waves (of an earthquake)
ONDE TRASVERSALI : transverse waves (of an earthquake)
ONDULAZIONI DI SABBIA : wind ripples (caused by wind in eolian deposits, with a steeper slope on the leeward side)
ONDULAZIONI DI SPIAGGIA : wave ripples (caused by oscillatory movements of the waves
ONDULAZIONI DI SPIAGGIA CAUSATE DA ONDE INTERFERENTI : interference wave ripple marks
ONDULAZIONI DI SPIAGGIA CAUSATE DALLE CORRENTI : current ripples
ONDULAZIONI GIGANTI : giant ripples
ONDULAZIONI LINGUIFORMI DI SPIAGGIA : linguoid ripples
ONDULAZIONI NELLA SPIAGGIA : ripple marks, ripples (on a sedimentary formation, caused by water currents or by the wind)
ONDULAZIONI ROMBOIDALI DI SPIAGGIA : rhomboid ripples
ONDULAZIONI SUPERFICIALI : ripple marks, ripples (on a sedimentary formation, caused by flowing water or the wind)
ONICE DI GROTTA : calc sinter
ONICOFORI : onychofora
ONTOGENESI : ontogeny
OOLITE : oölite
OOLITICO : oölitic
OPERATORE : operator (of computer, seismographs or other instruments)
OPPORTUNITÀ DI RICAVI ALTERNATIVI : opportunity cost (measure of the proceeds to be obtained using a certain resource in order to produce a good or service rather than another good or service; a technique useful in choosing a strategy for environmental protection)
ORDINAMENTO GERARCHICO : rating
ORDINE : order (systematic group lower than the subclass)
ORDINE ORIGINARIO : normal order (of stratification)
ORDOVICIANO : Ordovician
ORGANISMI EURIALINI : euryhaline organisms (organisms having a tolerance for a wide range of salinity conditions)
ORGANISMI EURIFOTICI : euryphotic organisms (organisms having a tolerance for strong light conditions)
ORGANISMI EURITERMICI : eurythermic organisms (organisms having a tolerance for a wide range of temperature conditions)
ORGANISMI MARINI INCROSTANTI : encrusters (algae, foraminiferans, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, brachiopods, bivalves, serpulid polichaetes, ascidians, cirripedes)
ORGANISMI STENOALINI : stenohaline organisms (organisms having a very limited tollerance to salinity changes)
ORGANISMI STENOFOTICI : stenophotic organisms (organisms capable of tolerate only limited amounts of light)
ORGANISMI STENOTERMICI : stenothermic organisms (organisms having a very limited tollerance to temperature changes)
ORGANIZZAZIONE A GRADINATA DI BLOCCHI DI BASAMENTO CRISTALLINO FRAMMENTATI E SPOSTATI DA FORZE TETTONICHE : stepped arrangement of thrusted block
ORIENTAMENTO DEI GIACIMENTI MINERARI : orientation of mineral deposits
ORIENTAMENTO DEL RETICOLO CRISTALLINO : lattice orientation (preferred orientation of reticular spaces of crystals)
ORIENTAMENTO DIMENSIONALE : dimensional orientation (orientation of a rock’s grains controlled by their shape)
ORIENTAMENTO PREFERITO : preferred orientation (a more or less systematic arrangement of grains of different size according to their external shape, i.e. dimensional orientation, or a more or less systematic orientation of the space lattices of crystals, i.e. lattice orientation or a combination of both; this may be the result of growth, deposition or deformation)
ORIENTAZIONE PREFERITA : preferred orientation (a more or less systematic arrangement of grains of different size according to their external shape, i.e. dimensional orientation, or a more or less systematic orientation of the space lattices of crystals, i.e. lattice orientation or a combination of both; this may be the result of growth, deposition or deformation)
ORIGINE DI UN NUOVO TIPO O PHYLUM : cladogenesis
ORIZZONTALE : horizontal
ORIZZONTE : horizon (in conventional landscape sense), horizon (in the sense of soil science, layer of soil with given characters acquired during pedogenesis – ORIZZONTE A : a horizon, ORIZZONTE B : b horizon)
ORIZZONTE : horizon, zone
ORIZZONTE A : A horizon (of a soil)
ORIZZONTE A DEL SUOLO : topsoil
ORIZZONTE ARGILLOSO COMPATTO DEL SUOLO : bleached sand
ORIZZONTE B : B horizon (of the soil)
ORIZZONTE B DEL SUOLO : subsoil
ORIZZONTE CALCAREO CEMENTATO : caliche (from Spanish)
ORIZZONTE DI ACCUMULAZIONE CALCAREA : lime pan
ORIZZONTE DI CONFINE : recurrence horizon (a layer forming the limit between strongly decomposed Sphagnum cuspidatum peat and similar overlying peat only slightly decomposed)
ORIZZONTE DI SUOLO INDURITO E CEMENTATO DAL CALCARE : calcareous crust, soil horizon hardened and cemented by limestone
ORIZZONTE ELUVIALE : eluvial horizon (layer from which substances in solution or in suspension have been removed, so that a concentration of sandy and silty particles has taken place)
ORIZZONTE FANTASMA : phantom horizon (horizon on a reflection profile obtained by averaging the dips of the reflections within a band indicating the trend of the dip but not necessariamente coincidente with an actual boundary plane)
ORIZZONTE ILLUVIALE : illuvial horizon (horizon that has received material in solution or suspension from the upper part of the soil)
ORLI AFFILATI (CON) : sharp edged (showing rims with minimal or no traces of abrasion)
ORLO : nappe front
ORLO A LITOTAMNI : lithotamnium ridge (low ridge built by lithotamnia at the external margin of a coral reef)
ORLO ARQUATO ALL’INTERNO DI UN MEANDRO FLUVIALE : point bar
ORLO CRATERICO : crater rim
ORLO DEL PENDIO DI UNA VALLE A PROFILO TRASVERSALE CONCAVO : trough edge
ORLO DELLA PIATTAFORMA CONTINENTALE : shelf edge
ORLO DI BACINO CALCAREO IN GROTTA : gour, rimstone bar
ORLO DI BARRIERA CORALLINA : reef edge (seaward margin of a reef flat emerging at ebb tide)
ORLO DI CALDERA : caldera rim
ORLO DI CALDERA A MEZZALUNA : crescentic caldera ring
ORLO DI FALESIA : cliff edge
ORLO DI TERRAZZO : terrace edge
ORLO ESTREMO DI FORMAZIONE SEDIMENTARIA ASSOTTIGLIANTESI LATERALMENTE : wedge edge
ORLO ESTREMO LATERALE DI FORMAZIONE SEDIMENTARIA : depositional termination
ORLO INTERNO DI UN ATOLLO : lagoon shelf (where detrital sedimentation is far more intense than the growth of coral forming organisms)
ORLO REATTIVO : reaction rim (peripheral zone of mineral aggregates formed around a mineral by chemical reactions with other minerals)
ORLO RILEVATO NELLA FALDA FREATICA : groundwater ridge (ridge-shaped feature of a water table usually due to excessive seepage of surface water from the area overlying the ridge)
ORLO ROCCIOSO CIRCONDANTE UN LAGO : lake rim
ORNEBLENDA : hornblende
ORNITISCO : ornithischian
OROGENESI : orogenesis, orogeny
OROGENESI ALPINA : alpine orogeny
OROGENESI DI TIPO GERMANICO : germanotype orogenesis (with a weaker tectogenesis in comparison with the alpine one, e.g. Saxony)
OROGENO : orogene
OROGRAFIA : orography
OROLOGIO A CONTATTO : contact clock (for recording time on the seismogram)
ORTOFIRICO : ortophyric (an adjective applied by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington, to a texture of holocrystalline porphyritic rocks, such as some trachytes, in which the feldspar crystals of the groundmass are megascopically granular with square or short rectangular cross sections)
ORTOROCCE : orthorocks (metamorphic rocks of igneous origin)
ORTSTEIN : ortstein (dal tedesco, hard cemented B horizon of a podzol)
OSCILLAZIONE ARMONICA : harmonic oscillation (of the pendulum)
OSCILLAZIONI DEL LIVELLO MARINO : shifts
OSCILLAZIONI GLACIALE : glacier oscillations
OSSERVATORIO : observatory
OSSERVATORIO GRAVITATIVO : gravity station
OSSICO : oxic (rich of oxygen)
OSSIDAZIONE : oxidation
OSSIDIANA : obsidian, volcanic glass
OSSIDIANITE : tektite (obsidian meteorite)
OSTACOLO : obstacle
OSTRUZIONE : damming (obstruction of a tidal or river channel, of a bay by a littoral bar)
OSTRUZIONE : obstacle
OTTAEDRITE : octahedrite (an iron meteorite ferrosa which, on being etched, develops figures of Widmanstätten formed by kamasite and tenite parallel to the ochtaedral faces)
OZOCERITE : ozocerite
PACCO DI FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO SOVRAPPOSTE : pile of nappes
PACCO DI PIEGHE CORICATE : piled up recumbent folds
PAESAGGIO A BACINI CHIUSI : closed basin topography
PAESAGGIO A CUESTA : cuesta landscape
PAESAGGIO A DOLINE : cockpit landscape
PAESAGGIO AD INSELBERG : altopiano costellato di inselberg
PAESAGGIO ALLA FINE DEL CICLO DI EROSIONE : old landscape (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
PAESAGGIO CARSICO : karst landscape, karst topography
PAESAGGIO COLLINARE : hilly landscape
PAESAGGIO COSTELLATO DA NUMEROSE DOLINE : cockpit landscape
PAESAGGIO DI CINTURA MORENICA : morainic belt topography
PAESAGGIO DOLINICO : cockpit landscape
PAESAGGIO MORENICO : moraine topography
PAESAGGIO MORENICO DI FONDO : till plains topography
PAESAGGIO VULCANICO : volcanic landscape
PAGODITE : pagodite (hydrated silicate of aluminium and potassium with high silica content, whose name comes from the fact of it being used in China to manufacture small sculpted pagodas, synonimous of agalmatolite)
PALAGONITE : palagonite (light brownish basaltic lava glass)
PALAGONITE RICEMENTATA : pseudopalagonite
PALAGONITIZZAZIONE : palagonitization (formation of palagonite in three stages: siromelan, isotropic gelpalagonite and fibropalagonite fibrous and birefringent)
PALASOMA : palasome (mineral replaced due to metasomatism, host mineral)
PALEOBIOLOGIA : palaeobiology
PALEOBOTANICA : palaeobotany
PALEOCENE : palaeocene
PALEOCLIMATOLOGIA : palaeoclimatology
PALEOECOLOGIA : palaeoecology
PALEOFRANA : old landslide
PALEOGENE : palaeogene
PALEOGEOGRAFIA : palaeogeography
PALEOMAGNETISMO : palaeomagnetism
PALEOMORFO : palaeomorph (in palaeontology: primitive character inherited from an ancestor)
PALEONTOLOGIA : palaeontology
PALEOPATOLOGIA : palaeopathology
PALEOSALINITÀ : palaeosalinity
PALEOSUOLO : fossil soil
PALEOTIPICO : palaeotypal (an adjective applied to aphanitic and porphyritic igneous rocks having the characteristics of altered volcanic or hypabyssal rocks)
PALEOVULCANESIMO : palaeovolcanism
PALEOZOICO : Palaeozoic
PALEOZOICO : Palaeozoic, Primary, Primary era
PALEOZOOLOGIA : palaeozoology
PALINGENESI : palingenesis (formation of magma in situ by an ultrametamorphic process)
PALINOLOGIA : palynology (pollen analysis, study of pollens)
PALINSESTO: palimpsest (structure of metamorphic rocks in which relicts of the original texture are preserved)
PALLA DI FANGO SOLFORICO : sulphur mud ball (having a size between 1 and 4 mm, formed by a spherical skin of sulphuric mud enveloping a bubble of hot volcanic gas)
PALLA DI FANGO VULCANICO : volcanic mud ball (having a size between 2.5 and 85 mm, formed by volcanic ash around a grain of volcanic sand or a lapilli)
PALLA DI LAVA : lava ball
PALLASITE : pallasite (a siderolite formed by crystals of olivine embedded in a network of nickeliferous iron)
PALUDE : marsh
PALUDE A MANGROVIE : mangrove marsh
PALUDE COSTIERA : marine marsh
PALUDE FLUVIALE : river marsh, river swamp
PALUDE LITORANEA A MANGROVIE : mangrove swamp
PALUDE SALMASTRA LITORANEA : salt marsh (usually covered with halophyte vegetation)
PARACME : paracme (period of decline of a given systematic group)
PARAGENESI : paragenesis (typical association of ore minerals in a deposit, or typical sequence of deposition of minerals in ore)
PARAMAGNETISMO : paramagnetism (magnetism of material with positive magnetic susceptibility)
PARAROCCE : pararocks (metamorphic rocks of sedimentary origin)
PARATIPO : paratype (set of original specimens of an organism used in perfecting the description of the holotype of a species)
PARAUTOCTONO : parautochthonous (an adjective applied to folds and nappe structures having facies and tectonic structurs similar to those of the sedimentary mantle of an autochthonous massif and which have been but little displaced)
PARENTELA FRA SPECIE : relationship
PARETE ANULARE INTORNO AL CONO CENTRALE : Somma crater, Somma ring
PARETE CRATERICA : crater wall
PARETE DI CALDERA : caldera wall
PARETE DI FAGLIA : fault wall
PARETE DI GROTTA : cave wall
PARETE DI UNA DIACLASI : joint wall
PARETE IN GROTTA : cave partition (natural partition inside a cave not formed by a fallen block)
PARETE SUPERIORE DI FAGLIA : hanging wall
PAROSSISMO : paroxysm (seismic, volcanic)
PAROSSISMO OROGENETICO : holoorogenic phase
PARSEC : parsec (parallax per second, unit of measure of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance of an hypothetical celestial body viewed under a parallax angle of one second of arc, equivalent to 3.26 light years)
PARTE BASALE : basal part (of a stratigraphic unit)
PARTE BASSA DI UNA SEQUENZA DI RIGENERAZIONE : hollow of the regeneration sequence (lower part of a typical succession of plant communities in raised bogs)
PARTE DI RISACCA TRATTENUTA : overwash (part of the uprush that runs over a bar or a berm and does not flow directly back to the sea)
PARTE INCASSATA DELLA LINGUA GLACIALE : entrenched part of the glacier tongue
PARTE INFERIORE DEFORMATA DELLA CROSTA : infrastructure of the crust
PARTE INFERIORE DI FAGLIA : footwall
PARTE MEDIANA : middle part (of a stratigraphic unit)
PARTE PIÚ BASSA DI UNA SINCLINALE : trough
PARTE PIÚ INTERNA DI UNA BAIA : bayhead
PARTE SOMMITALE : top part (of a stratigraphic unit)
PARTE SPORGENTE DI BEACH CUSP : horn of beach cusp
PARTE SUPERIORE DEFORMATA DELLA CROSTA : superstructure of the crust
PARTE SUPERIORE DI UNA ANTICLINALE : structural high
PARTICELLA ALFA (PARTICELLA ) : alpha particle ( particle) (nucleus of the helium atomo made up by two protons and two neutrons)
PASSAGGIO IN GROTTA : passage in a cave
PASSAGGIO IN GROTTA CHE PUÒ VENIRE SUPERATO SOLO STRISCIANDO : tight crawl passage
PASSAGGIO IN GROTTA SUPERABILE SOLO PIEGANDOSI : stoopway
PASSAGGIO INTERDUNALE : interdune passage (wind-swept passage between longitudinal dunes)
PASSAGGIO ORIZZONTALE SCAVATO IN MINIERA : adit
PASSAGGIO STRETTO IN GROTTA : crawl, crawl passage (a narrow passage in a cave which con only be negotiated by crawling)
PASSAGGIO TUBOLARE IN GROTTA : tube (an approximately circular or elliptic cave passage)
PASSANTE : evacuated sediment (in flume experiments)
PASSO : pass
PASSO DI DIFFLUENZA GLACIALE : glacial diffluence pass
PASSO DI PEDIMENTO : pediment pass (formed by the meeting of two rock fans which penetre from opposite directions into a complex of desert mountains)
PASSO STRETTO : narrow pass
PATINA : coating, patina
PATINA DESERTICA : desert varnish (caused exuding of metallic oxydes driven by wind friction)
PATINA DI SILEX : cotton rock (external light coloured layer of silex nodules)
PAVIMENTAZIONE A LASTRE DI PIETRA : stone pavement (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
PAVIMENTO DI CANALE LAVICO : floor of a lava tunnel
PAVIMENTO DI PIETRA : stone pavement (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
PAVIMENTO DI UNA GROTTA : cave floor
PECILITICO : poikilitic (an adjective applied to a texture of igneous rocks in which numerous grains of primary rock-forming minerals in random orientation are completely enclosed within large, optically continuous crystals of a different composition)
PECILOBLASTICO : poikiloblastic (an adjective applied to metamorphic texture due to the development, during crystallization, of a new mineral around numerous relicts of the original mineral, thus simulating the poikilitic structure of igneous rocks)
PECILOFITICO : poikilophitic (an adjective applied to a variety of ophitic texture in which the feldspars are poikilitically enclosed by large anhedra of pyroxene)
PEDALFER : pedalfer (soil of humid regions enriched in aluminium and iron by the process of podzolization)
PEDIMENTAZIONE : pedimentation
PEDIMENTO : glacis, pediment
PEDIPIANO : pediplain
PEDOCAL : pedocal (soil of arid or semiarid regions enriched in lime by the process of calcification)
PEDOGENESI : pedogenesis (soil formation)
PEDOLOGIA : soil science
PEDOLOGO : pedologist
PEDOSFERA : pedosphere (part of the Earth in which soil-forming processes can occur)
PEDUNCOLO DI MEANDRO : meander neck (in a river)
PEGMATITE : pegmatite (graphic granite and coarse-grained modifications of granite of late crystallization, frequently characterized by irregular segregation of particular minerals of the rare litophile elements such as rare earths)
PEGMATITE COMPLESSA : complex pegmatite (with rare elements introduced by pneumatolytic or hydrothermal agents)
PEGMATITE POLIFASICA : complex pegmatite (with rare elements introduced by pneumatolytic or hydrothermal agents)
PEGMATITE SEMPLICE : simple pegmatite (corresponding to the last products formed during the main stage of magmatic cristallization, without introduction of rare elements by pneumatolitic and hydrothermal agents)
PEGMATOFIRICO : pegmatophyric (an adjective proposed by Lossen to replace granophyric)
PEGOSTILITE : pegostylite (a pillar-, cone- or dome-shaped formation of calcite or aragonite, formed by ascending water)
PELITE : lutite, pelite (cemented rock from silty and clayey material)
PELLICOLA : film (thin stratification covering a rock, a layer less than 1 mm thick covering a rock)
PELLICOLA ALLUVIONALE : alluvial veneer (often covering a pediment)
PELLICOLA DI CALCITE SU PARETI ARGILLOSE IN GROTTA : calcite skin (formed by rising calcareous solutions)
PELLICOLA DI SPORA : spore coat – formed, from the inside outwards, by ENDOSPORA (endospore), MESOSPORA (mesospore), ESOSPORA (exospore), PERISPORA (perispore), the latter called also EPISPORA (epispore)
PELLICOLE GASSOSE : gas skins
PENDENZA DI DIACLASI IN SEGUITO A PIEGAMENTO : tipping
PENDENZA DI UN VULCANO : angle of inclination of a volcano
PENDIO : slope
PENDIO DI CONOIDE DETRITICO : talus slope
PENDIO DI DILAVAMENTO : wash slope (less steep slope found at the foot of a gravity slope)
PENDIO DI FRANA : talus slope
PENDIO DI UN PEDIMENTO : piedmont slope
PENDIO ESTERNO : outer slope (steeply descending outer slope of the reef below the dwindle-point of abundant living corals and coralline algae, i.e. aboiut 25 m)
PENDIO FRONTALE DELLA PIATTAFORMA DI ACCUMULO : offshore slope
PENDIO GRAVITATIVO : gravity slope (steeper part of an escarpment profile being undermined and forced to retreat due to debris removal on the gentler part of the slope)
PENDIO PRESSOCHÉ VERTICALE DI VALLE GLACIALE : oversteepened wall
PENDIO SOPRAVVENTO DI RIPPLE MARKS : upstream slope of ripple marks
PENDIO SOTTOVENTO DI RIPPLE MARKS : downstream slope of ripple marks
PENDOLO : pendulum
PENDOLO APERIODICO : aperiodical pendulum
PENDOLO ASTATICO : pendulum (nearly devoid of a tendency to assume a defined position)
PENDOLO FISICO : physical pendulum, real pendulum (not conforming to the abstract mathematical assumption)
PENDOLO INVERSO : inverted pendulum (having the gravity centre above the fulcrum)
PENDOLO MATEMATICO : mathematical pendulum (a mathematical assumption corresponding to a point-mass suspended by massless thread)
PENDOLO NON AMMORTIZZATO : undamped pendulum
PENDOLO ORIZZONTALE : horizontal pendulum
PENDOLO REALE : physical pendulum, real pendulum (not conforming to the abstract mathematical assumption)
PENDOLO REVERSIBILE : reversible pendulum (pendulum that can swing around two knife-edges placed in such a way that in both cases the period is the same, used for absolute gravity determinations)
PENDOLO SEMPLICE : mathematical pendulum, simple pendulum (a mathematical assumption corresponding to a point-mass suspended by massless thread)
PENDOLO VERTICALE : vertical pendulum
PENECONTEMPORANEO : penecontemporaneous (an adjective applied to a feature or structure nearly contemporaneous to the surrounding rock)
PENEPIANI INTERSECANTISI : intersecting peneplains (an old peneplain exhumed and intersecting with a younger one)
PENEPIANO : peneplain (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
PENEPIANO EMBRIONALE : strath
PENEPIANO EMBRIONALE RINGIOVANITO : strath terrace
PENEPIANO ESUMATO : resurrected peneplain
PENEPIANO FOSSILE : buried peneplain, fossil peneplain
PENEPIANO LOCALE : primary peneplain
PENEPIANO RELITTO : peneplain torso
PENEPIANO RIALZATO : uplifted peneplain
PENEPIANO RINGIOVANITO : dissected peneplain
PENEPIANO SEPOLTO : buried peneplain
PENEPIANO SEPOLTO : fossil peneplain
PENEPLANAZIONE : peneplanation
PENETRABILE E FAVOREVOLE ALLA CIRCOLAZIONE : hydrographisch wirksam (from German, applied to a rock)
PENETRABILE MA IMPERVIA ALLA CIRCOLAZIONE : hydrographisch wegsam (from German, applied to a rock)
PENETRAZIONE : irruption
PENISOLA : peninsula
PENNA REGISTRANTE : recording pen
PENNELLO : groyne (artificial barrier perpendicular to the shore built as a defence of a coast or river bank against erosion)
PEPITA : nugget
PEPTIZZAZIONE : peptization
PERCENTUALE POLLINICA : pollen percentage (quantity of spores or pollen grains of a given species expressed as a percentage in relation to pollen totals)
PERCOLAZIONE : percolation, seepage (infiltration, movement of water through interstices or pores of the soil or other porous medium, penetration of water in depth into rock through pores and joints)
PERCOLAZIONE AL SUOLO : ground seepage (underneath a natural or artificial barrier with emergence of water from the soil after deep penetration under the barrier)
PERCOLAZIONE ATTRAVERSO DIGA : seepage through dikes (seepage of water through a natural or artificial dike and its emergence on the inner slope or near the toe of the dike itself)
PERCOLAZIONE CAPILLARE : imbibition
PERCOLAZIONE NELL’AQUIFERO SUPERIORE : shallow ground seepage (seepage of water underneath a natural or artificial dike passing into the upper water-bearing aquifer)
PERCOLAZIONE PROFONDA : deep ground seepage (underneath a natural or artificial barrier, of water passing into the deeper aquifers)
PERCORSO DELL’ONDA SISMICA : seismic wave path, wave path
PERDITA DI PRESSIONE : loss of head (of a column of fluid)
PERDITA PER INTERCETTAZIONE : interception loss (interception of precipitation by the vegetation)
PERFORARE : to pierce
PERGELISOL : pergelisol (old fashioned term for permafrost)
PERIALINO : perhyaline (an adjective applied to hypocrystralline igneous rocks in which the ratio of crystal to glass is less than 1 to 7)
PERIGLACIALE : periglacial
PERILITE : cored bomb, perilith (formed by a fragment of old rock mantled by newly solidified lava)
PERIMETRO BAGNATO : wetted perimeter (line of contact between the water and the river bed, perimeter of a transversal section of the river bed covered with water)
PERIODICITÀ : periodicity (of an event of any kind, e.g. volcanic)
PERIODO : period (suddivisione di un’era geologica)
PERIODO ANOROGENETICO : anorogenic period, period of crustal quiescence
PERIODO DI ESPOSIZIONE DELLA COSTA A BASSA MAREA : period of uncovering
PERIODO DI MATURITÀ : period of maturity
PERIODO DI RISONANZA : resonance period (of the atmosphere in response to the excitation produced by solar radiation)
PERIODO DI RITENZIONE : retention period (during which water is held in a basin, reservoir, etc., obtained by dividing the rate of flow by the capacity)
PERIODO DI VIBRAZIONE : period of vibration (of the pendulum)
PERIODO EFFUSIVO DI EVENTO VULCANICO : lava overflow
PERIODO INTERGLACIALE : interglacial epoch
PERIODO INTERSTADIALE : interstadial epoch
PERIODO OROGENETICO : orogenetic period
PERIRE : to disappear
PERLITICO : perlitic (an adjective applied to the structure of a glassy rock in which the glassy matter is fractured by the contraction of the cooling mass)
PERMAFROST : permafrost
PERMAFROSTIZZAZIONE : pergelation
PERMANENZA DEGLI SCUDI CONTINENTALI : permanence of the continental shields (historical concept)
PERMANENZA DEI BACINI OCEANICI : permanence of the ocean basins (historical concept)
PERMANENZA DEL MODELLAMENTO FLUVIALE IN UN PAESAGGIO DEBOLMENTE GLACIALIZZATO CON LIMITATI CIRCHI GLACIALI : upland grooving
PERMEABILITÀ : permeability
PERMEABILITÀ MAGNETICA : magnetic permeability (ratio between magnetic induction and magnetic field)
PERMEABILITÀ PER POROSITÀ : primary permeability
PERMEABILITÀ PRIMARIA : primary permeability
PERMEABILITÀ SECONDARIA : secondary permeability (permeability through joints and bedding planes)
PERMIANO : Permian
PERPATICO : perpatic (an adjective applied to porphyritic rocks with a ratio of the matrix to the phenocrysts over 7 to 1)
PERSEMICO : persemic (an adjective applied to porphyritic rocks with a ratio of the matrix to the phenocrysts less than 7 to 1)
PERTITE : perthite (feldspar rich in potassium containing interlaced plagioclase)
PERTURBAZIONE MAGNETICA : magnetic disturbance (e.g. caused by violent earthquakes)
PESCI : fishes
PESO DEI MATERIALI IN SOSPENSIONE : turbidity (kg/sec of solid material content in a river)
PESO DEI SEDIMENTI SOVRASTANTI UNA FALDA FREATICA : overburden
PETROGENESI : petrogenesis (study of the origin of rocks)
PETROGRAFIA : petrography
PETROGRAFIA SEDIMENTARIA : sedimentary petrography
PETROLIFERO : oil bearing (an adjective applied to a geological formation)
PETROLIO : oil
PETROLIO GREGGIO : crude oil
PETROLOGIA : petrology
PETROLOGIA SEDIMENTARIA : sedimentary petrology
PETROLOGIA STRUTTURALE : structural petrology
PETROMORFO : petromorph (secondary mineral deposit formed in the bedrock, e.g. palette or limestone shield, or boxwork or limestone network)
PHYLUM : phylum (large systematic group, e.g.: Chordates, Mollusks, Arthropods)
PIANA A CHENIER : chenier plain (plain of salt and mud marshes on an open coast surrounded by sandy or shelly ridges)
PIANA ABISSALE : abyssal plain (area of the sea bottom with slope lower than 1 on 1000)
PIANA ALLUVIONALE : floodplain (fluvial plain flooded at high stage)
PIANA DESERTICA : pediplain
PIANA DI DENUDAMENTO MARINO : plain of marine erosion (formed during an extended period of marine abrasion on a subsiding coast which has later emerged)
PIANA DI ESONDAZIONE : floodplain (fluvial plain flooded at high stage)
PIANA DI INONDAZIONE : floodplain (fluvial plain flooded at high stage)
PIANA DI MAREA : tidal flat, tidal flat area (an area for the greater part covered by the sea at high tide but uncovered at low tide), vey (French from Normandy)
PIANA DI MAREA FANGOSA : mud flat
PIANA DI SPIAGGIA : strand plain
PIANA FLUVIOGLACIALE : fluvioglacial drift plain, outwash plain (plain formed by fluvioglacial sediments)
PIANA SABBIOSA DI MAREA : sand flat
PIANA SALATA : saline
PIANA SALINA : playa (plain in the centre of an endoreic basin in an arid or semiarid region)
PIANETA : planet
PIANETA TERRA : Earth, Planet Earth
PIANI DI MAREA : tidal flats (comparatively wide and flat areas formed by unconsolidated sediments, the greater part of which are covered and uncovered by the tides)
PIANO : stage (stratigraphic subdivision of series)
PIANO ASSIALE : axial plane
PIANO ASSIALE RICURVO : curved axial plane
PIANO BASALE DI SPINTA : basal thrust plane (underlying a set of compressive faults)
PIANO CONGIUNGENTE LE FOSSE DI UNA SERIE DI LETTI DI UNA SINCLINALE : trough plane
PIANO DELLE CRESTE ANTICLINALI : crestal plane (plane connecting the tops or crests of all beds of an anticline)
PIANO DI ABRASIONE MARINA : plain of marine erosion (formed during an extended period of marine abrasion on a subsiding coast which has later emerged)
PIANO DI BOUGUER : Bouguer plate (an infinite horizontal plate, independent of the vertical distance to the gravity station)
PIANO DI CONFINE TRA DUE FORMAZIONI ROCCIOSE : bedding plane
PIANO DI DISCONTINUITÀ : surface of discontinuity, surface of unconformity (between two strata having different properties)
PIANO DI FAGLIA : fault surface, plane fault
PIANO DI FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA : overthrust plane
PIANO DI FAGLIA LUNGO IL QUALE UNA MASSA ROCCIOSA È STATA SPINTA SOTTO UN’ALTRA : underthrust
PIANO DI FESSURAZIONE : cleavage plane
PIANO DI GIACITURA : natural bed (of a building stone in the quarry from which it was extracted, corresponding to a bedding plane, a foliation plane, or joint plane)
PIANO DI INTERSEZIONE : Schnittfläche (from the German: surface intercepting different stratification planes)
PIANO DI RIFERIMENTO : datum plane (for the tracing of the contour lines)
PIANO DI SABBIA VULCANICA : sand sea
PIANO DI SCIVOLAMENTO : sliding plane
PIANO DI SEPARAZIONE : divisional plane
PIANO DI SOMMITÀ : peak plain (resulting from uplift and dissection of a peneplain)
PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE : bedding plane
PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE ESUMATO : stripped bedding plane
PIANO INTERCALARE : joint plane
PIANO LISTRICO : listric surface (overthrust sliding plane moderately flexed and concave towards the surface)
PIANURA : lowland
PIANURA : plain
PIANURA COSTIERA : coastal plain, foreland
PIANURA PEDEMONTANA : piedmont plain
PIATTAFORMA CONTINENTALE : continental shelf
PIATTAFORMA COSTIERA AMPIA FORMATA DAL MOTO ONDOSO : wave cut platform
PIATTAFORMA COSTIERA COSTRUITA DAL MOTO ONDOSO : wave-built platform (formated by sediments eroded from the coastal platform by the waves)
PIATTAFORMA COSTIERA INCISA DAL MOTO ONDOSO : wave-cut platform
PIATTAFORMA COSTIERA STRETTA FORMATA DAL MOTO ONDOSO : wave cut bench
PIATTAFORMA DI ABRASIONE : wave-cut platform
PIATTAFORMA DI ACCUMULO : wave built terrace
PIATTAFORMA DI EROSIONE : peneplane (torso plain, planed-down torso, surface of truncation: noncommittal terms as to the genesis of such degradational surface, and therefore not linked to the erosion cycle according to Davis)
PIATTAFORMA DI LAVA SOLIDIFICATA : platform of frozen lava
PIATTAFORMA LITORANEA SOLLEVATA : elevated water cut terrace
PIATTAFORMA OCEANICA : plateau (broad and poorly defined tabular relief of the ocean bottom)
PIATTAFORMA STALAGMITICA : stool stalagmite
PIATTEZZA : flatness
PIATTO : flaggy
PICCO : peak (in geomorfology: mountain top; in statistics: local maximum of a distribution)
PICCO MONTANO : mountain peak
PICCO VULCANICO SOTTOMARINO : seapeak (roughly circular submarine relief of volcanic origin)
PICCOLA BAIA : cove (small bay dug by the waves in a cliff, small bay often within a larger one)
PICCOLO GETTO SUPERFICIALE DI LAVA SOLIDIFICATA : driblet spire
PIEDE DEL VULCANO : foot of the volcano
PIEGA : fold
PIEGA A FIANCHI RIPIDI : steep limbed fold
PIEGA A GINOCCHIO : knee fold
PIEGA A LETTI DI SPESSORE COSTANTE : parallel folding
PIEGA A LETTI PARALLELI : parallel folding
PIEGA A SCATOLA : box fold
PIEGA A VENTAGLIO : fan fold, fan shaped fold
PIEGA A ZIGZAG : zigzag fold
PIEGA ACUTA : sharp fold
PIEGA AD ANGOLO RETTO : knee fold
PIEGA ALL’INDIETRO : back fold (towards the interior of an orographic belt)
PIEGA ASIMMETRICA : asimmetric fold
PIEGA AUTENTICA : flexure fold (caused by lateral compression)
PIEGA AUTOCTONA : autochtonous fold, rooted fold
PIEGA AVENTE IL PIANO ASSIALE VERTICALE : upright fold
PIEGA BEN SVILUPPATA : well developed fold
PIEGA CHE EBBE INIZIO A ……. : fold which was initiated at …….
PIEGA COMPLESSA : complex folding
PIEGA COMPOSITA : composite folding
PIEGA COMPRESSA : compressed fold
PIEGA COMPRESSA CON LETTI APRENTISI VERSO LA CRESTA : fan fold, fan shaped fold
PIEGA CON LA CONCAVITÀ IN ALTO : downfold
PIEGA CON LA CONVESSITÀ IN ALTO : upfold
PIEGA CON LA CONVESSITÀ IN ALTO : upfolding
PIEGA CORICATA : overturned fold, recumbent fold
PIEGA DA SCORRIMENTO : shear fold, shear folding (minor fold caused by minute displacement of beds along closelt spaced fractures or cleavage planes)
PIEGA DEBOLMENTE SVILUPPATA : feebly developed fold
PIEGA DEI FIANCHI PIANI : straight sided fold
PIEGA DI FLUSSO : flow fold (minor fold caused by flow movements, e.g. in salt deposits)
PIEGA ESITANTE : hesitant fold (fold from which it is no possibile to find the direction of thrust)
PIEGA FALDA : fold nappe (large recumbent fold simulating a nappe)
PIEGA FALSA : false fold (not caused by lateral compression)
PIEGA INCIPIENTE : incipient folding
PIEGA INCLINATA : inclined fold, plunging fold
PIEGA INTRICATA : complex folding
PIEGA ISOCLINALE : isoclinal fold
PIEGA ISOLATA : isolated fold
PIEGA LARGA : broad fold
PIEGA MONOCLINALE : monocline
PIEGA NEL SENSO DELL’INCLINAZIONE : downdip
PIEGA OBLIQUA : inclined fold
PIEGA OMOCLINALE : homocline (a zone with tilted strata equally dipping in every direction)
PIEGA PICCOLA : narrow fold
PIEGA PRINCIPALE : main fold
PIEGA RINGIOVANITA : revived folding
PIEGA RIPIDA : steep fold
PIEGA RIPIEGATA : refolded fold
PIEGA SECONDARIA : minor fold
PIEGA SEMPLICE : simple folding
PIEGA SIMILARE : similar folding (different fold whose beds have the same shape)
PIEGA SIMMETRICA : symmetric fold
PIEGA SINCLINALE DI FLESSURA : lower bend of flexure
PIEGA SOLITARIA : isolated fold
PIEGA STRETTA : tight fold
PIEGA VERA : flexure fold (caused by lateral compression)
PIEGA VERTICALE : upright fold
PIEGAMENTI SUCCESSIVI : subsequent folding
PIEGAMENTO ATTARDATO : posthumous folding
PIEGAMENTO AUTENTICO : true folding (caused by lateral compression)
PIEGAMENTO CON LA CONCAVITÀ IN ALTO : downfolding
PIEGAMENTO DA COMPATTAZIONE DIFFERENZIALE SU SCOGLIERA CORALLINA : draping (folding of the strata overlying a coral reef caused not by tectonism but by differential compaction)
PIEGAMENTO DEGLI STATI IN UN BLOCCO : block folding (due to lateral compression or by dragging or both)
PIEGAMENTO DI FLUSSO : flow folding (minor folding caused by flow movements, e.g. in salt deposits)
PIEGAMENTO EIETTIVO : ejective folding (system of narrow anticlines separated by broad synclines)
PIEGAMENTO FALSO : false folding (not caused by lateral compression)
PIEGAMENTO INGANNATORE : deceptive folding (from which it is impossible to make out the direction of the tectonic push)
PIEGAMENTO INTERNO : interfolding (a folding inside another folding)
PIEGAMENTO LATERALE DELLA CROSTA : downbuckling (folding by later compression of the whole thickness of the crust)
PIEGAMENTO PENECONTEMPORANEO : penecontemporaneous folding (of sedimentary beds)
PIEGAMENTO POSTUMO : posthumous folding
PIEGAMENTO PRECURSORE : precursory folding
PIEGAMENTO QUASI CONTEMPORANEO : penecontemporaneous folding (of sedimentary beds)
PIEGAMENTO RIPETUTO : refolding
PIEGAMENTO SUCCESIVO ALLA DEPOSIZIONE : posthumous folding
PIEGAMENTO SUPERFICIALE DA SCIVOLAMENTO DI STRATI SU STRATO LUBRIFICANTE CON RELATIVA COMPRESSIONE A PIEGHE : strip thrust folding
PIEGAMENTO VERO : true folding (caused by lateral compression)
PIEGATI FINO AD IRRIGIDIMENTO : folded into rigidity (an adjective applied to strata subject to compression or slump)
PIEGATURA : folding
PIEGATURA ANTICLINALE DI FLESSURA : upper bend of flexure
PIEGHE A CASCATA : cascading folds
PIEGHE ATTACCATE : attached folds (attached to the underlying massif)
PIEGHE DA DIAPIRISMO : diapir folds, diapiric folds (faults caused by diapiric movements which can pierce the overlying layers)
PIEGHE DI TRASCINAMENTO : drag fold (minor folds produced in the stationary block by shear stress caused by compression)
PIEGHE IN SERIE : echelon folds
PIEGHE INTRACUTANEE : intracutaneous folds (occurring when a plastic layer acts as a lubricant predestinating the underlying rigid stratum to become a sliding plane)
PIEGHE MORTE : rigid folds
PIEGHE PARALLELE APRENTISI A VENTAGLIO : virgation
PIEGHE RIGIDE : rigid folds
PIEGHE SUPERFICIALI DA SCIVOLAMENTO DI STRATI SU STRATO LUBRIFICANTE CON RELATIVA COMPRESSIONE A PIEGHE : strip thrust folding
PIENO DI MASSI : bouldery
PIETRA FOCAIA : flint (dark silex variety)
PIETRA SONAGLIO : rattle stone (concretion having the central nonconcretionary part detached from the outer portion)
PIETRIFICARE : to petrify
PIETRIFICAZIONE : petrifaction (of a fossil)
PIETROSO : lithoidal (an adjective applied to crystalline rocks)
PIEZOCRISTALLIZZAZIONE : piezocrystallization (crystallization of magma under the influence of oriented pressure)
PILASTRI LAVICI : lava towers
PILASTRO TETTONICO : horst (from German)
PILASTRO TETTONICO DELIMITATO DA FLESSURE : flexure horst
PILASTRO TETTONICO LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal horst
PILASTRO TETTONICO OBLIQUO : oblique horst
PILASTRO TETTONICO TRASVERSALE : transverse horst
PILOTASSITICO : pilotaxitic (an adjective applied to the texture of holocrystalline porphyritic rocks, especially andesites, in which the groundmass consists essentially of lath-shaped feldspar microlites, often showing a more or less noticeable flow arrangement)
PINGO : frost mound (surface feature in perennially frozen ground orginating from ground water pressure)
PINNACOLO CORALLINO : coral pinnacle
PINNACOLO SORGENTE DA UN BANCO CORALLINO : coral pinnacle
PINO PLINIANO : pine tree cloud, pine tree shaped cloud
PIOGGIA : rain, rainfall
PIOGGIA DA ERUZIONE VULCANICA : eruption rain
PIOGGIA DI CENERE : shower of ash (during a volcanic eruption)
PIOGGIA DI POLLINE : pollen rain
PIOGGIA DI POLVERE ROSSA : blood rain
PIOGGIA DI SANGUE : blood rain
PIPA : pipe
PIPERNO : piperno (from Neapolitan: welded trachitic ash tuff characterized by streaks of glassy lava rags)
PIRAMIDE DI TERRA : earth pyramid
PIRAMIDI GLACIALI : séracs (from French, blocks in which a glacier breaks on a steep grade)
PIRITE : pyrite
PIRITIZZAZIONE : pyritization (fossilization process)
PIROBITUME ASFALTICO : asphaltic pyrobitumen
PIROCLASTI : ejecta (pyroclastic material ejected during an eruption)
PIROCLASTITI ACCESSORIE : accessory ejecta (piroclastic material derived from material solidified within the volcanic vent)
PIROCLASTITI ALLOGENE : accidental ejecta, allogenous tephra
PIROCLASTITI AUTIGENE : autigenous tephra
PIROGENETICO : pyrogenetic (an adjective applied to the first minerals to solidify in magma)
PIROGENICO : pyrogenic (an adjective applied to the first minerals to solidify in magma)
PIROMAGMA : pyromagma (spongy magma rich of gas)
PIROMERIDE : pyromeride (nodular devitrified riolite)
PIROMETAMORFISMO : pyrometamorphism (thermal metamorphism produced at an extremely high temperature along the immediate contacts of magma with country rock and in xenoliths, with or without interchanges of material)
PIROMETRO : pyrometer (instrument for measuring high temperatures in lava by optical or electrical pyrometry)
PIROSFERA : pyrosphere (substratum of the Earth in which magma chambers are found)
PIROSSENE : pyroxene
PISOLITE : cave pearl (circular limestone concretion in a cave), chalazoidite, pisolite (formed by glowing volcanic ash and rain water)
PISOLITE CONCREZIONATA IN GROTTA : mûre de caverne (from French: a cave pisolite resembling a mulberry)
PISOLITICO : pisolitic
PISTA DI ANIMALI : track
PISTA DI REPTAZIONE : trail
PISTA DI STRISCIAMENTO : trail
PLACCA TETTONICA : plate
PLACER : placer (mineral deposit formed by mechanical concentration of mineral particles, e.g. alluvial gold deposit)
PLANKTON : plankton (organisms incapable of autonomous movement, living in the sea, in fresh water bodies, or carried passively by winds in the atmosphere)
PLANKTON AEREO : aerial plankton
PLANKTON D’ACQUA DOLCE : freshwater plankton
PLANKTON MARINO : marine plankton
PLANOFIRICO : planophyric (an adjective applied to the texture of a planophyre)
PLANOFIRO : planophyre (a term used by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington for porphyritic rocks in which the phenocrysts are arranged in layers or laminae)
PLASTICITÀ : plasticity
PLAYA : salt pan
PLEISTOCENE : Pleistocene
PLICHE : rumples (small scale folds mostly occurring in alternating hard and soft beds)
PLICHE CONVOLUTE DA CRIOTURBAZIONE : involutions (in stratified deposits usually clayey)
PLIOCENE : Pliocene
PLUTONE DISCORDANTE : discordant pluton
PLUTONIANO : plutonian (concerning the plutonic theory)
PLUTONISMO : plutonism
PLUTONISTA : plutonist (supporter of the plutonic theory)
PNEUMATOLISI : pneumatolysis (production of minerals from volatile magma compounds)
PNEUMATOLITICO : pneumatolytic
PODSOLIZZAZIONE : podzolization
PODZOL : podsol (soil of light colour empoverished of iron by leaching)
POLARIZZAZIONE DI UN ELETTRODO : polarization of electrode
POLARIZZAZIONE ELLITTICA : elliptical polarization
POLARIZZAZIONE MAGNETICA : magnetic polarization (magnetization in a material induced by an external field)
POLARIZZAZIONE SPONTANEA : spontaneous polarization (electrical potentials caused by electrochemical reactions in mineral deposits)
POLDER : polder (from Dutch: a littoral marsh or a tidal flat after diking and reclamation)
POLIADE : polyad (group of more than four spores or pollen grains)
POLIDINAMISMO : polydynamism
POLIFILETICO : polyphyletical (an adjective applied to the descent of organisms from a plurality of ancestors)
POLIGENICO : polygenic (an adjective applied to a species deriving from two or more convergent ancestral types)
POLIGONI DI TUNDRA : tundra polygones (in a periglacial environment)
POLIMETAMORFISMO : polymetamorphism
POLIMORFISMO : polymorphism (ability of a biological species to show different forms and characters)
POLINIA : polynya (sizeable sea area surrounded by ice)
POLIPLOIDE : polyploid (cellular chromosomic complex with more than two sets of omologous chromosomes)
POLIPLOIDE : polyploid (cellular chromosomic endowment with several sets of homologous chromosomes)
POLITICA IDRICA : hydropolitics
POLITOPIA : polytopy (parallel biological evolution, taking place in different areas)
POLJE : (from the Slovenian) karst basin, polje (usually of tectonic origin)
POLLINE : pollen
POLLINE ARBOREO : tree pollen
POLLINE ERBACEO : nontree pollen
POLLINE NON ARBOREO : nontree pollen
POLODÍA : drift away from the poles
POLVERE ATMOSFERICA : dust
POLVERE DI FRIZIONE : rock flour
POLVERE VULCANICA : volcanic dust
POLVERIZZATO : pulverized
POLVERIZZATORE : splitter (an ironical term indicating a palaeontologist who tends to split similar forms into too many and too different groups)
POLVERIZZAZIONE : pulverization, trituration (formation of dust in volcanic deposits, e.g. Etna)
POMICE : pumice
POMICEO : pumiceous (an adjective applied to igneous rocks)
POMPA AD ARIA COMPRESSA : airlift pump
PONTE CARSICO : natural bridge (formed by collapse of the roof in a cave)
PONTE IN GROTTA : cave bridge
POPOLAZIONE : population
PORATO : porate (an adjective applied to a pollen grain having pores in the exine)
PORCELLANITE : porcelanite (impure calcareous chert or a mixture of clay with a large proportion of opaline silica of flint-like hardness often occurring in the roof and floor of burned coal seams)
PORFIRINA : porphyrin
PORFIRITICO : porphyritic (texture of igneopus rocks in which certain constituents occur as large or more or less perfect crystals in a matrix of finer grains and/or glass)
PORFIROBLASTICO : porphyroblastic (an adjective applied to the texture of a metamorphic heteroblastic rock in which the large blastic crystals, i.e. porphyroblasts, of one or more minerals are embedded in a matrix made up of smaller elements)
PORFIROBLASTO : metacryst, metacrystal, porphyroblast (large crystal of metamorphic origin in a porphyroblastic rock)
PORO : pore (in pollen analysis, circular or slightly oval opening in the exine of pollen grains)
POROSITÀ : pore space, porosity
POROSITÀ DI FRATTURA : fracture porosity
POROSITÀ EFFICACE : effective porosity (percentage of a volume of water which a given volume of rock or soil yields after having been saturated)
POROSO : porous
PORRE IN CONTATTO STRATI GEOLOGICI DIVERSI MEDIANTE LA FORMAZIONE DI UNA FAGLIA : to contact
PORTA DEL GHIACCIAIO : glacier cave
PORTATA : flow rate
PORTATA TORBIDA : turbidity (kg/sec of solid material content in a river)
POSIZIONE INVERTITA : reverse position (of strata)
POSIZIONE NORMALE : normal position (of a formation)
POSIZIONE ORIGINARIA : normal position (of a formation)
POTENTIALE DI ADSORBIMENTO : adsorption potential (change of potential in an ion passing from a gaseous phase or from a solution to the surface of an adsorbent)
POTENZA RIDOTTA : reduced thickness (of bedding)
POTENZIALE DEL CAMPO GRAVITAZIONALE : gravity potential
POTENZIALE DI CAPILLARITÀ : capillarity potential (work required to move a mass unit of water in the soil)
POTENZIALE DI ELETTROFILTRAZIONE : electrofiltration potential
POTENZIALE DI PRESSIONE : pressure potential (of a fluid)
POTENZIALE GRAVITATIVO : gravity potential
POZZA IN LETTO FLUVIALE : pool
POZZA LITORANEA SCAVATA NELLA ROCCIA : rock pool
POZZETTI MULTIPLI PER CARICHE ESPLOSIVE NELLA PROSPEZIONE SISMICA : multiple shotholes
POZZO : well
POZZO AD INIEZIONE : diffusing well, injection well, recharging well (a well used to inject water into the ground in order to restore water to the aquifer)
POZZO ARTESIANO : artesian well
POZZO CARSICO : jama
POZZO D’ACQUA : water well
POZZO DI FAGLIA : fault pit (depression surrounded by concentric faults)
POZZO DI FANGO SOLFORICO : mud pot (a hole in the ground more than 10 metres across, filled with ground water, containing sulphur mud and showing ebullitions of sulphuric gases)
POZZO DI FANGO SOLFOROSO BOLLENTE : boiling mud pit
POZZO DI SABBIA : sand pipe (natural pip filled with sediments from the overlying strata)
POZZO GHIACCIATO SUL PAVIMENTO DI UNA GROTTA : ice cave
POZZO IN GROTTA : cave well
POZZO LAVICO : lava pit
POZZO MODENESE : artesian well
POZZOLANA : pozzolana (from the Italian: trachytic volcanic ash which acquires cementing power when mixed with water and lime; some foreign texts systematically turn the name into “puzzolana”)
PRATO SALMASTRO : salt pasture
PRECAMBRIANO : Precambrian
PRECIPITATO : precipitate, sinter
PRECIPITATO CHIMICO INTORNO A UNA SORGENTE : tufa (siliceous or calcareous)
PRECIPITATO DI SORGENTE : sinter (limestone or silex precipitate deposited around a spring)
PRECIPITATO SILICEO CIRCONDANTE UNA SORGENTE : siliceous sinter
PRECIPITAZIONI : precipitation (total measurable supply of water received directly from the clouds, either in liquid form or as snow)
PRECURSORE : forerunner
PREDAZIONE : predation
PREDECESSORE : predecessor
PRELEVAMENTO DI ACQUA FREATICA : yield (e.g. in mm of water column in 24 hours, or in litres per second per hectare)
PRESA D’ARIA : airdoor (for mine ventilation)
PRESERVAZIONE : preservation (e.g. of a fossil)
PRESSIONE ARTESIANA : artesian pressure
PRESSIONE ASSOLUTA : absolute pressure (measured with respect to zero pressure in units of force per unità of area)
PRESSIONE DI FLUIDO ATTRAVERSO STRATO PERMEABILE : reservoir pressure (pressure of a fluid through the pores of permeable layer)
PRESSIONE DI ROCCE SOVRASTANTI UNA GROTTA : cave overburden pressure
PRESSIONE DI VAPORE : vapour pressure
PRESSIONE ESERCITATA DAI SEDIMENTI SOVRASTANTI UNA FALDA FREATICA : overburden pressure
PRESSIONE GASSOSA : gas pressure
PRESSIONE IDROSTATICA : hydrostatic pressure (weight of a water column at rest)
PRESSIONE MAGMATICA : magmatic pressure
PRESSIONE TANGENZIALE : tangential pressure
PRIAPULIDI : priapulids
PRIMARIO : (in historical geology and palaeontology) Palaeozoic, Primary, Primary era; syngenetic (in lithology: an adjective applied to an element contemporaneous to the including rock)
PRIMAVERA : spring
PRINCIPIO DELL’ATTUALISMO : principle of actualism
PRISMA : prism (crystal shape)
PRIVO DI CORSI D’ACQUA : riverless
PRIVO DI FAGLIE : unfaulted
PRIVO DI SCORRIMENTO SUPERFICIALE : riverless
PROBLEMA FILOSOFICO DELLA CLASSIFICAZIONE : philosophical problem of taxonomy (based on the dichotomy between classifications in which it is possible to distinguish discrete basic units, such as biological species; and classifications in which the continuity of different forms does not allow making out discrete basic units such as in the case of classifications of clouds, climate types or soils)
PROCARIOTA : prokaryote (unicellular organism with no distinct nucleus and therefore with DNA, or desoxyribonucleic acid, spread in the cell, e.g. bacteria and blue algae)
PROCESSI DI FLUSSO LENTO : slowflow processes (corresponding to river baseflow)
PROCESSI DI FLUSSO RAPIDO : quickflow processes (corresponding to the component of precipitation which reaches rapidly the river bed through overland flow or the soil)
PROCESSI DI FORMAZIONE DEI GIACIMENTI MINERARI : processes of formation of mineral deposits
PROCESSI STATICI : static processes (metamorphic processes not directly dependent upon dynamic deformation of rocks)
PROCESSO SELETTIVO : sorting
PRODOTTI DI SUBLIMAZIONE : sublimation products
PRODOTTI VULCANICI : volcanic products
PROFILO DI EQUILIBRIO : equilibrium profile, profile of equilibrium (caratteristico of a mature stage, in which, theoretically, the river cannot transport anymore sediments)
PROFILO DI EQUILIBRIO : graded profile
PROFILO DI VELOCITÀ : velocity profile (in seismic survey: special reflection profile that is shot in order to determine the velocity distribution)
PROFILO GENERALE : generalized section (a drawing showing characteristics of various areas grouped together in one section)
PROFILO GEOLOGICO : geological section
PROFILO LITORALE : shore profile
PROFILO LITORALE DI EQUILIBRIO : graded shore profile
PROFILO LONGITUDINALE DI UNA VALLE : longitudinal valley profile
PROFILO REGOLARIZZATO : graded stream
PROFILO TRASVERSALE DI UNA VALLE : transverse valley profile
PROFILO VALLIVO LONGITUDINALE NON REGOLARIZZATO : ungraded valley profile (typical of a young stage)
PROFILO VERTICALE DI UN FIUME CHE SEGUE LA LINEA DI MASSIMO FLUSSO : thalweg
PROFONDITÀ : vertical extent (of a fault)
PROFONDITÀ DELL’ARCUATURA DI BEACH CUSP : rise of beach cusp
PROFONDITÀ DELL’IPOCENTRO : depth of focus, focal depth (of an earthquake)
PROFONDITÀ DI UNO STRETTO MARINO : sill depth
PROFONDITÀ EQUIVALENTE : equivalent depth (height of the atmosphere assumed as a constant for the calculation of the resonance period)
PROFONDITÀ FOCALE : depth of focus, focal depth (of an earthquake)
PROFONDITÀ IDRAULICA MEDIA (PIM) : hydraulic mean depth (HMD), hydraulic radius mean hydraulic depth (wet section divided by the wet perimeter in a river)
PROFONDITÀ OCEANICA MEDIA : mean sea depth
PROGENITORE : progenitor
PROGRADAZIONE COSTIERA : coastal accretion
PROIEZIONE A DENTE DI SQUALO : shark tooth projection (narrow, pointed projection on lava formed at breaks or in cracks in the pahoehoe crust, where one side has pulled away and the viscous lava is dragged apart)
PROIEZIONE SU UN PIANO ORIZZONTALE DI UNA TRAIETTORIA : line of motion of stream line (e.g. of a water particle in a river or an ice particle in a glacier)
PROIEZIONI GASSOSE VULCANICHE : gaseous products
PROLIFERAZIONE : bloom (proliferation of microscopic aquatic organisms such as to bring about a colouring of the water and possibly widespread mortality of organisms)
PROLIFERAZIONE ACQUATICA : waterbloom (of microscopic organisms capable of colouring the water and eventually of causing a die-off of organisms)
PROLIFERAZIONE ALGALE : algal bloom
PROMONTORIO : promontory
PROMONTORIO ALATO : winged headland (promontory having two spits extending in opposite directions)
PROPILITIZZAZIONE : propylitization (hydrotermal alteration of andesitic and related rocks into greenstone-like rocks, i.e. propylites, composed essentially of clorite, sericite, epidote, carbonates and quartz with disseminated pirite)
PROSCIUGAMENTO : land reclamation, reclamation
PROSCIUGAMENTO DI UN LAGO : draining
PROSCIUGARSI : to go dry
PROSECUZIONE DI UNA CATENA MONTUOSA SU UNA PIATTAFORMA CONTINENTALE O INSULARE : spur
PROSPEZIONE GEOLOGICA : subsurface geology
PROTEROZOICO : Proterozoic
PROTISTA : protist
PROTOCLASI : protoklase (from German: process producing a protoclastic structure)
PROTOCLASTICO : protoclastic (an adjective applied to the structure and texture in igneous rocks which show deformation and granulation of early formed minerals)
PROTOTETTITI : prototectites (a type of igneopus rocks produced by crystallization of primary magmas)
PROTOZOI : protozoans
PROTRUSIONE : protrusion (lifting of the volcanic plug in the crater due to the gas pressure in the initial phases of the eruption)
PROTRUSIONI BULBOSE IN UNA COLATA LAVICA SOLIDIFICATA : lava toes
PROTUBERANZA LAVICA : squeezeup
PROVINCIA COMAGMATICA : comagmatic province
PROVINCIA GEOLOGICA : geological province (area characterized by peculiar structural physiografic features during its geological history)
PROVINCIA METALLOGENETICA : metallogenetic province
PROVINCIA MINERARIA : mineral province
PROVINCIA PETROGRAFICA : petrographical province
PROVINCIA PETROLOGICO-SEDIMENTARIA : sedimentary petrological province
PSAMMITE : arenite, psammite
PSEFITE : psephite (coarsely fragmented rock)
PSEUDOANTICLINALE : pseudoanticline (anticline localized in an evidently synclinalic structural complex)
PSEUDOATOLLO : pseudoatoll (atoll rising back from the outer margin of rimless shoals)
PSEUDOBOCCA : pseudobocca (from the Italian: a on a superficially congealed lava flow from which a “secondary” lava flow issues)
PSEUDOBOMBA : lava ball
PSEUDOBRECCIA : pseudobreccia (partially and irregularly dolomitic limestone having a surficial resemblance to a breccia)
PSEUDOESTINZIONE : pseudoextinction (seeming extinction of a species which in reality has evolved giving rise to a different species)
PSEUDOMORENA : pseudomoraine, scoria moraine
PSEUDOPALAGONITE : pseudopalagonite
PSEUDOPORFIRITICO : pseudoporphyritic (texture of plutonic rocks, especially granites, which contain relatively large crystals of feldspar, thus giving the rocks a porphyritic appearance)
PSEUDOSINCLINALE : pseudosyncline (syncline localized in an evidently anticlinalic structural complex)
PSEUDOTACHILITE : pseudotachylite (massive glassy microbreccia formed by partial fusion of ultramylonite overcompressed beyond its ultimate strength, which simulates tachylite; see tachylite)
PSEUDOVULCANO : pseudovolcano (crater shape superficially similar to a volcano but not of volcanic origin)
PSEUDOVULCANO A SCUDO : pseudo shield volcano
PTIGMATICO : ptygmatic (an adjective applied to the structure of folding common in pegmatites and characterized by strongly rumpled pegmatitic or aplitic veins)
PUDDINGA : pudding stone (conglomerate with rounded gravel with predominant groundmass)
PUNTA ESTREMA DI UN CAPO : point
PUNTA MASSIMA : climax (phase of highest intensity of any event: earthquake, tornado, tsunami, ecc.)
PUNTO CURIE : Curie point (at which ferromagnetic material loses its magnetization)
PUNTO DI APPASSIMENTO : wilting point (minimum water amount for plant growth)
PUNTO DI DEFLESSIONE : deflection point (on a graph of seismic refraction separating two corresponding segments at different directions of wave paths)
PUNTO DI ESPLOSIONE DELLA CARICA : explosion point, shotpoint (in seismic prospection)
PUNTO DI INTERCETTAZIONE : intercept time (time at which the extension of a segment of a refraction graph intersects the time axis)
PUNTO LAMBDA (PUNTO ) : lambda point ( point) (temperature at which antiferromagnetism becomes ferromagnetism)
PUNTO PIÚ ELEVATO DI UNA MASSA INTRUSIVA : top
PUTREFAZIONE : putrefaction
PUY : puy (from the French: small cone from short lived volcanic activity)
QUANTITÀ COMPLESSIVA DI MATERIALI TRASPORTATI IN SOSPENSIONE : suspended sediment (in one year or in other period of time)
QUANTITÀ D’ACQUA CHE ASCENDE PER CAPILLARITÀ : capillary yield
QUANTITÀ D’ACQUA IMMAGAZZINABILE DEL SUOLO : water storing capacity of the soil (above the capillary surface, expressed in millimetres of water column height)
QUANTITÀ DI NEVE CADUTA IN UN DATO PERIODO DI TEMPO : snowfall
QUARZITE FERRUGINOSA : itabirite (e.g. Itabira, Brasile)
QUARZO SHOCKATO : shocked quartz (microlamellar quartz shocked by a sudden and violent shock, e.g. a meteorite impact or a surficial volcanic eruption)
QUASAR : quasar (astronomical object interpreted as a galaxy in its early stages, acronym of “Quasi Stellar Object”)
QUASI ATOLLO : almost atoll
QUASI CONTEMPORANEO : penecontemporaneous (a term applied to a feature or structure nearly contemporaneous to the surrounding rock)
QUATERNARIO : Neozoic, Neozoic era, Quaternary
RACCORDO : merging (of folds or fold systems)
RADDOPPIO : doubling
RADDRIZZARE : to straighten up
RADIAZIONE ADATTATIVA : adaptive radiation
RADICALE ACIDO : acid radical (molecule of an acid without a replaceable hydrogen atom)
RADICAMENTO : rooting, to be rooted (a term applied to a a nappe or a fold)
RADICAMENTO PROFONDO : enracinement (from French: deep rooting of a massif)
RADICE : root (eccess of crustal material under the mountains shown by a mass deficit, supply zone of an intrusive magmatic mass)
RADICE DI MEANDRO : meander neck (in a river)
RADICE DI UN OROGENE : orogene root (crustal thickening at the base of an orogene)
RADICE DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : nappe root (basal part making up the between the nappe and its autochthonous base)
RADICE DI UNA PIEGA : fold root (basal zone linking a fold with its autochthonous basement)
RADICE DI UNA PIEGA FALDA : fold nappe root (basal zone linking a fold nappe with its autochthonous basement)
RADIOLARITE : radiolarite (a rock composed mainly of the siliceous skeletons of radiolarians)
RAFFREDDAMENTO : cooling, cooling down
RAFFREDDAMENTO LENTO : slow cooling
RAFFREDDAMENTO RAPIDO : quick cooling
RAFFREDDARE : to chill
RAGGIO SISMICO : seismic ray
RAGGRUPPAMENTO DI FAGLIE IN SEQUENZA SCALARE : staggered arrangement
RAGGRUPPONE : lumper (an ironical term indicating a palaeontologist who tends to group different forms into too few systematic groups)
RAGNI : spiders
RAKE : rake (Northern England; a structure built at the lower end of a hush to carry out the separation of the mineral from the gangue; sometimes the hush itself is called a Rake, e.g. at the Wear headwaters, by Killhopehead)
RAMIFICARE : to branch
RAMIFICAZIONE : branching
RAMIFICAZIONE : splitting
RAMIFICAZIONE DI UNA GROTTA : side branch
RAMO : splitting brach
RAMO BREVE IRREGOLARE DI UNA VENA MINERARIA : spur
RAPIDA : rapid (in a river)
RAPPORTO : ratio, relation, relationship
RAPPORTO CLASTICO : clastic ratio (ratio between the thickness of the clasts and the thickness of the non clastic formations in a stratigraphic unit)
RAPPORTO COSTI-BENEFICI : cost-benefit ratio (e.g. in the evaluation of the feasibility of a proposed environmental alteration such as a hydraulic protection project, or for the building of a public infrastructure such as a seaport)
RAPPORTO DI AMMORTIZZAMENTO : damping ratio (between two successive oscillations of the pendulum)
RAPPORTO DI BIFORCAZIONE : bifurcation ratio (relation between the number of fluvial branches of a given order and the number of branches of the immediately superior order)
RAVVIVARSI : to revive (a term applied to a a joint or a fissure)
RAYLEIGH : rayleigh (unit of measurement of light intensity, equivalent to 1,000,000 fotons/cm2, used in measuring airglow and polar aurora intensities)
RAZIOMETRO : ratiometer (a contrivance to measure the ratio of two electrical potential differences)
RAZZA : race (a group of similar organisms not sufficiently distinctives from other forms to be classified as a separate species)
RECESSIONE : retreat
RECESSIONE DEL FRONTE DI UNA FALESIA : cliff retreat
REEF CORALS : coralli costruttori di scogliere
REEF CORE : nucleo corallino (rocky coral mass built in situ)
REFRATTOMETRO DI ABBE : Abbe refractometer (usato per la misurazione diretta dell’indice di rifrazione di liquidi, minerali e gemme)
REFRIGERARE : to chill
REFRIGERAZIONE : cooling, cooling down
REFRIGERAZIONE LENTA : slow cooling
REFRIGERAZIONE RAPIDA : quick cooling
REG : reg, sand sea, sandy desert
REGIME DUPLICE : dual regime (of a river having two seasonal peaks of discharge)
REGIME FLUVIALE : regime
REGIME UNIFORME : uniform regime (a river regime with a single seasonal peak)
REGIONE ABISSALE : abysmal area (part of the sea bottom below the average level of the earth crust)
REGIONE ASISMICA : aseismic region
REGIONE CARSICA : karst region
REGIONE COMAGMATICA : comagmatic province
REGIONE DI FRONTE ALLA PRIMA CUESTA : oldland
REGIONE FRONTALE DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : frontal region of a nappe
REGIONE MACROSISMICA : macroseismic region
REGIONE MEGASISMICA : megaseismic region
REGIONE MICROSISMICA : microseismic region
REGIONE PENESISMICA : peneseismic region
REGIONE PETROGRAFICA : petrographical province
REGIONE SISMICA : earthquake region
REGIONE SISMICA : seismic region
REGIONE TETTONIZZATA : tectonized region
REGIONE VULCANICA : volcanic region
REGISTRAZIONE DEL MOMENTO DI ESPLOSIONE DELLA CARICA : shotbreak (in seismic prospection)
REGISTRAZIONE DEL TEMPO: time registration (of an earthquake)
REGISTRAZIONE SISMICA : earthquake recording, seismic recording, seismogram, seismic registration
REGISTRAZIONE SISMICA MECCANICA : mechanical seismic registration
REGISTRAZIONE SISMICA OTTICA : optical seismic registration
REGNO : kingdom (e.g. animals, plants, protists, procaryots, etc.)
REGOLA DI ABEGG: Abegg’s rule (regola empirica secondo cui la solubilità di metalli alcalini in acidi forti diminuisce dal litio al cesio)
REGOLITO : regolith (mantle of weathered material which has not undergone transportain other than creep)
REGOSUOLO : regosol (soil without definite genetic horizons developing from deep unconsolidated rock or soft mineral deposits)
REGRESSIONE : regression (in geomorphology: retreat of the sea or of any surficial feature of the Earth, in statistics: a method for uncovering whether and how different variables may be related with each other)
REGRESSIONE DELLA COSTA : retreat of the coast
REGRESSIONE DELLA SPIAGGIA : retreat of the beach
REGRESSIONE MARINA : retreat of the sea
REGUR : regur, black cotton soil (dark coloured usually calcareous soil of tropical regions which swells when wet and tends to crack deeply on drying)
RELITTO CORAZZATO : armoured relict (unstable mineral of a metamorphic rock surrounded by a crystal or by a contact surface which isolates it from the other minerals of the rock)
RELITTO METASTABILE : metastable relict, unstable relict (mineral that is unstable under new conditions of metamorphism, and therefore tends to become transformed very slowly, so that it persists a long time)
RELITTO PRIMARIO : primäres Relikt (from German), primary relict (a relict mineral which was a constituent of the original rock and has survived metamorphism)
RELITTO SECONDARIO : secondary relict, sekundäres Relikt (from German: a relict mineral formed during an initial phase of metamorphism and which has survived a further stage of metamorphism)
RELITTO STABILE : stable relict (a relict mineral which was not only stable under the conditions prevailing while it was formed but also under the newly imposed conditions)
REMISSIONE : relaxation (of the magmatic pressure of magma in a volcanic eruption after the explosive phase)
RENDIMENTO IDRICO DELLA FALDA FREATICA : yield (e.g. in mm of water column in 24 hours, or in litres per second per hectare)
RENDIMENTO IDRICO MASSIMO : safe yield (maximum amount of water that can be extracted from a supply source without causing it to become exhausted, maximum dependable draft which can be made continuously upon a source of water supply over several years during which the greatest possible drought or the greatest possible deficiency in water supply is likely to occur)
RENIFORME : reniform
REOMORFISMO : rheomorphism (process of liquefaction of a rock with the ingress of new material by diffusion)
RESIDUI COLLINARI INCLINATI : flatirons (sedimentary remnants of hills formed by outcrops of dipping resistant strata)
RESIDUI DI GELIVAZIONE : congelifracts (rock fragments produced by freezing and refreezing)
RESIDUI VULCANICI : volcanic remnants
RESIDUO : relict (mineral or remains of a mineral in a metamorphic rock which was a constituent of the original rock or was formed during an earlier phase of metamorphism and which persisted during later stages of metamorphism)
RESIDUO DI DEFLAZIONE : desert pavement
RESIDUO DI DISSOLUZIONE : solution residue
RESIDUO DI LISCIVIAZIONE : leaching residue
RESIDUO DI SCIOGLIMENTO : solution residue
RESIDUO FERRUGINOSO DA SOLUBILIZZAZIONE DI CALCARE : terra rossa
RESIDUO INSOLUBILE : insoluble residue
RESIDUO STACCATO DA UNA CUESTA O DA UN ALTOPIANO : outlier (a residue detached from a highland or cuesta due to erosion)
RESIDUO VULCANICO : volcanic skeleton
RESINITE : resinite (maceral derived from resins and/or wax)
RESISTENZA ACUSTICA : acoustic resistance (product of logitudinal oscillatory velocity and medium density)
RESISTENZA ALL’ABRASIONE : abrasion hardness
RESISTENZA CRITICA DI AMMORTIZZAMENTO : aperiodical damping (aperiodic resistance which occurs when the mass returns in a position of equilibrium halting its oscillation)
RESISTENZA DELL’ARIA : air damping
RESISTENZA DI AMMORTIZZAMENTO : damping (a force acting on the pendulum, proportional to the speed of movement, opposite to the friction and independent from the nature of the contact surface)
RESISTENZA DI AMMORTIZZAMENTO DELL’OLIO : oil damping
RESISTENZA DI AMMORTIZZAMENTO ELETTROMAGNETICA : electromagnetic damping
RESISTIVITÀ : resistivity
RESISTIVITÀ MISURATA : apparent resistivity
RESTAURARE : to reconstruct (a fossil organism, the scenario of a geological period, etc.)
RESTAURO : reconstruction (of a fossil organism, of the scenario of a geological period, etc.)
RESTI ANIMALI : animal remains
RESTI ANIMALI FRAMMENTATI : fragmentary animal remains
RESTI VEGETALI : vegetable remains
RESTI VEGETALI FRAMMENTATI : fragmentary plant remains
RESTO : relict (mineral or remains of a mineral in a metamorphic rock which was a constituent of the original rock or was formed during an earlier phase of metamorphism and which persisted during later stages of metamorphism)
RESTRINGIMENTO IN PAVIMENTO DI GROTTA : cave bottle (narrow cavity in the cave pavement)
RETE DI CERCHI DI PIETRE : stone nets (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
RETE DI PICCOLE VENE CEMENTANTI ROCCIA FRANTUMATA : stringer lead
RETE DI VENE D’ARGENTO : edle Geschicke (from the German; a system of rich interlocked silver veins, e.g. Freiberg region)
RETE FLUVIALE : river system, river network
RETE TRIDIMENSIONALE DI GROTTE INTERCOMUNICANTI : network of caves
RETICOLITE : reticulite (glassy basaltic scoria)
RETICOLO CALCAREO : boxwork (protruding network of calcareous veins formed by dissolution of limestone rocks)
RETICOLO DI FAGLIE : network of faults (oriented in different directions)
RETICOLO DI UN MINERALE : lattice
RETICOLO DI VENE : network of veins (oriented in different directions)
RETROAZIONE : feedback
RETROAZIONE NEGATIVA : negative feedback
RETROAZIONE POSITIVA : positive feedback
RETROBARRIERA : back reef (stretch of the sea between tha coast and coral reef)
RETROCANALE : back reef moat (natural channel between a coral reef and the coast)
RETROFOSSA : backdeep (marginal depression at the back of the main orogenetic uplift)
RETROPAESE : backland (land area at the back of the main orogenetic uplift)
RETROPENDIO DI CUESTA : cuesta backslope (low slope in the same direction as the inclination of the layers)
RETTILI : reptiles
RIA : drowned river valley, ria (from Portuguese: fluvial valley drowned by the sea)
RIA PICCOLA E STRETTA : cala (from Spanish)
RIAPPARIRE : to reappear (in sedimentlogy: a term applied to a sedimentary unit; in tectonic geology: a etrm applied to a fault)
RIBOLLIMENTO RETROGRADO : retrograde boiling (separation of gas phase in a cooling magma due to retrograde increase of vapour tension)
RICARICA DELL’UMIDITÀ DEL SUOLO : soil moisture recharge
RICERCA VULCANOLOGICA : volcanological research, vulcanological research
RICOPRIMENTO LONGITUDINALE DI UNA FAGLIA INVERSA : overlap of the outcrop of the bed
RICOPRIMENTO PARALLELO ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE : stratigraphic heave (width of the overlap between two parts of a disrupted bed measured in the direction of the faulted bedding plane, in the case of reserve faults)
RICOSTRUIRE : to reconstruct (a fossil organism, the scenario of a geological period, etc.)
RICOSTRUZIONE : reconstruction (of a fossil organism, of the scenario of a geological period, etc.)
RICRISTALLIZZAZIONE : recrystallization
RICRISTALLIZZAZIONE PARATETTONICA : paratectonic recrystallization
RICRISTALLIZZAZIONE PRETETTONICA : pretectonic recrystallization
RICRISTRALLIZZAZIONE POSTTETTONICA : posttectonic recrystallization
RIDEPOSIZIONE : redeposition
RIDUZIONE : reduction
RIDUZIONE ADATTATIVA : adaptive reduction (of organs in a species)
RIDUZIONE DELLA PRESSIONE : pressure release (inside the magma chamber making the magma fluid and possibly active)
RIDUZIONE DISADATTATIVA : inadaptive reduction (of organs in a species bringing as a consequence the extinction of the species)
RIDUZIONE ISOSTATICA : isostatic reduction
RIDUZIONE TOPOISOSTATICA : topoisostatic reduction (combination of topographic and isostatic reduction in gravimetry measurements)
RIELABORATO : reworked
RIEMPIMENTO CON DEPOSITI SEDIMENTARI FINI : silting up
RIEMPIMENTO DI DIACLASI : vein filling
RIEMPIMENTO DI UN LAGO : lake filling up, lake silting up
RIEMPIMENTO DI UN LAGO IN SEGUITO A CRESCITA VEGETALE : filling up by plant growth
RIEMPIMENTO DI UNA LAGUNA : aggradation of a lagoon floor
RIEMPIMENTO DI UNA VALLE : valley fill
RIEMPIMENTO FILONIANO : vein filling
RIFLESSIONE : reflexion
RIFLESSIONE FALSA : fake reflexion (of a seismic wave due to accidental disturbances)
RIFLESSIONI MULTIPLE : multiple reflections (of seismic waves on different interfaces)
RIFLESSO DI BANCHISA : iceblink (white streak on the horizon caused by reflection of light from ice not yet visible)
RIFORNIMENTO : supply
RIFRAZIONE : refraction
RIFRAZIONE DELLE ONDE : wave refraction
RIGIDITÀ : rigidity
RIGONFIAMENTO : swell, swelling, welt
RIGONFIAMENTO DEL SUOLO : frost heave
RIGONFIARE : to swell
RILASSAMENTO : relaxation (of the magmatic pressure of magma in a volcanic eruption after the explosive phase)
RILEVAMENTO ACUSTICO : acoustic survey (to measure the porosity of a rock by measuring the speed of a sonic impulse travelling inside it)
RILEVAZIONI A DISTANZA : remote sensing (by means of planes or satellites)
RILIEVO : relief – R. SEMISPIANATO : flattish relief, energy-poor relief – R. MODERATO : medium relief – R. ALPINO : alpine relief, high-energy relief (terms used by geomorphologists who do not accept the Davisian concept of cyclical landscape development)
RILIEVO : ridge (long subaerial elevation, long elevation of the sea bottom with a steep and partly irregular slope)
RILIEVO ARGILLOSO IN UN DELTA FLUVIALE : mudlump
RILIEVO DA SPINTA GLACIALE : ice pushed moraine (non morainic relief formed by the pressure of a glacier)
RILIEVO DEL FONDO OCEANICO : seahigh (old term indicating an elevation of the deep sea floor of more than 1000 metres whose morphology is not known with sufficient precision to warrant a more precise definition)
RILIEVO DELLA SUPERFICIE PRIMITIVA : initial relief (uneroded relief just emerged from the sea)
RILIEVO DI GHIACCIO MARINO : pressure ridge (formed in marine ice by repeated fragmentation episodes)
RILIEVO DI RIPPLE MARKS : ridge of ripple marks
RILIEVO DI SABBIA SULLA SPIAGGIA : sand dome
RILIEVO DI SPIAGGIA SU FANGO : perched chenier (a perched beach ridge on a sandy or shelly beach built on mud)
RILIEVO DI TIPO APPALACHIANO : Appalachian relief (of an old folded mountain chain with a strong impact of erosion and a dominance of secondary structural forms)
RILIEVO FREATICO : groundwater mound (a mound in the water table due to an inflow)
RILIEVO FUMAROLICO : fumarole mound
RILIEVO GIURASSIANO : jurassian relief (relief in young folded mountains consisting of a great numbero of parallel anticlines and synclines, with primary structural forms predominating)
RILIEVO LUNGO E AMPIO DEL FONDO OCEANICO A PENDIO DOLCE : rise
RILIEVO MONOCLINALE : monoclinal mountain (monoclinal mountain chain)
RILIEVO POLICICLICO : multicyclic relief, multiple cyclic relief (developed during succeeding erosion cycles)
RILIEVO SALIFERO : salt uprise
RILIEVO SEPOLTO : buried hill
RILIEVO SEPOLTO CAUSANTE DISCONFORMITÀ : reflected buried hill (uplift in the surface beds resulting from a disconformity in sedimentation over a buried hill)
RILIEVO SITUATO DI FRONTE AD UNA CATENA MONTUOSA MA SEPARATO DA ESSA : outlier
RILIEVO SOLFATARICO : solfatara mound
RILIEVO SOTTOMARINO NELLA SPIAGGIA SOMMERSA : bank
RILIEVO SU ALTOPIANO TROPICALE : bornhardt, inselberg (both from German)
RILIEVO VULCANICO SOTTOMARINO : seaknoll (submarine hill of volcanic origin)
RILIEVO VULCANICO SOTTOMARINO PROFONDO : seamount (comparatively isolated elevation of the sea floor higher than 1000 m)
RIMANEGGIATO : reworked
RINGIOVANIMENTO : rejuvenation (in mineralogy: further mineralization process after an early genetic phase; in tectonic geology: rejuvenation of relief due to tectonic uplift)
RINGIOVANIRE : to revive (a term applied to a a joint or a fissure)
RIOLITE : rhyolite
RIOLITE VETRIFICATA NODULARE : pyromeride (nodular devitrified riolite)
RIPARO IN GROTTA : shelter cave
RIPETIZIONE DI LETTI : repetition of beds (due to a fault)
RIPIDITÀ : steepness
RIPIDO PENDIO DI FRANA SUL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : slide slope (30°-40°)
RIPIEGAMENTO ALL’INTERNO : back folding (towards the interior of an orographic belt)
RIPIEGAMENTO DELLA STRATIFICAZIONE VERSO IL BASSO : downward drag
RIPIEGAMENTO DELLA STRATIFICAZIONE VERSO L’ALTO : upward drag (due to a fault)
RIPIEGAMENTO DI STRATI : drag
RIPIEGAMENTO INEGUALE : dejective folding (system of broad anticlines separated by narrow synclines)
RIPIEGAMENTO PTIGMATICO : ptygmatic folding (small scale folding resulting from compression of a resistant layer embedded in a series of softer sediments)
RIPIEGATO VERSO IL BASSO : dragged down (a term applied to a stratum displaced by a fault)
RIPIEGATO VERSO L’ALTO : dragged up (a term applied to a stratum displaced by a fault)
RIPPLE MARKS ASIMMETRICI : asymmetrical markings, asymmetrical ripple marks
RIPPLE MARKS CAUSATI DA MOTI OSCILLATORI : oscillatory ripples
RIPPLE MARKS CAUSATI DA UNA CORRENTE D’ACQUA : water-current ripples
RIPPLE MARKS SIMMETRICI : oscillatory ripples
RIPRODURRE : to reproduce
RISACCA : surf, uprush and backwash (swell of the sea breaking on a shore)
RISORGENZA : exsurgence (from the French: debouchure of water descended from dispersed absorptions)
RISORGIVA : exsurgence spring, resurgent spring, rising
RISTAGNO DELLA MAREA : turn of the tide (at the end of the rising phase and before the reflux)
RITIRO DEL MARE : regression, retreat of the sea
RITIRO DI UN GHIACCIAIO : retreat
RIVA ALTA : high bank (of a river)
RIVA BASSA : low bank (of a river)
RIVA CONCAVA : concave bank (of a river, towards the outside in a meander)
RIVA CONVESSA : convex bank (of a river, towards the inside in a meander)
RIVA CONVESSA DEL MEANDRO CON SEDIMENTAZIONE : point bar
RIVA FLUVIALE : bank
RIVA FLUVIALE CONCAVA : undercut bank
RIVA FLUVIALE SOPRAELEVATA NATURALMENTE : levee (or levée) (from French, usually written in English without accent; in fluvial geomorphology: formed by river sediments; in vulcanology: formed by the rims of a collapsed volcanic channel)
RIVA LACUSTRE : lake shore
RIVA LACUSTRE AL RIPARO DEL VENTO : lee shore
RIVA LACUSTRE ESPOSTA AL VENTO : weather shore
RIVA ROCCIOSA : rocky beach
RIVESTIMENTO : coating
RIVESTIMENTO DI UN CANALE LAVICO VUOTO : lava sheath
RIVESTIMENTO PLASTICO : plastic lining (viscous semisolid material lining the walls of the vent)
RIVESTIMENTO PLASTICO LUNGO UN PIANO DI FAGLIA : leather coat
ROCCE ACIDE : acid rocks, persilicic rocks (igneous rocks with silica > 66%)
ROCCE BASICHE : basic rocks (with silica conventionally between 45% and 52%)
ROCCE BASICHE : subsilicic rocks (igneous rocks with a silica content between 45% and 52% between that of intermediate rocks and ultrabasic, i.e. ultrasilicic, rocks)
ROCCE CALCALCALINE : calcalkalic rocks (with feldspar, hornblende and augite)
ROCCE COMPLEMENTARI : complementary rocks (igneous rocks differentiated from a common magma usually in the form of dikes but differentiated from the parent magma)
ROCCE ETEROMORFICHE : heteromorphic rock (rocks with identical or similar chemical composition and a different mineral make up due to different conditions of crystallization)
ROCCE FELSICHE : felsic rocks (racks mainly made up of feldspar and silica)
ROCCE IGNEE ALCALINE : alkali rocks (with piroxene, sodic amphiboles and feldspatoids)
ROCCE INTERMEDIE : intermediate rocks, neutral rocks (igneous rocks with a silica content conventionally between 52% and 66%, intermediate between that of acid rocks and basic rocks)
ROCCE ISOGRADE : isograde rocks (rocks which were metamorphosed under similar physical conditions in terms of temperature and pressure)
ROCCE MACULATE : maculose rocks (due to metamorphism, e.g. spotted slates, schists)
ROCCE MAFICHE : mafic rocks (rocks mainly made up of ferromagnesian minerals)
ROCCE METAMORFICHE DI ORIGINE IGNEA : orthorocks
ROCCE METAMORFICHE DI ORIGINE SEDIMENTARIA : pararocks
ROCCE NEUTRE : intermediate rocks, neutral rocks (igneous rocks with a silica content conventionally between 52% and 66%, between that of acid rocks and basic rocks)
ROCCE ORGANOGENE : biogenic rocks
ROCCE POLIMETAMORFICHE : polymetamorphic rocks (rocks that have undergone several phases of metamorphism)
ROCCE SATURE : saturated rocks (igneous rocks containing neither free silica nor unsaturated minerals)
ROCCE SEDIMENTARIE : sedimentary rocks
ROCCE SOPRASATURE : oversaturated rocks (igneous rocks containing primary free silica in excess of the amount necessary to form saturated minerals from the unsaturated ones)
ROCCE SOTTOSATURE : undersaturated rocks (igneous rocks consisting either wholly or in part of unsaturated minerals)
ROCCE SUBSILICIHE : subsilicic rocks (igneous rocks with a silica content between 45% and 52% between that of intermediate rocks and ultrabasic, i.e. ultrasilicic, rocks)
ROCCE ULTRABASICHE : ultrabasic rocks (igneous rocks with a low silica content, conventionally > 45%)
ROCCIA : rock
ROCCIA A FUNGO : pedestal rock
ROCCIA A RADIOLARI : radiolarite (a rock composed mainly of the siliceous skeletons of radiolarians)
ROCCIA ABISSALE : abissal rock
ROCCIA ADIACENTE : adjacent rock (to a magmatic body)
ROCCIA AGGETTANTE IN GROTTA : cantilever
ROCCIA AMIGDALOIDE : amygdaloidal rock
ROCCIA ASFALTICA : grahamite
ROCCIA BIOCLASTICA : bioclastic rock
ROCCIA CAOLINICA : china stone (china clay formed by pneumatolysis of granite, e.g. Cornwall)
ROCCIA COSTITUENTE UN DICCO : dike rock
ROCCIA DEBOLE : weak rock
ROCCIA DI DEPOSITO : reservoir rock (of oil or natural gas)
ROCCIA DI ORIGINE MAGMATICA O ULTRAMETAMORFICA : plutonic rock
ROCCIA DI ORIGINE PROFONDA : infracrustal rock
ROCCIA DI ORIGINE SUPERFICIALE : supercrustal rock
ROCCIA DIASCISTICA : diaschistite
ROCCIA EFFUSIVA : effusive rock, extrusive rock
ROCCIA ENDOGENA : endogenetic rock
ROCCIA EOLIZZATA : ventifact
ROCCIA ESOGENA : exogenetic rock
ROCCIA ESTRUSIVA : extrusive rock
ROCCIA EVAPORITICA : evaporite
ROCCIA FACILMENTE ALTERATA : weak rock
ROCCIA FACILMENTE DISGREGATA : weak rock
ROCCIA FOLIATA : foliated rock (schist- or gneiss-like)
ROCCIA FUSA : melt
ROCCIA IDATOGENA : evaporite
ROCCIA IDROCLASTICA : hydroclast
ROCCIA IGNEA : igneous rock
ROCCIA INCASSANTE : country rock, wall rock
ROCCIA INCASSATE PENDENTE NEL SOFFITTO DI UN BATOLITO : roof pendant
ROCCIA INGLOBANTE : enclosing rock (magmatic rock with an endogenous or exogenous enclosure)
ROCCIA INTRUSIVA : roccia intrusiv rock
ROCCIA IPOGENA : plutonic rock
ROCCIA LAMINARE : flagstone
ROCCIA MADRE : bedrock, mother rock, source rock
ROCCIA METAMORFICA : metamorphic rock, metamorphite
ROCCIA MODELLATA DAL VENTO : ventifact
ROCCIA MONTONATA : roche moutonnée
ROCCIA NEOVULCANICA : neovolcanic rock
ROCCIA NON ALTERATA : unaltered rock
ROCCIA OSCILLANTE : balanced rock
ROCCIA OSPITANTE : host rock (rock favourable to mineralization, rock susceptible of attack by mineralizing solutions)
ROCCIA PIROCLASTICA : pyroclastic rock
ROCCIA PLUTONICA : plutonic rock
ROCCIA PORFIRITICA : porphyritic rock
ROCCIA RESISTENTE : resistant rock
ROCCIA SENSIBILE ALLA DISGREGAZIONE DA GELO : gelive rock
ROCCIA SOLCATA : fluted rock (American English), scalloped rock
ROCCIA VACUOLARE : vesicular rock
ROCCIA VESCICOLARE : vesicular rock
ROCCIA VULCANICA : volcanic rock
ROMBO SOTTERRANEO : retumbo (from Spanish), subterranean rumbling (caused by a seismic or volcanic event)
ROSA DEL DESERTO : (American English) oulopholite
ROSETTE DI PIETRE : stone packing (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
ROTONDITÀ : roundness
ROTTURA DEL PENDIO : break in slope, knick point
ROTTURA DI PENDIO DI ORIGINE GLACIALE : glacial step
ROTTURA DI PROFILO DI UNA VALLE : knickpoint, nickpoint
ROTTURA DI UN CORDONE SABBIOSO : breaching
ROTTURA DI UNA BARRA : breaching
ROTTURA DI UNA DIGA : breach inlet
ROTTURA DI VERSANTE VALLIVO : slope crack in a valley floor
RUDIMENTALE : rudimentary
RUMORE DI FONDO : ground noise (in seismic prospection : disturbance of the ground occurring during the experiment but not caused by the shot)
RUMORE FORTE E CONTINUO : roar (caused by a volcanic event)
RUMORE FORTE E SECCO : crack, report (caused by a volcanic event)
RUMORE SORDO : dull rumbling (caused by a seismic and/or volcanic event)
RUMORI VULCANICI : volcanic sounds
RUPI STRAPIOMBANTI SUL MARE : sea cliff
RUSCELLAMENTO : rain wash (removal of detrital material by running water outside stream beds)
RUSCELLETTO : rill, run, runnel (a small freely flowing watercourse smaller than a brook), (American English of the Middle West: a lead and zinc deposit following a certain line in the plane of stratification parallel to a joint or fault system in Palaeozoic limestones or dolomites)
RUSCELLO : beck (Northern England), brook (standard English), burn (Northern England), run (American Middle West), sike (Northern England)
RUVIDO : rough (an adjective applied to a sediment)
SABBIA : sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/16 and 2 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIA A BOLLE D’ARIA : cavernous sand
SABBIA A GRANA MEDIA : medium grained sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter fra 1/4 e 1/2 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIA BITUMINOSA : tar sand
SABBIA CALCAREA MISTA A FRAMMENTI DI CONCHIGLIE : shelly sand
SABBIA CANTANTE : singing sand (dry sands giving out a peculiar crunching sound when trod)
SABBIA CIOTTOLOSA : pebbly beach
SABBIA DI CIOTTOLI : pebble beach
SABBIA FINE : fine sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/8 e 1/4 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIA FINISSIMA : very fine sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/8 and 1/4 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIA FLUENTE : running sand
SABBIA GROSSOLANA : coarse sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter fra 1/2 e 1 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIA IMPREGNATA : impregnated sand (sand impregnated with oil)
SABBIA IMPREGNATA DI PETROLIO ECONOMICAMENTE PRODUTTIVA : pay sand
SABBIA IN SOSPENSIONE ACQUOSA O OLEOSA : running sand
SABBIA MOBILE : quicksand
SABBIA MOBILE VULCANICA: volcanic quicksand
SABBIA MOLTO GROSSOLANA : very coarse sand (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1 and 2 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIA PERMEABILE : open sand
SABBIA POCO PERMEABILE : tight sand
SABBIA SCORIACEA : scoriaceous sand
SABBIA SONORA : singing sand (dry sands giving out a peculiar crunching sound when trod)
SABBIA STERILE : barren sand
SABBIA VAGANTE : drift sand
SABBIA VULCANICA : volcanic gravel, volcanic sand (of size between 0.5 and 2 mm)
SABBIE : medium grained clastics (sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/16 and 2 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SABBIE EOLICHE PERIGLACIALI : cover sands (eolic periglacial sands with granulometry generally between 75 and 200 micron, greater than that of loess)
SABBIOSO : sandy
SACCA DI GAS : gas cap (above an oil deposit)
SACCA MAGMATICA : magma chamber
SACCA TABULARE A FORMA DI DICCO : dike chamber
SACCAROIDE : aplitic, saccaroidal
SALA IN GROTTA : cave hall
SALBANDA : selvage (contact surface between a dike and the country rock, part of the dike filling next to the country rock, country rock surface delimiting laterally an ore vein)
SALBANDA : wall (surface of country rock which delimits laterally a mineral vein)
SALBANDA ARGILLOSA : gouge (band of soft clay-like or rubbery substance between the selvage of the vein and the country rock)
SALBANDA FRAGILE : free wall (selvage from which the mineral falls in flakes)
SALBANDA RESISTENTE : frozen wall (boundary surface of a vein filling which adheres tenaciously to the wall)
SALE A FUNGO : salt overhang
SALGEMMA : rock salt
SALI ACIDI : acid salts
SALI ASCENDENTI IN GROTTA : sels grimpant (from French: ascending solutions in a cave from which a thin coating is precipitated)
SALI POTASSICI : potash salt
SALICO : salic (a mnemonic term derived from silica and alumina for one of the two groups used in the classification system of Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington)
SALIENTE : cusp (between two cliffs caused by lateral erosion by fluvial meanders)
SALIENTE ANTICLINALE : structural bulge
SALIENTE ROCCIOSO : buttress
SALIENTE STRUTTURALE : structural salient, tectonic salient
SALIENTE TETTONICO : structural salient, tectonic salient
SALIENTE TRIANGOLARE : cuspate foreland (land area protrudingat sea, usually large and low, of sedimentary origin)
SALINA : salt pan
SALINITÀ : salinity
SALINIZZAZIONE : salinisation
SALIRE IN DIREZIONE LINEARE : to straighten up
SALITA DEL LIVELLO MARINO : rise
SALMASTRO : brackish
SALNITRO : petre dirt (American English)
SALSEDINE : salinity
SALTAZIONE : saltation transport
SALTO DI MEANDRO : meander cutoff
SAPONIFICABILE : saponifiable
SAPONIFICAZIONE : saponification
SAPROPEL : sapropel (organic debris sedimented in totally anaerobic conditions)
SAPROPELITE : sapropelic coal (coal derived from organic debris sedimented in totally anaerobic conditions)
SASSO : pebble (a sedimentary particle having a diameter between 64 and 256 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SATELLITE : satellite
SATURAZIONE : saturation (of the air)
SATURAZIONE MAGNETICA : saturation magnetization
SATURO D’ACQUA : waterlogged
SAURISCHIO : Saurischian
SAUSSURIZZAZIONE : saussurization (replacement, particularly of plagioclase, in rocks of gabbroid or dioritic composition, by a fine aggregate of zoisite, clinozoisite or epidote, together with one or more of the following minerals: albite, calcite, sericite and zeolites)
SBARRAMENTO : damming (obstruction of a tidal or river channel, of a bay by a littoral bar)
SBARRAMENTO DI GROTTA : boulder choke (a tumble of rocks in a cave blocking the passage from floor to roof)
SBOCCO A FORMA DI GALLERIA DEL TORRENTE SUBGLACIALE : glacier cave
SBOCCO DI CORSO D’ACQUA SOTTERRANEO : debouchure (from French)
SBOCCO DI UN CORSO D’ACQUA : pass
SBOCCO DI VALLATA : valley mouth
SCAFFALE CALCAREO : calcite ledge (a ledge of calcite projecting horizontally into a pool at its water level)
SCAGLIA : scale (in mineralogy shape of crystal, in palaeontology: epidermal structure of a fish)
SCAGLIA DI ROCCIA : flake, wedge
SCAGLIA ROCCIOSA : flake, wedge
SCAGLIE DI FAGLIA : fault scales
SCALA DI INTENSITÀ DEI TERREMOTI : intensity scale – SCALA EMPIRICA DI MERCALLI-CANCANI (empirical scale) – SCALA QUANTITATIVA DI SIEBERG (quantitative scale) – I) SCOSSA STRUMENTALE LEGGERA SECONDO MERCALLI-CANCANI (instrumental according to Mercalli-Cancani, 500 cm/sec2)
SCALA DI SOMMITÀ : storeyed peak plain (stairway of summit levels, two or more adjacent summits of different altitudes due different rock resistance or to dissection of peneplanes at different heights)
SCALINATA DEI GIGANTI : giant’s causeway (a formation of prismatic columns due to contraction by cooling in basaltic lava, e.g. the Giants’ Causeway on the northern coast of Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland)
SCAPOLITIZZAZIONE : scapolitization, dipyritization (process whereby constituents of a rock are transformed into scapolite, i.e. dipyre)
SCARICA ELETTRICA : electrical discharge
SCARICA ESPLOSIVA VERTICALE DI TUFO TIPO MONTE KATMAI : Mount Katmai tuff flow type
SCARICA ESPLOSIVA VERTICALE DI TUFO TIPO NOVARUPTA : Novarupta tuff flow type
SCARPATA : scarp
SCARPATA CONTINENTALE : continental slope
SCARPATA DA EROSIONE DIFFERENZIALE DI UNA FAGLIA : fault line scarp
SCARPATA DELLA PRIMA CUESTA DISCENDENTE AL FONDO DEL BASSOPIANO : inner vale
SCARPATA DI FAGLIA : fault scarp
SCARPATA DI TERRAZZO : terrace slope
SCARPATA INSULARE : insular slope
SCARPATA LAVICA : lava scarp
SCARPATA SOTTOMARINA : seascarp (high and steep scarp of the sea floor)
SCARPATE ANTROPOGENICHE : lynchets, reens (scarps or field terraces and sheep tracks)
SCARPATE ARTIFICIALI : lynchets, reens (scarps or field terraces and sheep tracks)
SCARTO DALLA VERTICALE : hade (angle of the fault plane with the vertical)
SCAVARE : to excavate
SCAVO : excavation
SCAVO DI SONDAGGIO : test pit (a shallow hole sunk into the overburden in order to expose and investigate the unweathered formation surface)
SCHEDOFIRICO : skedophyric (an adjective applied to rocks having the texture of a skedophyre)
SCHEDOFIRO : skedophyre (name used by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington for a porphyritic rock in which the phenocrysts are more or less uniformly scattered through the groundmass)
SCHEGGIA DI ROCCIA : chip
SCHELETRO : skeleton (in mineralogy: shape of crystal; in palaeontology: fossil remain of a vertebrate)
SCHELETRO VULCANICO : volcanic skeleton
SCHELETRO VULCANICO : volcanic wreck
SCHERMO TERMICO : shading (due to interception of of the rays of the sun caused by ash, dust and vapours of a volcanic eruption, and attendant lowering of local temperature)
SCHIACCIAMENTO : crushing
SCHIACCIATO : squeezed out
SCHIALITE : skialith (a term proposed by Goodspeed for shadowy relics of country rock fragments included in a granitic rock of metasomatic origin, which are not entirely replaced by the process of granitization)
SCHILLERIZZAZIONE : schillerization (process which produces in certain minerals a peculiar reflection of light, due to the development of minute inclusions along certain planes of the crystals)
SCHIZOMORFICO : schizomorfic (an adjective applied to deuteromorphic constituents of a rock modified by cataclastic processes)
SCHLIEREN : schlieren (from German: small masses or streaks in igneous rocks which have the same mineralogy as the main body, but are darker or lighter on account of some differences in the ratio of minerals)
SCHLIERICO : schlieric (an adjective applied to schlieren, v.)
SCHOCKATO : shocked (an adjective applied to a mineral subject to stress due to a meteorite impact or a volcanic explosion)
SCIAME DI DICCHI : dike complex
SCIAME SISMICO SECONDARIO : swarm earthquakes
SCIENZA DEI SUOLI GELATI : cryopedology
SCIOGLIERE : to dissolve
SCIOGLIMENTO : dissolution (of country rocks by magmatic action)
SCIOGLIMENTO DEI GHIACCI IN UN CORSO D’ACQUA : ice drift
SCIOGLIMENTO DELLA NEVE : snowbreak
SCIOGLIMENTO DI PERMAFROST : depergelation
SCIOGLIMENTO DI UN GHIACCIAIO : wastage
SCISTO : schist (metamorfic lamellar rock)
SCISTO BITUMINOSO : oil shale
SCISTO MICACEO : mica schist
SCISTOSITÀ : fissility, schistosity
SCISTOSITÀ ARDESIACA : slaty cleavage
SCISTOSITÀ DI FRATTURA : fracture cleavage
SCISTOSITÀ FIBROSA : fibrous schistosity
SCISTOSITÀ LINEARE : linear cleavage, linear schistosity
SCISTOSITÀ PIANA : plane schistosity
SCISTOSITÀ PLANARE : plane schistosity
SCISTOSO : fissile, schistose
SCIVOLAMENTO : shear, sliding
SCIVOLAMENTO DA GELO : frost shifting (downward shifting of debris due to thawing and refreezing)
SCIVOLAMENTO DELLA COPERTURA SEDIMENTARIA : sliding of the sedimentary cover
SCIVOLAMENTO DI DETRITI : talus creep (particularly rapid in the caso of a frequent alternation of freezing and thawing)
SCIVOLAMENTO DI FAGLIA PARALLELO ALLA STRATIFICAZIONE : apparent heave
SCIVOLAMENTO GRAVITATIVO : free gliding (by gravitational action), gravitational sliding
SCIVOLAMENTO LAMINARE DELLA LINGUA GLACIALE : slip along the shear planes of the glacier tongue
SCIVOLAMENTO LUNGO I PIANI DI STRATIFICAZIONE : bedding plane slip (due to folding movements)
SCIVOLAMENTO PERPENDICOLARE DI FAGLIA : perpendicular slip (component of the net slip in the direction of the true dip of the fault plane)
SCIVOLAMENTO SEDIMENTARIO LENTO : creep (very slow slump of sedimentary material not perceptibile without lengthy observations)
SCLEROTINITE : sclerotinite (maceral derived from sclerotia)
SCOGLIERA : reef, rock
SCOGLIERA A SERPULINE : serpula reef
SCOGLIERA ALGALE : algal reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA : barrier reef around an island, coral reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA A PELO D’ACQUA : sea level reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA A PINNACOLO : reef knoll (often with a cauliflower- or mushroom-shaped top, sometimes present in a lagoon)
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA A RIDOSSO DI COSTA ROCCIOSA : fringing reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA CON RIBOLLIMENTO : boiler
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA EMERGENTE : emerged reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA MORTA : dead reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA SOLLEVATA : elevated coral reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA SOMMERSA : submerged reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA SPROFONDATA : sunken reef
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA TABULARE : table reef (without formation of an atoll)
SCOGLIERA CORALLINA VIVENTE : live reef
SCOGLIERA INCROSTANTE : patch reef (growing on a sea floor no deeper than 70 metres)
SCOGLIERA OCEANICA : oceanic reef
SCOGLIO SEMISOMMERSO : reef
SCOMPARIRE : to die out (an adjective applied to a a joint or a fissure), to disappear
SCOMPARSA : disappearance (sost.)
SCOMPARSO : cut out, disappeared (agg.)
SCONVOLGIMENTO DELLA DIREZIONE DI STRATIFICAZIONE : drag dip, drag strike
SCOPERCHIAMENTO : deroofing (melting of a batolith top and attendant extrusion or areal eruption)
SCOPPIO DI CROSTA LAVICA : bursting of congealed lava
SCOPULITE : scopulite (a crystallite in the form of a rod or a stem terminated by divergent brushes or plumes or a number of lateral brushes)
SCORIA VULCANICA : slag, spatter
SCORIACEO : slaggy (an adjective applied to a vescicular, cinderlike structure of an igneous or metamorphic rock)
SCORPIONI : scorpions
SCORRIMENTO SUPERFICIALE : overland flow
SCORRIMENTO SUPERFICIALE SU TERRENO SATURO : saturated overland flow (surficial water flowing into a river after the underlying ground has become saturated)
SCOSSA PREMONITORIA : foreshock
SCOSSA SISMICA CONSECUTIVA : afterschock
SCUDO : shield
SCUDO CALCAREO : palette (roughly flat protruding shield of crystallized calcium carbonate spared during the solution of the surrounding country rock, lett. “tavolozza”)
SCUDO LAVICO : lava shield
SECCA : reef, shoal (fluvial or in a tidal zone)
SECONDARIO : epigenetic (in stratigraphy: an adjective applied to an element chronologically later than the including rock; in historical geology and palaeontology: Mesozoic, Secondary, Secondary era)
SECONDO LA CORRENTE : downstream (in a river or a marine current)
SEDIMENTARE : to sediment, to settle
SEDIMENTAZIONE : sedimentation
SEDIMENTAZIONE CLASTOLITICA : clastolithic sedimentation (sinking of semisolid heavy epimagma into the more liquid piromagma)
SEDIMENTI CARBONATICI : carbonate sediments
SEDIMENTI CARBONIOSI : carbonaceous sediments
SEDIMENTI CLASTICI : clastic sediments
SEDIMENTI CLASTICI DI MEDIA GRANDEZZA : medium grained clastics (sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/16 and 2 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SEDIMENTI CLASTICI GROSSOLANI : coarse grained clastics (sediments with particles over 2 mm in diameter)
SEDIMENTI CRIPTOCLASTICI : fine grained clastics (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter less than 1/16 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SEDIMENTI DEPOSTI NELLA PARTE INTERNA DI UN MEANDRO FLUVIALE : point bar
SEDIMENTI EUXINICI : euxinic sediments (black organic sediments deposited in anaerobic conditions)
SEDIMENTI SILICEI : siliceous sediments
SEDIMENTO : sediment
SEDIMENTO ANAEROBICO FANGOSO : sapropel
SEDIMENTO DEPOSITATO DALL’ACQUA : aqueous deposit
SEDIMENTO DI PRIMA DEPOSIZIONE : primary deposit
SEDIMENTO DI SECONDA DEPOSIZIONE : secondary deposit
SEDIMENTO GELATINOSO DI SOSTANZE UMICHE : dy (from the Swedish)
SEDIMENTO GELATINOSO UMICO : dy (from the Swedish)
SEDIMENTO RIDEPOSITATO : secondary deposit
SEDIMENTO SCIOLTO : loose material
SEDIMENTOLOGIA : sedimentology
SEGNI DI DEFLUSSO : rill marks (minute furrows left by the seaward flow of water left in the sand of the upper part of the beach)
SEGNI DI PERCUSSIONE : chatter marks
SEGNO DI LIVELLO MARINO : watermark (mark left on the beach by the sea after is has remained at a given level for a given time)
SEGREGAZIONE : segregation (of metal veins by differential crystallization)
SELEZIONE : natural selection, selection
SELEZIONE DELLE PARTICELLE SEDIMENTARIE DA PARTE DEL MEZZO TRASPORTANTE : sorting
SELEZIONE NATURALE : natural selection
SELEZIONE STRUTTURALE : structural selection (effetto of uno layer plastico atto a funzionare da lubrificante in the predisporre uno layer rigido sottostante a divenire piano of scivolamento)
SELEZIONE TETTONICA : structural selection (effetto of uno layer plastico atto a funzionare da lubrificante in the predisporre uno layer rigido sottostante a divenire piano of scivolamento)
SEMIANTRACITE : semianthracite (a coal yielding about 10-12% volatile matter)
SEMIDESERTO : semidesert
SEMIFUSINITE : semifusinite (maceral related to fusinite and partially similar to charcoal)
SEMPATICO : sempatic (an adjective applied by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington to the relative amounts of gropundmass and phenocrysts in porphyritic rocks, the ratio being greater tha 3 to 5 and lower than 5 to 3)
SENILITÀ : period of superannuation
SENSO OPPOSTO ALL’INCLINAZIONE : updip
SENTIERI PER OVINI : sheep tracks (which may follow natural terraces or be exclusively caused by the walking of sheep or cattle)
SEPARATORE A CORRENTE D’ARIA : air classifier, air elutriator (appliance to sort fractions of ground material)
SEPARAZIONE : parting (along a joint plane)
SEPTARIA : septaria (concretion usually largely of clayey material with mineralized cracks filled with calcite, quartz, etc., extending inward)
SEQUENZA DI RIGENERAZIONE : regeneration sequence (successione typical succession of plant communities in raised bogs)
SEQUENZA STRATIGRAFICA INVERTITA : reversed stratigraphical sequence
SEQUENZA VULCANICA : volcanic sequence (sequence of volcanic rocks formed by chemical alteration of the magma during the active period of the volcano)
SEQUENZE RITMICHE DI STRATIFICAZIONE : rhythmites
SERACCHI : séracs (from French, blocks in which a glacier breaks on a steep grade)
SERICIZZAZIONE : sericitization (process whereby minerals in a rock are replaced by sericite)
SERIE : series (subdivision of a period), suites (of rocks)
SERIE ATLANTICA : Atlantic suite (of alkaline rocks distribuited along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean)
SERIE CONTINUA DI ESPLOSIONI VULCANICHE : drum fire
SERIE CRISTALLOBLASTICA : crystalloblastic series (ordering of minerals in decreasing order of cristallization)
SERIE DI FAGLIE : group of faults
SERIE DI ONDE LUNGHE : roller waves
SERIE DI ROCCE : rock series (assemblage of igneous rocks in a single district, belonging to a single period of igneous activity and at similar depth, characterized by a certain community of chemical, mineralogical and textural properties)
SERIE DI STRATI : series of strata
SERIE DI SVILUPPO : developmental series
SERIE DISCONTINUA : discontinuous series
SERIE FILOGENETICA : phylogenetic series
SERIE FILOGENETICA AVENTE UNA O PIÚ LACUNE : discontinuous series
SERIE INFERIORE : lower series (of bedding)
SERIE ISOFISICA : isophysical series (a series including rocks of different chemical composition which were metamorphosed under identical physical condition)
SERIE MEDITERRANEA : Mediterranean suite (of igneous rocks characterized by magma types high in potassium content)
SERIE OFIOLITICA : ophiolite suite (series of basic and ultrabasic rocks)
SERIE PACIFICA : Pacific suite (of igneous calc-alkaline rocks such as andesites, granodiorites, etc.)
SERIE SUPERIORE : upper series (of a stratigraphic unit)
SERIR : stony desert
SERPENTINIZZAZIONE : serpentinization (replacement of minerals and rocks by serpentine)
SESSA : seiche (stationary wave in a lake or a bay or in a marginale sea, inertial oscillations of lake waters)
SETTORE DI SUBSIDENZA VULCANICA : volcanic sector graben (collapsed area on side of a volcano with walls converging towards the top)
SEZIONE BAGNATA : wetted cross section (area occupied by water in a given transversal section of the river bed)
SEZIONE DI FALESIA SPORGENTE : overhang (overhanging edge of an undermined cliff)
SEZIONE GEOLOGICA : geological section
SEZIONE GEOLOGICA IDEALE : ideal section (a section showing the factual data and the hypothetical stratigraphic or structural interpretations of the author)
SEZIONE LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal section
SEZIONE LONGITUDINALE DI LETTO FLUVIALE : long profile (longitudinal section of a river bed marked from spring to mouth by the maximum flow profile or thalweg)
SEZIONE TRANQUILLA : quiet reach
SEZIONE TRASVERSALE : cross section
SEZIONI COMPOSITE : composite sections (a profile formed by means of various approximately parallel sections)
SFENOLITE : sphenolith (dacitic magmatic intrusion partly conformably and partly unconformably intruded into the country rock)
SFERA DI LAVA : accretionary lava ball
SFERICITÀ : sphericity
SFEROIDE : spheroid (surface of revolution closely approaching an ellipsoid of revolution of slight flattening, equilibrium surface of a theretical fluid Earth)
SFERULITE : spherulite (microscopic particles of spheroidal or ellipsoidal shape and amorphous or radiate internal structure, radial aggregate of acicular and fibrous minerals occurring in siliceous lavas and shallow intrusive rocks particularly if rich in glassy material)
SFERULITE COMPOSITA : compound spherulite (a radial aggregate of acicular and fibrous minerals grown with extreme velocity reaching considerable sizes, up to 3 m or more, in acid lavas, especially if rich in vitreous material)
SFERULITICO : spherulitic (an adjective applied to the structure of rocks which are characterized by the presence of numerous spherulites)
SFOGO DI VAPORI VULCANICI : voccolillo (from Neapolitan)
SFOGO VULCANICO : diatreme, fissure vent, volcanic vent
SFOGO VULCANICO VIOLENTO AD ALTA PRESSIONE GASSOSA : cylindrical vent
SGOCCIOLAMENTO LUNGO LA VEGETAZIONE : stemflow (components of the precipitation which after interception by the vegetation flow along the trunks down to the soil)
SHIZOLITE : diaschistite
SIAL : sial
SIDERITE : siderite (a meteorite consisting almost wholly of nickeliferous iron)
SIDEROMELAN : sideromelan (initial formation phase of palagonite)
SIFONE : siphon
SIFONE DI GROTTA : cave sump, trap
SIFONE IN GROTTA SUPERABILE CON UN TUFFO : duck
SIKUSSAK : sikussak (many years old ice at sea, not drifting and mainly formed by snow, e.g. as in the fjords on the north coast of Greenland)
SILEX FERRUGINOSA : taconite
SILICATI : silicates
SILICATI DI ALLUMINIO : silicates of aluminium
SILICIZZAZIONE : silicification (process of fossilization)
SILL : sill (in volcanology: magmatic laminar intrusion)
SILL COMPOSITO : composite sill (a sill formed by multiple intrusions by magmas of different chemical makeup)
SILL DIFFERENZIATO : differentiated sill
SILL INSERITO IN UN PIANO DI DISCONFORMITÀ : interformational sheet
SILL MULTIPLO : multiple sill
SILL OMOGENEO : homogenous sill
SILL SEMPLICE : simple sill
SILT : silt (an unconsolidated deposit of sedimentary particles having a diameter between 1/16 and 1/256 mm according to Wenworth’s size classification)
SILT CONSOLIDATA : siltstone
SILTAZIONE : silting up
SILURIANO : Silurian
SIMA : sima
SIMBOLI DI TENDENZA E INCLINAZIONE : strike and dip symbols (of a layer)
SIMPLECTITE : simplektite (interlocked growth of two minerals, of which a vermiculitic one)
SIMPLECTITICO : simplektitic (an adjective applied to the interlocked growth of two minerals)
SIMPLESIOMORFIA : symplesiomorphy (primitive biological character common to several species and derived from a common ancestor)
SIMPLETICO : sympletic (an adjective applied to the interlocked growth of two minerals)
SINANTETICO : synantetic (an adjective applied to minerals formed by a reaction between two different minerals)
SINAPOMORFIA : synapomorphy (biological character common to several species and derived from a common ancestor)
SINCINEMATICO : synkinematic (an adjective applied to all processes taking place during dynamic deformation of rocks)
SINCLINALE : syncline
SINCLINALE ACCESSORIA : auxiliary syncline
SINCLINALE CHIUSA : closed syncline
SINCLINALE FALSA : pseudosyncline (syncline localized in an evidently anticlinalic structural complex)
SINCLINALE INCLUSA DA CURVE DI LIVELLO : closed syncline
SINCLINALE PERIFERICA : rim syncline (local depression caused by displacement of the underlying salt into a growing salt plug)
SINCLINALE RIENTRANTE : reentrant syncline
SINCLINORIO : sinclinorium (a large system of folds in which the dominant folding is downward)
SINCRONO : synchronous
SINEPIROGENO : synepirogene (an adjective applied to geologic processes which take place during an anorogenic period)
SINGENETICO : syngenetic (an adjective applied to an element contemporaneous to the including rock)
SINOROGENE : synorogene (a term applied to all processes taking place simultaneously to tectogenesis)
SINTESSI : syntexis (generation of magma by fusion of extant rock, also assimilation)
SINTETTITI : syntectites (a type of igneous igneous rocks formed by mixing of magma without differentiation or by digestion of exogenous material with attendant assimilation)
SINTOMI PRECURSORI : premonitory events (e.g. of a volcanic eruption, such as tremors, swells and temperature increases)
SINUOSITÀ : sinuosity (grade of deviatione of the river bed in meanders, expressed as a ratio between the length of the bed following all meanders and the straight line distance between the spring and the mouth)
SISMA : earthquake
SISMA ARTIFICIALE : artificial earthquake
SISMA MARINO : seaquake
SISMA MONDIALE : world quake (recorded in the whole planet)
SISMA PRINCIPALE : principal earthquake
SISMA TERRESTRE : inland earthquake
SISMA TETTONICO : tectonic earthquake
SISMA VULCANICO : volcanic earthquake
SISMICA DI RIFLESSIONE : reflection shooting (seismic method based on energy waves that are sent back to the surface by reflection against a boundary plane)
SISMICA DI RIFRAZIONE : refraction shooting (seismic method based on energy waves that are returned to the surface by refraction)
SISMICITÀ : seismicity
SISMOGRAFO : seismograph
SISMOGRAFO ORIZZONTALE : horizontal seismograph
SISMOGRAFO UNIVERSALE : universal seismograph (recording simultaneously on all three spatial components)
SISMOGRAFO VERTICALE : vertical seismograph
SISMOGRAMMA : earthquake recording, seismic recording, seismogram
SISMOLOGIA : seismology
SISMOMETRI MULTIPLI : bunched seismometers
SISMOMETRO : seismometer
SISMOMETRO A POZZO : well seismometer (in seismic survey: special type of seismometer used when recording inside a deep well)
SISMOMETRO A TORSIONE : torsion seismometer
SISMOSCOPIO : seismoscope (contrivance used to localize earthquakes)
SISTEMA : system
SISTEMA A PIEGHE : fold system
SISTEMA ARMONICO : harmonic system
SISTEMA CONGRUO : harmonic system
SISTEMA CUBICO : cubic system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA DI CRISTALLIZZAZIONE : crystallization system, system of crystals (the seven large subdivision into which all substances crystallize on the basis of symmetry: cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, trigonal, orthorombic, monoclinic, triclinic)
SISTEMA DI DIACLASI : joint system
SISTEMA DI DICCHI : dike system (dikes having the same age and direction)
SISTEMA DI DRENAGGIO : drainage system
SISTEMA DI DRENAGGIO RADIALE : radial drainage pattern
SISTEMA DI DUNE : dune system
SISTEMA DI FAGLIE CONIUGATE : conjugate fault system (consisting of two intesecting sets of parallel faults)
SISTEMA DI FAGLIE PARALLELE O SUBPARALLELE : fault system
SISTEMA DI FRATTURE CONIUGATE : conjugate joint system (a system of diaclases simmetrically ordered around an axis)
SISTEMA DI GROTTE VADOSE : vadose cave system (cave system formed below the water table)
SISTEMA DI PENDII : slope system (characterizing one or other type of development according to Penck) – PENDIO CONCAVO (concave slope, from accelerated development with tectonic uplift faster than erosion) – PENDIO CONVESSO (convex slope, from declining development with tectonic uplift slower than erosion) – PENDIO LINEARE (straight slope, from uniform development with tectonic uplift at the same speed as erosion)
SISTEMA DI POTSDAM : Potsdam system (sistema of gravity values based on the absolute gravity determination at Potsdam (g = 981,274 milligal)
SISTEMA DI SUPERFICI DI DEGRADAZIONE : faceted surface of degradation (formed during different stages of marginal levelling and subsidence)
SISTEMA DI TERRAZZI : system of terraces (corresponding to the same fluvial profile)
SISTEMA DI VALLI CONSEQUENTI RADIALI : radial consequent valley system
SISTEMA DI VALLI DENDRITICHE : dendritic valley system
SISTEMA DI VALLI ORTOGONALI : rectangular valley system
SISTEMA DI VENE : vein system
SISTEMA DI VENE PARALLELE O QUASI PARALLELE : bunch of veins
SISTEMA DISARMONICO : disharmonic joint system
SISTEMA ESAGONALE : hexagonal system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA FLUVIALE : fluvial system, river system, river network
SISTEMA FREATICO DI GROTTE : phreatic cave system (cave system formed below the water table by water under hydrostatic pressure)
SISTEMA INCONGRUO : disharmonic joint system
SISTEMA IRREGOLARE : disharmonic joint system
SISTEMA MONOCLINO : monoclinic system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA ORTOROMBICO : orthorombic system, rombic system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA RAMIFICATO DI GROTTE : branchwork of caves (at the same level along a bedding plane)
SISTEMA REGOLARE DI DIACLASI : harmonic system
SISTEMA ROMBICO : orthorombic system, rombic system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA TETRAGONALE : tetragonal system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA TRICLINO : triclinic system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA TRIGONALE : trigonal system (v. sistema di cristallizzazione)
SISTEMA VALLIVO SMEMBRATO : dismembered valley system (a system of which the main valley has been destroyed by cliff withdrawal so that lateral valleys have independent mouths)
SISTEMA VALLIVO UNIFICATO DA EUSTATISMO NEGATIVO : engrafted valley system (a valley system originally independent, later unified by negative eustatic movements)
SITI FOSSILIFERI : fossil Lägerstatten (sites with fossils in a sufficient state of preservation as to warrant their recovery)
SITUATO AL DI SOTTO : situated below
SKERRIES : skerries (small islands and peninsulas formed by partial submersion of a rocky landscape shaped by ice)
SLUDGE : sludge, slush (accumulation of ice crystals either separated or only slightly frozen together forming a thin layer and giving the sea surface a greyish or leaden-tinted colour)
SLUSH : sludge, slush (accumulation of ice crystals either separated or only slightly frozen together forming a thin layer and giving the sea surface a greyish or leaden-tinted colour)
SMAGNETIZZAZIONE : demagnetization
SMERIGLIATO : frosted, pitted
SOFFIO INCANDESCENTE : hot blast (at the periphery of a nuée ardente)
SOFFIONE : roaring fumarole
SOFFITTO ARCUATO : arched roof (of a cave)
SOFFITTO DI GROTTA : cave ceiling, cave roof
SOFFITTO PIATTO DI UNA GROTTA : cave ceiling
SOGGETTO A SHOCK : shocked
SOGGIACENTE : situated below, underlying
SOGLIA DI CIRCO GLACIALE : cirque threshold
SOGLIA DI STRETTO MARINO : sill (in oceanography: threshold of marine strait)
SOGLIA GLACIALE : glacial threshold (threshold of a valley step of glacial origin)
SOLCHI CARSICI SUPERFICIALI : clints
SOLCHI DA DISSOLUZIONE : flute (American English)
SOLCHI DI DISSOLUZIONE : scallop (small corrosion pockets on limestone surfaces, caused by a turbulent water flow)
SOLCHI DI FAGLIA : fault grooves
SOLCHI GLACIALI : glacial grooves
SOLCO DI CORRASIONE : corrasional gully
SOLCO DI EROSIONE : wash-out (gap in stratification due to scour by flowing water, which has subsequently been refilled with sedimentary material)
SOLCO DI TORRENTE GLACIALE : meltwater gully
SOLCO EROSIVO SUL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : radial furrow, slide furrow
SOLCO POLLINICO : colpus (in the exine of a pollen grain)
SOLCO PROFONDO SCAVATO IN UNA FALESIA DALLE ONDE : gully
SOLCO SCAVATO ALLA BASE DI UNA FALESIA DAL MOTO ONDOSO : wave-cut notch
SOLFATARA : solfatara (from the Italian)
SOLFATARA A IDROGENO SOLFORATO : sulphurated hydrogen solfatara
SOLFATARA ACIDA : acid solfatara
SOLFATARA PERMANENTE : permanent solfatara
SOLIDIFICARE : to solidify
SOLIDIFICAZIONE DELLA LAVA : consolidation
SOLIDIFICAZIONE DELLA LAVA IN PROFONDITÀ : plutonic consolidation
SOLIDIFICAZIONE DELLA LAVA IN SUPERFICIE : surface consolidation
SOLIDIFICAZIONE PLUTONICA : plutonic consolidation
SOLIFLUSSIONE : solifluction, solifluxion (slow movement of water-soaked clayey sediment)
SOLIGENO : soligenous (an adjective applied to peat formationtaking place partly under the influence of percolating water from the surrounding surface and partly from rain water)
SOLLEVAMENTO : upheaval
SOLLEVAMENTO DA INTRUSIONE BATOLITICA : updoming by batholithic intrusion
SOLLEVAMENTO DI FAGLIA CON FRATTURA DEL FIANCO MEDIANO : break thrust
SOLLEVAMENTO DI SEDIMENTI SUPERFICIALI A CAUSA DI UNA STRUTTURA SEPOLTA : reflected buried structure (uplift of surficial sedimentary beds caused by the presence of a structure buried in depth)
SOLLEVAMENTO DI UNA COSTA : elevation of coast (by tectonic movements only)
SOLLEVAMENTO DI UNA FAGLIA : up faulting
SOLLEVAMENTO DI UN’INTRUSIONE LACCOLITICA SIMILE AD UN HORST : updoming of horstlike laccolithic intrusion
SOLLEVAMENTO GEOANTICLINALE : geanticlinal uplift by asthenolithic intrusion
SOLUBILITÀ : solubility
SOLUTO : solute load
SOLUZIONE : solution
SOLUZIONE ACIDA : acid solution
SOLUZIONE MINERALIZZANTE : mineralizing solution
SOLUZIONE PARZIALE : partial solution
SOLUZIONE RESIDUA : mother liquid (solution remaining after the substances readily crystallizing have been removed)
SOMMERSIONE : submergence
SOMMERSIONE DI UNA COSTA : submergence of a coast (by the tides)
SOMMITÀ DELLA CRESTA : crest apex, crest maximum (of a system of folds)
SOPPRESSIONE DI LETTI : omission of beds (due to a fault)
SOPRAELEVAZIONE DI UNA LINEA DI CRESTA : rising of the crest line (of a fold system)
SOPRASATURO : supersaturated
SOPRASTRUTTURA DELLA CROSTA : superstructure of the crust
SOPRAVULCANO : supravolcano
SOPRAVVENTO : windward
SOPRAVVIVENZA DEL PIÚ ADATTO : survival of the fittest
SORGENTE : riverhead
SORGENTE : spring
SORGENTE A GETTO : spouting spring
SORGENTE AL CONFINE TRA DUE FORMAZIONI GEOLOGICHE : boundary spring
SORGENTE ARTESIANA : artesian spring
SORGENTE CALDA : warm spring (< 37°C)
SORGENTE CARBONATICA : carbonate spring
SORGENTE CARSICA : karst spring
SORGENTE CARSICA SOTTOMARINA : submarine spring
SORGENTE DA BARRIERA : barrier spring (formed by deviation of underground water below or above an impermeable barrier in a valley)
SORGENTE DI CONOIDE : talus spring
SORGENTE DI CONTATTO : contact spring
SORGENTE DI DEPRESSIONE : depression spring (spring welling up in a depression reaching below the water table)
SORGENTE DI FAGLIA : fault dam spring (sorgente of barriera formed by an impermeable fault)
SORGENTE DI FRATTURA : fracture spring (a spring issuing from rock fractures)
SORGENTE DI ORIGINE PROFONDA : hypogene spring
SORGENTE DI RIVA : channel spring (a spring on the banks of a stream which has cut a channel below the water table)
SORGENTE DI VERSANTE VALLIVO : valley spring
SORGENTE FERRUGINOSA : ferruginous spring
SORGENTE FILTRANTE : filtration spring (spring gushing forth from many small openings whose water is thereby filtered)
SORGENTE FREDDA : cold spring
SORGENTE INTERMITTENTE : intermittent spring
SORGENTE LA CUI ACQUA ESCE PURIFICATA DAL PASSAGGIO ATTRAVERSO UNA FORMAZIONE PERMEABILE : (from French) vraie source
SORGENTE MINERALE : medicinal spring, mineral spring
SORGENTE NON TERMALE : cold spring
SORGENTE PERENNE : perennial spring
SORGENTE RIBOLLENTE : boiling spring
SORGENTE SALINA : saline spring
SORGENTE TERMALE : hot spring, thermal spring (> 37°C)
SORGENTE TIPO VALCHIUSA : vaucluse spring, vauclusian spring
SORGENTE TUBOLARE : tubular spring (a spring gushing from tubular openings in limestone or chalk or magmatic rock)
SOSPENSIONE : slurry
SOSTANZA FILONIANA : vein matter
SOSTANZA NON METALLICA : nonmetallic substance
SOSTANZA VOLATILE : volatile matter (gas and distillate formed during coal pyrolisis)
SOSTANZE ORGANICHE : organic matter
SOSTENERE : buttressing
SOSTENIBILE : sustainable (an adjective related to resource exploitation or development)
SOSTENUTO DA …….. : underlain by …….
SOTTERRANEO : subterranean
SOTTIGLIEZZA : thinness (of bedding)
SOTTILE STRATO DI CALCIO : sheet (formed on walls, shelves, benches and ledges by trickling water in a cave)
SOTTOCLASSE : subclass (systematic group lower than the class)
SOTTODELTA : subdelta (smaller delta forming part of a larger lobate or bird-foot delta)
SOTTOESCAVAZINE DA PARTE DI ACQUA CORRENTE : undercutting action of running water
SOTTOETÀ : substage (American English)
SOTTOFAMIGLIA : subfamily (systematic group lower than the family)
SOTTOGENERE : subgenus (systematic group lower than the genus and higher than the species)
SOTTORDINE : suborder (systematic group lower than the order)
SOTTOSPECIE : subspecies (systematic group lower than the species)
SOTTOSUOLO : subsoil
SOTTOVENTO : lee
SOTTOVENTO : leeward
SOVRAESCAVAZIONE GLACIALE : overdeepening
SOVRAIMPOSIZIONE : superimposition
SOVRALLUVIONAMENTO : alluviation
SOVRAPPOSIZIONE : onlap, overlap (unconforming contact as a consequence of marine transgression, in which every succeeding layer covers also the margins of the previous one)
SOVRASTRUTTURA : superstructure (structure lying upon another, e.g. in volcanology: a succession of layers formed by successive eruptions and by intrusions within the accumulated material)
SPACCABILE : jointable
SPACCARSI : to joint
SPACCATO : fissured, jointed
SPACCATURA : diaclase, fissure, joint, joint fissure, jointing, gull (a widened joint or fissure in a rock)
SPACCATURA DI DISSECCAMENTO : mud crack (in mud)
SPACCATURA DI MAREA : tide crack (line of junction between an immovable icefoot and fast ice, the latter being subject to rise and fall with the tides)
SPALLA DEL PENDIO DI UNA VALLE A PROFILO TRASVERSALE CONCAVO : trough shoulder
SPARIRE SOTTO ……. : to plunge below …….
SPARTIACQUE : watershed
SPARTIACQUE BEN DEFINITO : well defined divide
SPARTIACQUE GLACIALE : ice shed
SPARTIACQUE SOTTERRANEO : groundwater divide (a line on the water table on either side of which water table slopes downward)
SPARTIACQUE TRA DUE SISTEMI DI CANALI DI MAREA : tidal divide
SPAZIATURA : spacing
SPAZIATURA DELLE ISOIPSE : spacing of contours
SPAZIO DI FAGLIA : fault space (between the two faces of an open fault)
SPAZIO POROSO : pore space
SPECCHIO DI FAGLIA : polished surface, slickenside
SPECIE : species (systematic group lower than the subgenus and higher than the subspecies, formed by individuals having common characters and capable of giving birth to fertile offspring)
SPECIE COSMOPOLITA : cosmopolitan species (a species spread all over the Earth or in a large part of it)
SPECIE ESTINTE : extinct species
SPECIE GIGANTESCHE : gigantic species
SPECIE LINNEANA : linnean species (a species conforming to the principle of binomial nomenclature formulated by Linneus)
SPECIE RAPPRESENTATIVA : representative species (capable of replacing a key fossil in another geological province)
SPECIE VICARIANTE : representative species (capable of replacing a key fossil in another geological province)
SPELEOGENO : speleogen (a deposit formed by removal of material due to solution or corrasion of the bedrock)
SPELEOLITE : speleolite (a secondary mineral deposit in a cave)
SPELEOLOGIA : speleology
SPELEOLOGO : caver, speleologist
SPELEOTEMA : speleothem (a secondary mineral deposit in a cave)
SPERONE : valley spur
SPERONE FRA DUE VALLI LATERALI TRONCATO DALL’ESARAZIONE GLACIALE : truncated spur
SPERONE MODELLATO : little trimmed spur (a spur formed by the migration of a river meander)
SPERONE TRONCATO : truncated spur
SPESSORE : thickness (of bedding)
SPESSORE AUTENTICO : true thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
SPESSORE DELLA CROSTA : thickness of the crust
SPESSORE LIMITATO : slight thickness (of bedding)
SPESSORE RIDOTTO : reduced bedding (of bedding)
SPESSORE VERO : true thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
SPESSORE VERTICALE : vertical thickness (thickness of a bed measured vertically from the upper face to the base)
SPETTRO DI ASSORBIMENTO : absorption spectrum (system of absorption bands seen when white light propagates through a selectively absorpting substance)
SPETTRO POLLINICO : pollen spectrum
SPIAGGIA : beach
SPIAGGIA CORALLINA : coral beach
SPIAGGIA EMERSA : backshore
SPIAGGIA LACUSTRE : lake beach
SPIAGGIA PROGRADATA : strand plain
SPIAGGIA SABBIOSA : sand beach
SPIAGGIA SOMMERSA : foreshore, : shore face
SPIAGGIA SOSPESA : raised beach
SPIANAMENTO GLACIALE : cryoplanation
SPIANAMENTO GLACIALE IN SEGUITO AD ESARAZIONE : planation
SPIAZZAMENTO : shear
SPIAZZAMENTO DI UNA FAGLIA DA PARTE DI UN’ALTRA : fault trailing
SPICULITE : spiculite (a spindle-shaped crystallite considered to represent the coalescence of a linear series of globulites)
SPINA LAVICA : spine (lava plug pushed upward in the crater by gas pressure; the “finger of La Pélée” grew over 300 m on 4 July 1903)
SPINE DELLA LAVA AA : sprouts (up to 20 cm long)
SPINTA DEL GHIACCIO : ice shove (movement of expanding or drifting ice)
SPINTA GLACIALE : ice push (pressure exercised by expanding ice)
SPINTA TETTONICA BILATERALE : bilateral thrust
SPINTA TETTONICA UNILATERALE : unilateral thrust
SPORA : spore
SPORA PRIVA DI CICATRICI LINEARI : alete
SPORANGIO : sporangium
SPOROMORFO : sporomorph (a term indicating collectively spores and pollen)
SPOSTAMENTO DEL CANALE DI SFOGO VULCANICO : shifting of the volcanic vent (due to blocking of the previous vent, so that magma has to open up another vent)
SPOSTAMENTO DI FAGLIA COMPRESSIVA : distance of thrust
SPOSTAMENTO NETTO : net slip (shortest distance measured in the fault plane between two formerly adjacent points)
SPOSTAMENTO VERTICALE : heave, throw (of strata due to a fault)
SPROFONDAMENTO : foundering, plunge at depth
SPROFONDAMENTO DA DISGELO : thaw sink (closed depression subterranean drainage believed to have originated as thaw lakes)
SPROFONDARE : to plunge at depth
SPRONE DI MEANDRO : meander spur
SPRONE DI MEANDRO TAGLIATO : meander core
SPRONE MONTUOSO : mountain spur
SPUGNE : sponges
SPUGNOSITÀ INTERCALARE : joint plane spongework (intricate network of tubular channels above a bedding plane)
SPUGNOSO : spongy (an adjective applied to igneous rocks)
SPUGNOSO COME POMICE : pumiceous (a term applied to igneous rocks)
SPUMOSO : frothy (an adjective applied to a igneous rocks)
SRADICAMENTO E SCIVOLAMENTO : décollement (from French; of sedimentary beds over a lubricating layer)
STABILIZZAZIONE : armour, armouring (e.g. of a river bed)
STABILIZZAZIONE : consolidation
STABILIZZAZIONE DEL LETTO FLUVIALE : bed armouring
STADI STRUTTURALI DI TIPO DIVERSO : tiers of different structural character
STADIO CONCLUSIVO : concluding stage (of any event; in the case of a volcanic eruption, posteructive phase with small eruptions or effusions)
STADIO DI ADOLESCENZA : stage of late youth (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI GIOVINEZZA : stage of youth (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI INCIPIENTE MATURITÀ : stage of early maturity (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI MATURITÀ : stage of maturity (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI PIENA MATURITÀ : stage of full maturity (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI SENESCENZA : stage of old age (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI SENILITÀ : stage of old age (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO DI TARDA MATURITÀ : stage of late maturity (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO ESPLOSIVO : explosion point
STADIO FUMAROLICO : fumarole stage
STADIO IDROTERMALE : hydrothermal stage (stage of the magma consolidation successive to the orthomagmatic stage, during which equilibrium exists between crystals, aqueous solutions and aqueous gas)
STADIO INCIPIENTE DI CRESCITA DI UNA PIEGA : incipient stage of growth of a fold
STADIO INFANTILE : stage of early youth (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
STADIO ORTOMAGMATICO : orthomagmatic stage (first stage of consolidation of magma during which only pyrogenetic minerals are formed)
STADIO PEGMATITICO : pegmatitic stage (stage of consolidation of magma during which the residual fluid is sufficiently enriched in volatile materials to permit the formation of coarse-graoned rocks)
STADIO PNEUMATOLITICO : pneumatolytic stage (stage of consolidation of magma during which there is equilibrium between crystalline and gas phases)
STADIO PRELIMINARE : preliminary stage (in a volcanic eruption, made up by small eruptions or a comparatively modest lava flow before the main eruptive event)
STADIO PRINCIPALE : main phase (in a volcanic eruption)
STADIO SOLFATARICO : solfatara stage
STAGNO : pond, pool (zone of comparatively greater depth in a river bed), small lake
STAGNO DI TORBIERA : bog pool
STAGNO LITORANEO : shore pond
STALAGMITE : stalagmite
STALAGMITE A BARRIERA : barrier stalagmite
STALAGMITE A FUNGO : stool stalagmite
STALAGMITE A TERRAZZO : terraced stalagmite
STALAGMITE CORONATA DA PROTUBERANZE A PETALO : splash stalagmitte
STALAGMITE LAVICA : lava spine
STALAGMITE SABBIOSA : sand stalagmite (a stalagmite formed on loose sand having an irregular base inside the sand and being partly composed of calcite-cemented sand)
STALAGMITE SOTTILE : pillar
STALAGMITE TERRAZZATA : terraced stalagmite
STALAGMITE VERMIFORME : heligmite (stalagmite branching out in every direction)
STALATTITE : rock pendant, stalactite
STALATTITE A FORMA DI BASTONE : walking stick stalactite
STALATTITE A GRAPPOLI : botryoidal stalactite
STALATTITE A GRAPPOLO D’UVA : grape vine stalactite
STALATTITE A TENDINA : linear curtain
STALATTITE CORALLIFORME : cave coral
STALATTITE LAMINARE : sheet stalactite (often small and triangular in shape)
STALATTITE LAVICA : lava stalactite
STALATTITE ONDULANTE : drapery
STALATTITE TUBOLARE : straw stalactite
STALATTITE VERMIFORME : helictite, worm stalactite (stalactite branching out in every direction)
STALATTITE-STALAGMITE : stalactite-stalagmite (in a cave)
STARATURA DEL GRAVIMETRO : gravimeter drift (graduale change in the readings of the gravimeter caused by changes internal to the instrument)
STATISTICA POLLINICA : pollen analysis, pollen statistics
STATO ATTIVO : active state (of a volcano)
STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE : preservation (of a fossil)
STATO DI FESSURAZIONE : fissuring
STATO DI VULCANESIMO : volcanicity
STATO GRANULARE : granulation
STAZIONE : station (a locality settled by man in prehistory)
STAZIONE DI BASE : base station (seismic observatory belonging to a network for measuring the acceleration of gravity)
STAZIONE DI MISURAZIONE : gauging station (of river flow or of precipitation, or of both phenomena)
STECCO : lath (crystal form)
STELLA : star
STEPPA : steppe
STEPPA SALATA : salt steppe
STERILE : barren
STERILE : le stérile (from French: combination of gangue and sterile bedrock)
STERMINIO : destruction (of organisms)
STILOLITE : stylolite (vertically striated columns, pyramids or cones, occurring in limestones and dolomites on bedding planes, normally covered with a film of solution residue)
STIRAMENTO DEI LATI : stretching of the limbs (of an anticline or a syncline)
STIRATO : stretched
STRACCIO LAVICO : lava rag
STRATEGIA OPERATIVA CONGIUNTIVA : conjunctive operation strategy (hydrological operative strategy using a number of different supply sources)
STRATI A BASSA INCLINAZIONE : low dipping strata
STRATI BASALI : basal layers
STRATI CAPOVOLTI : upturned strata
STRATI CONCENTRICI DELL’INTERNO DELLA TERRA : shells of the Earth
STRATI CONSECUTIVI : SUCCESSIVE STRATA : strati consecutivi
STRATI DI COPERTURA DI DUOMO SALINO : super cap strata of salt dome
STRATI DI COPERTURA DI DUOMO SALINO INCURVATI A CUPOLA : overarching beds of salt dome
STRATI DISLOCATI : displaced strata
STRATI FAGLIATI : faulted strata
STRATI FIANCHEGGIANTI UN DUOMO SALINO : flanking beds of salt dome
STRATI FORTEMENTE DISTURBATI : highly disturbed strata
STRATI FORTEMENTE INCLINATI : steep dipping strata
STRATI INCLINATI : inclined strata, tilted strata
STRATI INTERAMENTE O PARZIALMENTE DI ORIGINE VULCANICA : volcanic facies
STRATI ORIZZONTALI : horizontal strata
STRATI PROFONDI : subsurface beds
STRATI SCONVOLTI : disrupted strata
STRATI SEDIMENTARI DELTIZI SUPERIORI PRESSAPOCO ORIZZONTALI E PARZIALMENTE EMERSI : top set beds
STRATI SOGGIACENTI : underlying strata
STRATI SOPRASTANTI : overlying strata
STRATI SOVRAPPOSTI : superimposed layers
STRATI SUPERFICIALI : surface beds
STRATI SUPERFICIALI DELLA STRATOSFERA OCEANICA : intermediate water
STRATI SUPERIORI : top layers
STRATIFICATO : bedded
STRATIFICAZIONE : bedding, stratification (of rocks, snow or ice)
STRATIFICAZIONE AD ALTERNANZA RIPETUTA : rhythmic bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE BEN DEFINITA : well defined bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE CENTROCLINALE : centroclinal bedding (inclination of volcanic strata towards the crater)
STRATIFICAZIONE CICLICA : graded bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE CONCORDANTE : concordant bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE DEBORDANTE : onlap (unconforming contact as a consequence of marine transgression, in which every succeeding layer covers also the margins of the previous one)
STRATIFICAZIONE DELTIZIA : deltaic bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE DIAGONALE : cross bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE DISCORDANTE : discordant bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE DISTINTA : well defined bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE IMBRICATA DI UNA SCOGLIERA CORALLINA : Übergusschichtung (Uebergusschichtung) (from the German; interwedged stratification of detrital sediments and nondetrital beds at the outer edge of coral reefs)
STRATIFICAZIONE INCLINATA : inclined bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE INCROCIATA : criss cross bedding (in which the layers dip in opposite directions, typical of eolian deposits)
STRATIFICAZIONE INDISTINTA : obscure bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE LISCIA : even bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE ONDULATA : wavy bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE ORIGINARIA : original bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE PERICLINALE : periclinal bedding (inclination of volcanic strata outwards on the flanks)
STRATIFICAZIONE PIANA : plane bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE QUAQUAVERSALE : quaquaversal bedding (dipping of summit volcanic strata outward on the flanks and inward toward the axis of the cone in the crater area)
STRATIFICAZIONE REGOLARE : regular bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE RITMICA : graded bedding, rhythmic bedding (lithological and textural sequence of beds repeated many times in the stratigraphic column, produced by a cyclic deposition of sediments)
STRATIFICAZIONE SOTTILE : thin bedding
STRATIFICAZIONE SPESSA : thick bedding
STRATIGRAFIA : stratigraphy
STRATO : stratum
STRATO ACQUIFERO : aquifer
STRATO ACQUIFERO ARTESIANO : artesian aquifer
STRATO ACQUIFERO NON CONFINATO : unconfined aquifer (an aquifer not surrounded by an aquitard, whose upper surface is the surface of the water table where pore pressure equals the atmospheric pressure)
STRATO ARGILLOSO DENSO : clay pan (dense clay layer in the subsoil formed by leaching or synthesis of clay)
STRATO DI CENERI : ash layer
STRATO DI FRAMMENTI ARGILLITICI : layer of shale chips
STRATO GHIAIOSO SOTTOSTANTE ALLO STRATO ATTIVO IN AMBIENTE PERIGLACIALE : gravelly layer (underlying an active layer in a periglacial environment)
STRATO INTERCALARE : bedding joint (thin layer intercalated between two rock formations, connecting layer between two different formations)
STRATO LUBRIFICANTE : lubricating layer (of rock or snow, causing respectively landslides or avalanches)
STRATO MASSICCIO : massive layer (not stratified)
STRATO SOTTILE : THIN LAYER : strato sottile
STRATO SPESSO : thick layer
STRATO STALAGMITICO : flowstone
STRATO SUPERFICIALE CEMENTATO DA OSSIDI DI FERRO : iron pan
STRATO SUPERFICIALE DI UNA SEQUENZA DI RIGENERAZIONE : hummock of the regeneration sequence (surficial layer of a regeneration sequence, upper part of a typical succession of plant communities in raised bogs)
STRATOSFERA OCEANICA : oceanic stratosphere (cold and deep marine strata formed by waters of polar and subpolar origin)
STRATOTIPI GLOBALI DI CONFINE TRA ERE O PERIODI GEOLOGICI : global boundary stratotypes
STRATOVULCANO : strato-volcano
STRATOVULCANO A SCUDO : pseudo shield volcano
STREAMING : streaming (Dartmoor, Devon, Cornwall; hydraulic mining carried out by man-made floods in order to find and exploit mineral veins; a practice called hushing in Northern England)
STRETTE DEPRESSIONI INTERCALATE FRA RIVE CONVESSE DI UN MEANDRO FLUVIALE : swale
STRIATURA : striation (in glaciology: due to scratching by ice; in tectonic geology: on the bedding plane due to folding movements)
STRIATURA DEL LETTO FLUVIALE : rock mill
STRIATURE CONCREZIONATE : crustified banding
STRIATURE DI FAGLIA : fault striae
STRIATURE GLACIALI : glacial striae
STRIATURE LAVICHE : lava scratches (parallel scratches on lava surfaces produced by sliding of lava flows over each other before consolidation and indicating the direction of movement)
STRIE SUL PIANO DI STRATIFICAZIONE : striae due to folding movements
STRIKE : strike (direction of the line formed by the intersection of a bedding plane with the horizontal plane)
STRISCIE TERROSE : soil stripes (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
STROMATITE : stromatite (chorismite in which the units of the fabric form a system of layers or bands so intricately united that the whole rather than the individual layers constitutes the geological field unit)
STROMATOLITI : stromatolites
STRUMENTI DI INGRADIMENTO SISMOGRAFICO : magnification arrangement
STRUMENTI SISMICI : seismic instruments
STRUMENTO : tool (of prehistoric man)
STRUTTURA : rock structure, structure
STRUTTURA A BASTONCELLI : mullion structure (linear structure made up of cilindrical rods in folded and metamorphic rocks)
STRUTTURA A CATENE : chain structure
STRUTTURA A CODA DI CAVALLO : horsetail structure (structure of mineralized fissures emanating from major veins and arranged in the shape of a horsetail)
STRUTTURA A CONCREZIONI CONICHE CONCENTRICHE : cone in cone structure (a structure formed by concentric conical concretions)
STRUTTURA A GEMINAZIONE POLISINTETICA : polysynthetic twinning (repeated twinning in which the crystal is made up of twin lamellae alternately in reversed position)
STRUTTURA A GUANCIALI : pillow structure (from basaltic lavas solidified under water)
STRUTTURA A LAMELLE GEMINATE PARALLELE : lamellar twinning structure
STRUTTURA A MACCHIE : maculose structure, spotted structure (formed in argillaceous rocks under contact or thermal metamorphism)
STRUTTURA A PIEGHE DISARMONICHE : disharmonic folding (folded structure with folds of unequal form and size)
STRUTTURA A PLACCHE : sheet structure (of a rock divided by parallel joints)
STRUTTURA A TORTA GELATA : ice cake structure
STRUTTURA AD ARCO : bogen structure (formed in lavas by explosive activity)
STRUTTURA ALLOTRAUSMATICA : allothrausmatic structure (of a rock whose orbicular crystals have xenolithic nuclei)
STRUTTURA ALVEOLARE : honeycomb lattice
STRUTTURA APERTA : open structure (a structure not surrounded by any contour line)
STRUTTURA ARDESIACA : slatiness
STRUTTURA CELLULARE DI CLASTI : clast cell, clast cellular structure (typical form of river sedimentary deposition in coarse clast rivers, synonim of cerchio di clasti)
STRUTTURA CEMENTIZIA : mortar structure (of metamorphic rocks in which the larger elements, such as quartz grains or feldspar crystals, are surrounded by a border of finely granular material furnished by the grinding down of the larger elements themselves)
STRUTTURA CHIUSA : closed structure
STRUTTURA CHIUSA INCLUDENTE UNA FAGLIA : structural fault closure
STRUTTURA CIRCONDATA DA UNA O PIÚ ISOIPSE CHIUSE : closed structure
STRUTTURA CIRCONDATA DA UNA O PIÚ ISOIPSE CHIUSE E CONTENENTE UNA FAGLIA : structural fault closure
STRUTTURA COLLASSATA : collapse structure
STRUTTURA COLONNARE : columnar structure
STRUTTURA CON CIMA SCOPERCHIATA : bald headed structure, structure the top of which has one or more strata missing)
STRUTTURA CONVOLUTA : convolute structure
STRUTTURA CRISTALLOTRAUSMATICA : cristallothrausmatic structure (of a rock in which the primary phenocrysts make up the nuclei of the orbicular structures)
STRUTTURA DEL BASAMENTO CRISTALLINO : structure of the crystalline basement
STRUTTURA DEL COMPLESSO DI BASE : structure of the crystalline basement
STRUTTURA DELLA CROSTA TERRESTRE : framework of the Earth’s crust
STRUTTURA DEPOSIZIONALE : deposition fabric, depositional fabric
STRUTTURA DI ACCRESCIMENTO : accretionary structure
STRUTTURA DI CRESCITA : growth fabric (rock fabric originating through growth of grains in place of crystallization, independently of stress and resultant movement)
STRUTTURA DI CROLLO : collapse structure
STRUTTURA DI DEFORMAZIONE : deformation fabric (in which the components of a rock are oriented by mechanical tension forces)
STRUTTURA DI SCIVOLAMENTO : slump structure (a structure of deformation, faulting and fragmentation caused by slump of sediments between two undisturbed sedimentary beds deposited underwater)
STRUTTURA ENTEROLITICA : enterolithic structure (surficial flow structure in a bed of evaporitic rocks in consequence of deformation and recristallization)
STRUTTURA EREDITATA : inherited structure (an original structural feature of a rock which has been faithfully preserved after its replacement by ore)
STRUTTURA ETEROTRAUSMATICA : heterothrausmatic structure (of an orbicular rock in which the orbicules are formed around different kinds of nuclei)
STRUTTURA FACOIDALE : phacoidal structure (a structure of metamorfic rocks containing lenses of granular minerals)
STRUTTURA FANTASMA : inherited structure (an original structural feature of a rock which has been faithfully preserved after its replacement by ore)
STRUTTURA FILAMENTOSA : phacoidal structure (a structure of metamorfic rocks containing lenses of granular minerals)
STRUTTURA FOLIATA : foliation (caused in schists due to an alternation of sheeted minerals, or in gneisses due to an alternation of bands of granular or sheeted minerals)
STRUTTURA GNEISSICA : gneissose structure (with alternation of schistose and granulose bands and lenticles dissimilar both in mineral composition and texture)
STRUTTURA GRANULARE DI UN GHIACCIAIO : granular structure of a glacier
STRUTTURA IATALE : hiatal fabric (inequigranular texture of igneous rocks in which the sizes of the crystals do not vary gradually, but form a broken series, with hiatuses, or where two or more sizes are noticeably different from one another as in porphyritic and poikilitic textures)
STRUTTURA IMBRICATA : imbricate structure (with overlapping of clasts in a river bed, or in a beach, or in a compressive fault, in the latter case there is a multiplicity of overlapping wedge-shaped compression fragments)
STRUTTURA IN PROFONDITÀ : structure in depth, subsurface structure
STRUTTURA INFERIORE : down structure
STRUTTURA ISOTRAUSMATICA : isothrausmatic structure (of a rock in which the nuclei of the orbicular crystals are included into a groundmass having the same composition)
STRUTTURA LAMELLARE : shaly structure, slab structure
STRUTTURA LAMINARE : banded structure
STRUTTURA LEGATA AL FLUSSO : flow structure (in magmatic rocks)
STRUTTURA LENTICOLARE : phacoidal structure (a structure of metamorfic rocks containing lenses of granular minerals)
STRUTTURA LINEARE : linear structure (of striae, scatches, furrows, etc. of a fault)
STRUTTURA MASSICCIA : massive structure (of a rock)
STRUTTURA METACOLLOIDALE : crackled texture (concentric texture formed by minute fractures during cristallization)
STRUTTURA MONILIFORME : chain structure
STRUTTURA OMEOTRAUSMATICA : homeothrausmatic structure (of an orbicular rock having as nuclei symmagmatic inclusions, i.e. inclusions derived from the same magma)
STRUTTURA ORBICOLARE : orbicular structure (of a rock)
STRUTTURA POLISINTETICA ANGOLARE : polysynthetic twinning structure (formed by two systems of lamellar twinning making an angle with each other)
STRUTTURA RELITTA : inherited structure (an original structural feature of a rock which has been faithfully preserved after its replacement by ore)
STRUTTURA ROCCIOSA : rock structure
STRUTTURA ROCCIOSA LINEARE : rodding structure (linear structure made up of cilindrical rods in folded and metamorphic rocks)
STRUTTURA SCHELETRICA : skeleton structure
STRUTTURA SCISTOSA : cleavage structure, schistosity, shaly structure
STRUTTURA SFEROIDALE : orbicular structure (of a rock)
STRUTTURA SOVRAIMPOSTA : superimposed structure
STRUTTURA SUBVULCANICA : subvolcanic structure (sedimentary or igneous of a volcano situated above the magma chamber)
STRUTTURA SUPERFICIALE : surface structure
STRUTTURA SUPERIORE : up structure
STRUTTURA TROFICA : trophic structure (of an ecosystem)
STRUTTURA VULCANOTETTONICA SUBSIDENTE : volcano-tectonic subsidence structure
STRUTTURA, PROCESSO, STADIO : structure process stage (the three factors which, according to Davis, determine the develoment of forms in the erosion cycle)
STRUTTURE ANULARI SULLE PARETI DI UNA DIACLASI : joint annulations
STRUTTURE DA SUBSIDENZA : subsidence structures
STRUTTURE LEGATE A FRATTURE TETTONICHE : rift structures
STRUTTURE VULCANICHE DA FRATTURA : rift structures
SUBANGOLARE : subangular
SUBANGOLOSO : subangular
SUBCROSTALE : hypogene
SUBDELTA : subdelta (smaller delta forming part of a larger lobate or bird-foot delta)
SUBEDRICO : subhedral (an adjective applied to crystals bounded only in part by their own crystal faces)
SUBEDRO : (a constituent of a crystalline rock bounded only in part by its own faces)
SUBFOSSILE : subfossil (a fossil organism very similat to contemporary forms; old fashioned and inaccurate term, since fossils similar to contemporary forms can also be very ancient, at present the term living fossil is preferred)
SUBGELISOL : subgelisol (zone of unfrozed ground below permafrost)
SUBLIMAZIONE : sublimation
SUBOFITICO : subophitic (an adjective applied to an ophitic texture in which feldspars are approximately of the same order of magnitude as the pyroxene crystals within which they are partially included)
SUBSIDENZA : sinking, subsidence
SUBSIDENZA A CALDERONE : cauldron subsidence (subsidence surrounded by a ring-shaped fault)
SUBSIDENZA A CALDERONE SOTTERRANEA : subterranean cauldron subsidence
SUBSIDENZA CIRCONDATA DA UNA FAGLIA : subterranean cauldron subsidence
SUBSIDENZA VULCANICA ESTERNA : external collapse (caused by emptying of surficial magma chambers)
SUBSTRATO : substratum (material under the crust)
SUBVULCANO : subvolcano (small intrusive body situated at little depth, e.g. a laccolith)
SUCCESSIONE PROVINCIALE : provincial succession (succession occurring in mineral provinces due to changes in supply of a certain mineral association)
SUOLI ABIOTICI : abiotic soils (Precambrian soils without living organisms)
SUOLI BIOTICI : biotic soils
SUOLO : ground, soil
SUOLO A CERCHI DI PIETRE : stone rings (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
SUOLO A STRISCIE TERROSE : soil stripes (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
SUOLO A TASCHE : involution layer (due to crioturbation)
SUOLO ARGILLOSO-SABBIOSO : loam
SUOLO CHE NON HA SUBITO TRASPORTO : sedentary soil
SUOLO FERROSO PISOLITICO : shot soil
SUOLO FIGURATO : patterned ground (in glacial geomorphology: ground with a particular clast arrangement due to periglacial processes, with larger clasts arranged in stripes on slopes, and instead forming circles or poligonal patterns on flat surfaces; in river geomorphology: roughly circular patterns at places in gravel bed rivers, linked to transversal, and sometimes longitudinal ribs)
SUOLO FIGURATO A STRISCIE : striped ground (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
SUOLO FIGURATO A STRISCIE : striped ground (patterned ground due to periglacial processes which have caused arrangement of larger clasts in stripes on slopes)
SUOLO FIGURATO A STRUTTURE POLIGONALI : polygonal ground (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
SUOLO GELATO IN PERMANENZA : permafrost
SUOLO LIMONITICO : loam
SUOLO NERO DA COTONE : regur, black cotton soil (dark coloured usually calcareous soil of tropical regions which swells when wet and tends to crack deeply on drying)
SUOLO POLIGONALE : polygonal ground, tundra polygones (in a periglacial environment)
SUOLO RESIDUO : eluvium, residual soil (after the leaching of the more soluble material)
SUOLO RETICOLARE : stone nets (in an environment subject to periglacial phenomena)
SUOLO SEDENTARIO : sedentary soil
SUOLO STRIATO : striped ground (patterned ground due to periglacial processes which have caused arrangement of larger clasts in stripes on slopes)
SUOLO STRUTTURATO : patterned ground (in glacial geomorphology: ground with a particular clast arrangement due to periglacial processes, with larger clasts arranged in stripes on slopes, and instead forming circles or poligonal patterns on flat surfaces; in river geomorphology: roughly circular patterns at places in gravel bed rivers, linked to transversal, and sometimes longitudinal ribs)
SUPERDIP : superdip (an instrument of limited sensitivity for measuring changes in the total intensity of the magnetic field)
SUPERFICI DI DENUDAMENTO A GRADINI : stepping surfaces of denudation
SUPERFICI DI DENUDAMENTO COMPENETRANTISI : inset surfaces of denudation
SUPERFICIE : superface (of a stratigraphhic unit)
SUPERFICIE ANOMALA DI CONTATTO TETTONICO : abnormal surface of contact
SUPERFICIE CAPILLARE : capillary surface
SUPERFICIE COLORATA RICOPRENTE UNA ROCCIA : patina
SUPERFICIE COMPOSITA DI DEGRADAZIONE : composite surface of degradation
SUPERFICIE DEGRADATA : peneplain (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
SUPERFICIE DI DEPOSIZIONE : surface of deposition
SUPERFICIE DI DISCONTINUITÀ : surface of discontinuity, surface of unconformity (between two strata having different properties)
SUPERFICIE DI FALDA FREATICA : water table (upper surface of the saturation zone in a permeable rock)
SUPERFICIE DI RIFERIMENTO : level of reference, reference level (determined as a point of departure for analysis of gravitational anomalies and isostasy)
SUPERFICIE DI SCIVOLAMENTO : slip plane
SUPERFICIE DI UN CORPO D’ACQUA : water level (in a sea, a river, a lake)
SUPERFICIE LISTRICA : listric surface (overthrust sliding plane moderately flexed and concave towards the surface)
SUPERFICIE MULTIPLA DI DENUDAMENTO : polycyclic surface of denudation (developed during succeeding cycles of erosion)
SUPERFICIE PIEZOMETRICA : hydrostatic level, piezometric surface (vecchio sinonimo of potentiometric level or potentiometric surface)
SUPERFICIE POLICICLICA DI DENUDAMENTO : polycyclic surface of denudation (developed during succeeding cycles of erosion)
SUPERFICIE POTENZIOMETRICA : potentiometric surface (level that can be reached by the water table inside an aquifer)
SUPERFICIE PRIMITIVA : initial surface (uneroded surface just emerged from the sea)
SUPERFICIE S : S surface (a term used by Sanders to indicate sets of parallel planes of mechanical inhomogeneity in deformed rocks)
SUPERFICIE SEGNATA DA RIPPLE MARKS : ripple marked surface
SUPERFICIE STRATIGRAFICA SU CUI SONO DISEGNATE LE ISOIPSE STRUTTURALI : structural dam
SUPERFICIE SUPERIORE : upper surface (of a stratigraphic unit)
SUPERFICIE TRIANGOLARE DI FAGLIA : fault facet
SUPERGENE : supergene (a term related to descending waters or to deposits formed by enrichment caused by descending waters)
SUPERINDIVIDUALE : superindividual (an adjective applied to a structural element made up an aggregate of crystals)
SUSCETTIBILITÀ MAGNETICA : magnetic susceptibility (ratio between magnetization and inducing magnetic field)
SUSCETTIBILITÀ MAGNETICA : susceptibility
SUSSEGUENTE : epigenetic (an adjective applied to an element chronologically later than the including rock)
SVILUPPO : development (of a natural region, according to Penck) – S. ACCELERATO : (accelerated development, of a region whose tectonic uplift is faster than erosion so that convex slopes tend to develop) – SVILUPPO DECLINANTE (declining development, of a region whose tectonic uplift is slower than erosion so that concave slopes tend to develop) – SVILUPPO UNIFORME (uniform development, of a region whose tectonic uplift takes place at the same speed as erosion so that linear slopes occur)
SVILUPPO DI FORME CARSICHE : karst forming
SVILUPPO DI GAS MAGMATICO: development of gas
SVILUPPO DI TERRAZZI FLUVIALI: development of terraces
SVILUPPO DI UN CORSO D’ACQUA : stream development (ratio of river total length, obtained following all meanders, to straight distance from spring to mouth)
SVILUPPO DI VALLATE : formation of valleys
SVUOTATO : emptied
TABULARE : tabular (crystal shape)
TACHIGENESI : tachygenesis
TACHILITE : tachylite (variety of basaltic glass)
TACONITE : taconite
TAFONOMIA : taphonomy (study of the decay, disarticulation, preservation and fossilization of organisms)
TAFROGENESI : taphrogenesis (formation of rifts or graben)
TAGLIO DI MEANDRO : meander cutoff
TALASSOCRATICO : thalattocratic (an adjective applied to predominance or enlargement of oceanic areas in relation to continental areas)
TALASSOCRATONE : thalassocraton (old fashioned term indicating a long-lived stable part of an oceanic block, no longer in use after the emergence of the plate tectonics theory)
TALWEG : thalweg
TANATOCENOSI : thanatocoenosis
TAPPO DI LAVA SOLLEVATO : plug dome
TAPPO LAVICO : lava plug (in a volcanic crater)
TASCA FILONIANA : chambered vein
TASCHE : pockets (downfolded or updragged convex parts of a layer subject to cryoturbation, small mineral concentrations from cryoturbation of stratified clayey deposits)
TASSO DI EVAPORAZIONE : evaporativity (from a water body at the same temperature as the atmosphere)
TASSO DI INFILTRAZIONE : infiltration rate
TAVOLA DELLE DURATE DI PERCORSO DEI SISMI IN FUNZIONE DELLA DISTANZA DALL’EPICENTRO : time table (of earthquakes)
TAVOLA DI GHIACCIAIO : glacier table (rocky block supported by an ice column)
TAVOLA OSCILLANTE POROSA : air table, air-float table (used to concentrate the heavy fraction of solid material by doing away with dust by means of air blown)
TAZZA CULMINANTE UNA STALAGMITE : splash cup
TECTITE : tektite (obsidian meteorite)
TEFROCRONOLOGIA : tephrochronology (a chronology based on the stratification of the pyroclastic material)
TELEOLOGIA : teleology
TELINITE : telinite, vitrinite containing cellular structures
TEMPERATURA ASSOLUTA : absolute temperature (measured with respect to the absolute of the Kelvin thermodynamic scale of temperature)
TEMPESTA DI NEVE : blizzard, snowstorm
TEMPESTA DI POLVERE : dust storm
TEMPESTA DI SABBIA : sand storm
TEMPO DI ARRIVO : time of arrival (of an earthquake to a seismic observatory)
TEMPO DI ORIGINE DI UN SISMA : time of origin (of an earthquake, usually expressed in Greenwich time)
TEMPO DI PERCORRENZA : travel time (in seismic prospection: time required by a seismic wave artificially caused to travel from the shotpoint to the point of observation; in tectonics: time required by a natural earthquake to travel from the hypocenter to the point of observation)
TEMPO DI PERCORRENZA DELL’ENERGIA SISMICA FINO ALLA SUPERFICIE : uphole time (in seismic survey: time required for the seismic energy to travel vertically from the explosion charge upward to the surface)
TEMPO D’INIZIO DEL SISMA ALL’EPICENTRO : time of occurrence (of an earthquake)
TEMPO EPICENTRICO : time of occurrence (of an earthquake)
TEMPORALE VULCANICO : volcanic thunderstorm (violent atmospheric electric phenomena caused by friction effects in clouds of ash and vapour)
TENDENZA : strike (direction of a line formed by the intersection between a bedding plane and a horizontal plane)
TENDENZA : strike (direction of the line formed by the intersection of a bedding plane with the horizontal plane)
TENDENZA ASSIALE : surface axis (intersection of the crestal plane or trough plane with the surface of the Earth)
TENDENZA DI UNA ROCCIA ALLA FESSURAZIONE : cleavage
TENORE DEL CONCENTRATO DI METALLO NEL MINERALE : tenor of ore concentrate
TENORE DEL MINERALE METALLICO : tenor of the ore
TENORE DEL MINERALE METALLICO NON CONCENTRATO : tenor of the crude ore
TENORE GASSOSO : gas content
TENORE LIMITE DI METALLO NEL MINERALE : lower limit of the tenor of the ore
TENSIONE DI SCIVOLAMENTO : shear stress (measured in pascal, equivalent to newtons by square metre: 1N/m2 = Pa)
TENSIONE DI VAPORE : vapour tension
TENSIONE IDRICA DEL SUOLO : soil moisture tension (numerical measure of the energy whereby water is held in the soil, expressed in logarithmic scale)
TENTACULITI : tentaculites (problematic Cambrian marine phylum)
TEORIA DEL RIMBALZO ELASTICO : elastic rebound theory (which explains the adjustment of opposing tensional stresses in the Earth’s crust as a result of a sudden rebound of two blocks along an extant or new fault)
TEORIA DELLA CONTRAZIONE A BLOCCHI CUNEIFORMI ALLA SUPERFICIE TERRESTRE : theory of the contraction of the Earth with formation of wedge shaped blocks on the Earth surface (historical concept)
TEORIA DELLA CONTRAZIONE DELLA TERRA : contraction theory (referred to the Earth as a planet: an historical concept)
TEORIA DELLA DERIVA CONTINENTALE : theory of continental drift
TEORIA DELLA DISCESA : descension theory (of mineralizing solutions)
TEORIA DELLA RADIOATTIVITÀ : theory of radioactivity
TEORIA DELLA SECREZIONE LATERALE : theory of lateral secretion (of mineralizing solutions)
TEORIA DELL’ASCENSIONE : ascension theory (of mineralizing solutions)
TEORIA DELLE MUTAZIONI GENETICHE : mutation theory
TEORIA DELL’ESPANSIONE : expansion theory (of the Earth)
TEORIA DELL’EVOLUZIONE : theory of evolution
TEORIA DELL’ISOSTASIA : theory of isostasy
TEORIA DELLO SCIVOLAMENTO : sliding theory (old-fashioned assumption according to which sedimentary blankets slide on an inclined plane due to gravity action and that this phenomenon gives rise to folding)
TEORIA DELL’ONDAZIONE : undation theory (old-fashioned concept by van Bemmelen, according to which primary tectonigenes are formed by differential movements in a vertical sense in the Earth’s crust as a result of changes in density of the tectosphere caused by physicochemical processes)
TEORIA DELL’OSCILLAZIONE : oscillation theory (fanciful assumption according to which “geotumors” are formed in the Earth’s crust by action energetic sources of cosmic origin, whereas “geodepressions” are formed by gravitational sliding)
TEORIA PLUTONISTA : plutonic theory (theory according to which magma exercises great influence in events of the earth’s crust)
TERMINARE : to die out (a term applied to a a joint or a fissure), to end (a term applied to a fault), to terminate (a term applied to bedding)
TERMINARE A RIDOSSO : to abut against (of a formation against another one)
TERMINARE BRUSCAMENTE : to truncate
TERMINARE CONTRO : to abut against (of a formation against another one)
TERMINARE IN PROFONDITÀ : to die out downward (a term applied to a fault)
TERMINARE IN SUPERFICIE : to die out upward (a term applied to a fault)
TERMINAZIONE A SEGA : hacksaw termination (serrated termination in a rock due to chemical dissolution)
TERMINAZIONE EROSIVA : erosional termination (between two stratigraphic formations)
TERMINAZIONE PERICLINALE DI UN PIEGAMENTO : nosing off of a fold
TERMINAZIONE SEGHETTATA : frayed end (toothed rim of a rock due to chemical dissolution)
TERMOCLINO : metalimnion, thermocline (thermal discontinuity layer between epilimnion and hypolimnion)
TERMOMETRO GEOLOGICO : geologic thermometer (a mineral whose interval of formation is known and which therefore supplies information on the temperature of the environment in which it was formed)
TERP : terp (from Dutch: small island or mound used for shelter in an area of salt marshes often covered at high tide)
TERPEN : terpen (from Dutch, plural of terp: small islands or mounds used for shelter in an area of salt marshes often covered at high tide)
TERRA : Earth (planet), earth (soil)
TERRA AD INFUSORI : diatomite
TERRA ARABILE : arable earth
TERRA BASSA : lowland
TERRA COLTIVABILE : topsoil
TERRA ROSSA : terra rossa
TERRAFERMA NON RAGGIUNTA DALLE MAREE : upland (land at the back of salt marshes not reached by storm tides, land beyond the marsh belt in a delta)
TERRAZZA DEPOSIZIONALE LACUSTRE : depositional terrace (terrace of lake sediments controlled by sea waves)
TERRAZZA EROSIVA : erosional terrace (on a lake shore or on a sea coast)
TERRAZZA LITORANEA : shore terrace (terrace bordering the shoreline carved by the waves in solid rock or built with sedimentary material)
TERRAZZAMENTI AGRICOLI : field terraces
TERRAZZAMENTO DI MARE PROFONDO : deep sea terrace (a terracing on a slope at a depth over 600 metres)
TERRAZZAMENTO MARGINALE : ice marginal terrace (terrace of kames, terrace of fluvioglacial mounds deposited by a melting glacier)
TERRAZZE AGRICOLE : field terraces
TERRAZZE DI CONCREZIONI SILICEE : siliceous sinter terraces
TERRAZZETTE : terracettes (narrow natural terraces formed on a slope due to slow sliding movements)
TERRAZZI A GRADINI : terrace flight
TERRAZZI ACCOPPIATI : matched terraces (on the two sides of a valley, being the residues of the same valley floor)
TERRAZZI APPAIATI : matched terraces (on the two sides of a valley, being the residues of the same valley floor)
TERRAZZI DI INCISIONE E REINCISIONE : fill in fill terraces (terraces formed by alternating filling and incision of the valley bottom)
TERRAZZI FLUVIALI SULLA RIVA INTERNA DI UN MEANDRO : slipoff slope terraces (on the inner bank of a meander which is inciding slowly and at an irregular rate)
TERRAZZI POLICICLICI : inset terraces
TERRAZZO ALLUVIONALE : alluvial terrace
TERRAZZO CAUSATO DA DENUDAMENTO ACCELERATO CON ELIMINAZIONE DI STRATI PIÚ DEBOLI SOVRASTANTI ROCCE PIÚ RESISTENTI : structural terrace, tectonic terrace
TERRAZZO CAUSATO DA UN CICLO GEOMORFICO : cyclic terrace
TERRAZZO CICLICO : cyclic terrace
TERRAZZO CLIMATICO : climatic terrace (a terrace formed by fluvial erosion controlled by climatic conditions)
TERRAZZO CONTINENTALE : continental terrace (from low tide line to the base of the continental shelf)
TERRAZZO DA GELIVAZIONE : congelifractate terrace (a terrace left when a stream erods below the level of a valley fill consisting of periglacial solifluction material)
TERRAZZO DI EROSIONE : rock terrace
TERRAZZO DI MEANDRO AD ARMATURA ROCCIOSA : rock perched terrace
TERRAZZO DI SCIVOLAMENTO LATERALE : polygenetic terrace
TERRAZZO DIASTROFICO : diastrophic terrace (terrace caused by crustal movements)
TERRAZZO EMERGENTE : emerging terrace (from the sedimentary cover of the valley bottom or from underneath another terrace)
TERRAZZO EUSTATICO : eustatic terrace (terrace caused by eustatic movements of the sea)
TERRAZZO FLUVIALE : river terrace
TERRAZZO FLUVIOGLACIALE : fluvioglacial terrace (terrace formed by fluvioglacial sediments)
TERRAZZO GLACIALE : cirque platform (terrace built by coalescence of contiguous glacial cirques)
TERRAZZO INCLINATO IMMERGENTESI SOTTO I SEDIMENTI DI FONDOVALLE O SOTTO UN ALTRO TERRAZZO : plunging terrace
TERRAZZO LOCALE : noncyclic terrace (formed by processes different from the geomorphic cycles)
TERRAZZO MARINO : marine terrace
TERRAZZO NON CICLICO : noncyclic terrace (formed by processes different from the geomorphic cycles)
TERRAZZO POLIGENETICO : polygenetic terrace
TERRAZZO SOTTOMARINO : wave built terrace
TERRAZZO STRETTO : bank
TERRAZZO STRUTTURALE : structural terrace, tectonic terrace
TERRAZZO SU UNO SPERONE DI MEANDRO : meander spur terrace (local alternate terrace formed by meander migration)
TERRAZZO TETTONICO : structural terrace, tectonic terrace
TERRE NERE : black earth (tropical black plastic shales and chernozem)
TERREMOTO : earthquake
TERREMOTO ARTIFICIALE : artificial earthquake
TERREMOTO DI CROLLO : earthquake due to collapse
TERREMOTO DI RIFLESSO : relay earthquake (earthquake occurring as an after-effect of an earthquake occurring elsewhere)
TERREMOTO PRINCIPALE : principal earthquake
TERREMOTO TERRESTRE : inland earthquake
TERREMOTO TETTONICO : tectonic earthquake
TERREMOTO VULCANICO : volcanic earthquake
TERREMOTO VULCANICO SOTTOMARINO : submarine volcanic earthquake
TERRENO : ground
TERRENO DESERTIFICATO DAL GAS VULCANICO : gas barren ground
TERRENO GELATO : frozen ground
TERRESTRIALIZZAZIONE : terrestrialization
TERRICCIO : earth
TERZIARIO : Caenozoic, Tertiary, Tertiary era
TESSITURA : texture (intimate mutual relations of the constituents in a rock, defined by the degree of crystallization, size of crystals and arrangement of crystals and glassy matter)
TESSITURA A CAVITÀ : caries texture
TESSITURA A CONTATTI CURVILINEI REGOLARI FRA I MINERALI : mutual boundary texture
TESSITURA A FOGLIA DI OLEANDRO : oleander leaf texture
TESSITURA A FRAGOLA : framboidal structure
TESSITURA A MOSAICO : mosaic texture (a granoblastic texture of metamorphic rocks, in which crystal fragments are angular and granular, with approximately flat dividing planes between grains, and appear in polarized light like pieces of a mosaic)
TESSITURA A NIDO D’APE : honeycomb texture
TESSITURA A NODULI FRATTURATI : septarian texture
TESSITURA A NUCLEO CENTRALE : core texture (with a central mineral surrounded by another mineral)
TESSITURA A PETTINE : comb texture
TESSITURA A ROSETTE : rosette textture
TESSITURA A SALE E PEPE : pepper and salt texture (in which mineral grains are mostly shapeless)
TESSITURA A SERIE : seriate texture
TESSITURA A SETACCIO : sieve texture (caused by formation during recrystallization, in metamorphic rocks, of nex crystals which have come to envelop the adjacent constituents)
TESSITURA A SPINA DI PESCE : herringbone texture
TESSITURA ACCARTOCCIATA : rumpled texture
TESSITURA AD INCASTRO : serrate texture
TESSITURA BRECCIATA : brecciated texture
TESSITURA CELLULARE : cell texture
TESSITURA CEMENTATA : cement texture
TESSITURA COLLOIDALE : colloform texture
TESSITURA CONCENTRICA : cockade texture, concretionary texture
TESSITURA CONVOLUTA : kneaded texture (from cryoturbation of stratified deposits, usually clayey)
TESSITURA CRISTALLOGRAFICA : cristallographic texture
TESSITURA DENDRITICA : dendritic texture
TESSITURA DI EMULSIONE : emulsion texture
TESSITURA DI EXSOLUZIONE : exsolution texture (segregation texture by melting and elimination of some minerals leaving some other behind)
TESSITURA DI UNA ROCCIA : rock fabric (stricto sensu, the pattern defined by shape and arrangement of crystalline and noncrystalline parts in a rock, in general all the structural and textural of a rock)
TESSITURA EQUIGRANULARE : equigranular texture
TESSITURA EUTECTOIDE : eutectoid texture (with a complex intertwining of different minerals)
TESSITURA FENESTRATA: lattice texture (typical of serpentinite when it replaces amphibole in a magmatic rock)
TESSITURA FIBROSA : fibrous texture, wire texture
TESSITURA FILIFORME : filiform texture, thread-like structure
TESSITURA FOLIATA : foliate texture
TESSITURA GRAFICA : graphic texture (with lamellar intergrowth resembling some eutectic intergrowths found in metal alloys)
TESSITURA GRANULARE : granule texture
TESSITURA INCROCIATA : boxwork texture
TESSITURA INEQUIGRANULARE : seriate fabric (fabric of equigranular rocks in which the sizes of the crystals vary gradually from one extreme to the other, the fabric being intermediate between hiatal and equigranular)
TESSITURA INTRECCIATA : knitted texture (typical of serpentinite when it replaces a clinopyroxene in magmatic rocks)
TESSITURA IRREGOLARE : shredded texture
TESSITURA LAMELLARE : lattice texture
TESSITURA LAMINARE : banded texture, banding
TESSITURA LEGATA AL FLUSSO : flow texture (in magmatic rocks)
TESSITURA OCELLARE : ocellar texture (formed by rounded, eyelike, branching, fern or cauliflowerlike aggregates, or by tangentially or radially arranged aggregates having a nephelite crystal at the centre, e.g. in some nephelites and in the leucitophyres)
TESSITURA OOLITICA : oölitic texture
TESSITURA OVOIDALE : pellet texture
TESSITURA RAMIFICATA : dendritic texture
TESSITURA RELITTA : relict texture (rock texture which has survived metamorphism and shows traces of the original textural setup as a result of pseudomorphous replacement)
TESSITURA RETICOLARE : mesh texture, reticulate texture (a texture resembling a network, caused by alteration of certain minerals, e.g. serpentinization of olivine)
TESSITURA RETICOLATA : mesh texture, reticulate texture (a texture resembling a network, caused by alteration of certain minerals, e.g. serpentinization of olivine)
TESSITURA ROCCIOSA : rock texture
TESSITURA SE : se fabric (external fabric of a rock which may have various orientations with respect to the fabric of isolated grains within a porphyroblast)
TESSITURA SFERULITICA : spherulitic texture
TESSITURA SI : si fabric (fabric of isolated grains within a porphyroblast)
TESSITURA SUTURATA : sutured texture (a metamorphic granoblastic texture in which the individual grains meet in irregular interlocking contacts)
TESSITURA TRASLATORIA CON FALSA SCISTOSITÀ : translation twinning texture
TESSITURA TRIANGOLARE : triangular texture
TESSITURA TUBERCOLARE : tubercle texture
TESSITURA VENATA : veined texture
TESSITURA ZONALE : zonal texture
TESSITURE E STRUTTURE DEI GIACIMENTI MINERARI : textures and structures of ore minerals
TESTATA DI VALLE : valley head
TETIDE : Tethys
TETRADE : tetrad (spore or pollen grains united into groups of four)
TETRAPLASIA : tetraplasy (law of the four inseparable factors of evolution: heredity, ontogeny, selection and environment)
TETRAPLOIDE : tetraploid (cellular chromosomic endowment with four sets of homologous chromosomes)
TETRAPODI : tetrapods
TETTO ACUTO : sharp crest (of the anticline)
TETTO AMPIO DI UN’ANTICLINALE : broad crest, broad topped crest (of an anticline)
TETTO BAGNATO : wetted roof (a totally inexplored trap in a cave)
TETTO DI ANTICLINALE : crest of an anticline
TETTO DI FAGLIA : hanging wall
TETTO DI UNO STRATO : roof of a layer
TETTO PIATTO DI UN’ANTICLINALE : flat crest, flat topped crest
TETTOGENE : tectogene (a folded or a faulted part of the Earth’s crust)
TETTOGENE GRAVITAZIONALE : gravitazional tectogene, secondary tectogene (orogene formed by differential lateral movements)
TETTOGENE PRIMARIO : primary tectogene, vertical tectogene (orogene formed by differential vertical movements)
TETTOGENE SECONDARIO : gravitational tectogene, secondary tectogene (orogene formed by differential lateral movements)
TETTOGENE VERTICALE : primary tectogene, vertical tectogene (orogene formed by differential vertical movements)
TETTOGENESI : tectogenesis
TETTOGENESI GRAVITATIVA : gravitational tectogenesis
TETTOMORFICO : tectomorphic (an adjective applied to deuteromorphic constituents whose shapes have been modified by magmatic corrosion)
TETTONICA : tectonic geology, tectonics (substantive)
TETTONICA A FAGLIE : faulting tectonics
TETTONICA A PLACCHE : plate tectonics
TETTONICA A ZOLLE : plate tectonics
TETTONICA DELLE FALDE DI RICOPRIMENTO : nappe tectonics
TETTONICA DI FRAMMENTAZIONE : tectonique cassante (from French; tectonics of the crystalline basement believed to be responsible for the sliding of the sedimentary cover and characterized by fragmentation in wedge-shaped blocs)
TETTONICA DI RIPIEGAMENTO : folding tectonics
TETTONICA DI ROCCE ALINE : salt tectonics
TETTONICA DI SCIVOLAMENTO : sliding tectonics
TETTONICA GRAVITATIVA : sliding tectonics
TETTONICA INDOTTA : induced tectonics (in which the dislocations in the basement have been of influence on the folding of the sedimentary mantle)
TETTONICA SALIFERA : salt tectonics
TETTONICO : tectonic (adjective)
TETTONITE : tectonite (deformed rock whose structure results from a systematic differential movement of the individual units driven by an external force) – T. b: b tectonite (a tectonite with a linear structure in relation to the b axis) – T. R: r tectonite (a tectonite in which the rotation around the b axis has been dominant) – T. S: S tectonite (a tectonite of which the structure is controlled by a set S of easily visible planes forming an evidently schistose structure)
TETTONOSFERA : tectonosphere (outer part of the Earth above isostatic equilibrium level, in which dynamic processes are thought to occur, causing orogenesis, according to Haarmann and van Bemmelen)
TIPICO DEL GRIT : gritty
TIPICO DELL’ARENARIA GROSSOLANA QUARZITICA : gritty
TIPO : phylum (large systematic group, e.g.: Chordates, Mollusks, Arthropods)
TIPO EMBRIONALE : embryonic type (a term applied to a fossil adult vertebrate having embryonic characters in comparison with recent forms)
TIPO GENERALIZZATO : generalized type (of fossils whose skeleton has characters in common with different recent species and genuses, hence showing little specialization)
TO GRADE LATERALLY INTO ……. : fondersi lateralmente con …….
TO LIE ON ……. : giacere su …….
TOLOIDE VULCANICO : lava dome
TOMBOLO : tombolo (from Italian)
TOPOGENO : topogenous (an adjective applied to peat formation connected with water standing in depressions of the surface)
TOPOGRAFIA DI CINTURA MORENICA : morainic belt topography
TOPOGRAFIA DI FRANA : landslide topography (typical irregular topography of a landslide accumulation zone)
TOPOGRAFIA MORENICA : moraine topography
TOPOGRAFIA MORENICA DI FONDO : till plains topography
TOPOTIPO : topotype (a specimen of a species collected in the same locality and from the same stratigraphic formation from which the holotype was recovered)
TORBA : peat
TORBA A CAREX : carex peat
TORBA A ERIOPHORIUM : Eriophorum peat
TORBA A FRAGMITE : phragmites peat
TORBA A MUSCHI : moss peat
TORBA A SFAGNI : cuspidatum peat (layer of Sphagnum cuspidatum peat at the base of younger peat of similar composition), sphagnum peat
TORBA A SPHAGNUM CUSPIDATUM : (from German) Vorlaufstorf, Sphagnum cuspidatum peat
TORBA FORMATA AL DI SOPRA DELLA SUPERFICIE DI FALDA FREATICA : terrestrial peat
TORBA FORMATA DA ACQUA PIOVANA : ombrogenous peat
TORBA FORMATA IN ACQUA POCO PROFONDA : telmatic peat
TORBA LACUSTRE : limnic peat
TORBA LEGNOSA : wood peat
TORBA OMBROGENA : ombrogenous peat
TORBA RECENTE A SFAGNI : younger sphagnum peat
TORBA TELMATICA : telmatic peat
TORBA TERRESTRE : terrestrial peat
TORBA TREMOLANTE : quaking moor (floating and quaking peat vegetation)
TORBANITE : boghead coal (a variety of coal with conchoidal fracture derived from algae)
TORBIDITÀ SPECIFICA : specific turbidity (relation between turbidity and discharge in the same section of a river and at the same timo in kg/m3)
TORBIERA : bog
TORBIERA BASSA : low moor (a moor with peat formation at or under the water table)
TORBIERA DI FONDO VALLE : valley bog
TORBIERA DI TRANSIZIONE : transition moor (a moor with peat formation somewhat above the water table)
TORBIERA FORMATA DA ACQUA PIOVANA : ombrogenous bog
TORBIERA OLIGOTROFA : raised bog (a moor with peat formation independent of the water table and mainly dependent upon the supply rain water)
TORBIERA OMBROGENA : ombrogenous bog
TORBIERA RIALZATA : raised bog (a moor with peat formation independent of the water table and mainly dependent upon the supply rain water)
TORBIERA SOLIGENA : soligenous bog, soligenous peat (formed in parte by water seeping from the surrounding surface and partly from rain water)
TORBIERA SU PENDIO UMIDO : hanging bog
TORBIERA TOPOGENA : topogenous bog, topogenous peat (peat formed by stagnant water in surficial depressions)
TORBIERE SOMMERSE : submerged peat beds
TORMALINIZZAZIONE : tourmalinization (replacement of various minerals with tourmaline)
TORRENTE : creek (American English), torrent
TORRENTE AL DI SOPRA DI UN GHIACCIAIO : supraglacial stream
TORRENTE AL DI SOTTO DI UN GHIACCIAIO : subglacial stream
TORRENTE ENGLACIALE : englacial stream (a stream flowing inside a glacier)
TORRENTE GLACIALE : glacial stream
TORRENTE MONTANO : mountainous torrent
TORRENTE SOVRAGLACIALE : supraglacial stream
TORRENTE SUBGLACIALE : subglacial stream
TOTALE POLLINICO : pollen sum (amount of spores and pollen grains providing the base for the calculation of the percentages of the different plant species present in the sample)
TOTALMENTE COMPRESSO : pinched out
TRACCE : traces (of intersection of a fault plane with the two parts of a dislocated stratification plane)
TRACCE DI CORRENTE : current markings (on a sedimentary formation)
TRACCE DI PERCUSSIONE : chatter marks
TRACCE DI SCHIUMA : foam mark (traces left sulla beach by foam)
TRACCE FOSSILI : trace fossils
TRACCE SUPERFICIALI : surface markings
TRACCIA ASSIALE : axial trace (intersection of the axial plane with the Earth surface)
TRACCIA DI CARICO : load cast (depression at the top of a finely grained originally hydroplastic deposit, filled with coarser material due to sudden loading of the latter material on top of the former)
TRACCIA DI FAGLIA : FAULT TRAIL : traccia di faglia
TRACCIA DI FLUSSO : flow marking (solco surficial furrow in a finely grained sedimentary bed formed by a current and later filled up with sand or silt)
TRACCIA DI PETROLIO : oil trace
TRACCIA DI RISACCA : swash mark (thin arcuate ridge left on a sandy surface of a beach by waves)
TRACCIA DI TRASCINAMENTO : drag mark (due to a fault)
TRACCIA SISMOGRAFICA : trace (recording on a seismogram of a single seismometric station)
TRACCIAMENTO CONTINUO DI PROFILI : continuous profiling (in seismic prospection: a reflection method whereby interfaces are detected along the line of explosion)
TRACHEOFITE : tracheophytes
TRACHITICO : trachytic (an adjective applied to magmatic microcristalline rocks having a totally or nearly holocrystalline groundmass with lath-shaped feldspar microlites with some degree of parallel disposition due to flow)
TRACIMAZIONE : overflow (of any fluid: water, lava, etc.)
TRACIMAZIONE : spillway (of a lake over a rock rim)
TRAIETTORIA : trajectory (a line intercepting wave fronts, earthquake and other otherwise, at a right angle)
TRAIETTORIA DI FRANA : landslide track
TRAIETTORIA DI UNA PARTICELLA D’ACQUA IN UN FIUME : stream line
TRAIETTORIA DI UNA PARTICELLA DI GHIACCIO IN UN GHIACCIAIO : stream line
TRAIETTORIA SISMICA : seismic ray
TRANSFLUENZA : transfluence (flow of a glacial tongue through a depression in a mountain chain which leads the tongue itself to the reception basin of another glacier)
TRAPPOLA : trap (containig oil or natural gas)
TRAPPOLA PETROLIFERA IDRODINAMICA : hydrodynamic oil trap (formed by an underground water current)
TRAPPOLA STRATIGRAFICA : stratigraphic trap (containing oil or natual gas)
TRAPPOLA STRUTTURALE : structural trap (containing oil or natural gas)
TRAPPOLA TETTONICA : tectonic trap (containing oil or natural gas)
TRASFERIMENTO GASSOSO : gaseous transfer (forming metal veins)
TRASFORMAZIONE ADIABATICA : adiabatic change (volume and pressure change of a gas without loss or gain of heat)
TRASFORMISMO DELLE SPECIE : descent (of species)
TRASGREDIRE : to transgress (diffusion inland of a sedimentary deposit due to a marine transgression)
TRASGRESSIONE MARINA : marine invasion
TRASGRESSIONE MARINA : transgression
TRASGRESSIVITÀ PARALLELA : nonangular unconformity (unconformity in which the beds on opposite sides of the unconformable contact are parallel)
TRASGRESSIVO : transgressive
TRASLAZIONE : translation (deformation of ice grains by shearing along planes perpendicular to the main axis, which allows the plastic flow of the glacier)
TRASPIRAZIONE : transpiration
TRASPORTO EOLICO : eolian transport
TRASPORTO IN SOSPENSIONE : suspension transport (of sediments in a river)
TRASPORTO LUNGOCOSTA : beach drift, longshore drift, longshore transport
TRASPORTO SEDIMENTARIO : mass movement (movement of incoherent material under the action of gravity)
TRASPORTO SEDIMENTARIO PER SALTAZIONE : saltation transport
TRASPORTO SEDIMENTARIO PER TRAZIONE : traction transport
TRASPORTO SELETTIVO DEI SEDIMENTI PIÚ FINI : winnowing (of sediments by the wind or a river)
TRASPORTO TETTONICO : tectonic transport (taking place during rock deformation resulting in the formation of migmatite by the injection of magma in deep-seated rocks)
TRATTAMENTO ACIDO : acid cure (for example in the extraction of uranium from the calcareous gangue)
TRATTO FLUVIALE INVASO DALLE MAREE : tidal section
TRAVERTINO : calcareous tufa, limestone sinter, travertine
TREMITI PRELIMINARI : preliminary tremors
TREMOMETRO : tremometer (measurer of tremors, old denomination of the seismometre)
TREMORI CRIPTOVULCANICI : cryptovolcanic tremors
TREMORI DA DEGASSAZIONE : degassing tremors
TREMORI DA ESPLOSIONE VULCANICA : explosion tremors
TREMORI DA INTRUSIONE : intrusion tremors (caused by a pushing up of magma shortly before the outburst or by explosions)
TREMORI MAGMATICI : magmatic tremors
TREMORI PROFONDI : deep seated tremors
TREMORI VULCANICI : volcanic tremors
TRIASSICO : Triassic
TRICHITE : trichite (hair shaped cristallite)
TRILETE : trilete (spore with three linear scars)
TRILOBITI : trilobites
TRINCEA FREATICA : groundwater trench, groundwater trough (a trench-shaped depression of the water table caused by effluent seepage into a drainage ditch or stream or by movement of groundwater to the underground thalweg underlying a stream)
TRINCEA OCEANICA : trench
TRIPOLI : diatomite
TRITURAMENTO : pulverization
TRITURATO : pulverized
TRITURATORE DI ROCCE A GETTO D’ARIA : air-swept mill (for extraction of minerals with elimination of pulverized material)
TRITURAZIONE : trituration, pulverization (formation of dust from volcanic deposits, e.g. Etna)
TRIZIO : tritium (heavy hydrogen isotope with two neutrons in the nucleus)
TRONCAMENTO : truncation (of the normal limbs of overturned anticlines being bevelled off due to sliding of a sedimentary mantle)
TRONCARE : to truncate
TRONCATURA TETTONICA : tectonic termination (termination of a bed due to a fault)
TSUNAMI : sea wave, seismic sea wave, tsunami
TUBAZIONE SOTTERRANEA DI DRENAGGIO : culvert
TUBO : burrow (dug by invertebrates into the sea floor or the soil)
TUBO IN SOFFITTO DI GROTTA : cave ceiling tube (tubular cavity at the contact between two rock formations in the ceiling of a cave)
TUBO VULCANICO : lava tunnel
TUFFISITE : tuffisite (finely grained intrusive pyroclastic rocks, e.g. vulcanic pipes of Swabia)
TUFFITE : tuffite (mixture of volcanic pyroclastic tuff epiclastic debris, according to Mügge)
TUFO : tufa (sedimentary: siliceous or calcareous), tuff (volcanic: eruptive)
TUFO ASCIUTTO STRATIFICATO : stratified dry tuff
TUFO CALCAREO : calc tufa
TUFO CAOTICO : chaotic tuff
TUFO CRISTALLINO : crystal tuff (with over 50% crystal fragments)
TUFO CRISTALLINO LITOIDE : crystal lithic tuff (with predominance of the crystal element)
TUFO DI CENERE VULCANICA : ash tuff
TUFO DI LAPILLI : lapilli tuff
TUFO DI POLVERE VULCANICA : dust tuff
TUFO DI POMICE : pumice tuff
TUFO DI SCORIE VULCANICHE : scoria tuff
TUFO FORMATOSI SOTT’ACQUA : subacqueous tuff
TUFO INTERSTRATIFICATO : interstratified tuff (alternating with non volcanic sediments)
TUFO LITOIDE : lithic tuff
TUFO LITOIDE CRISTALLINO : lithic crystal tuff (with dominance of the lithoid element)
TUFO NON CEMENTATO INCANDESCENTE : uncemented glowing tuff
TUFO PALAGONITICO : palagonite tuff
TUFO PISOLITICO : pisolitic tuff (formed by an accumulation of pisolites)
TUFO RIELABORATO : reworked tuff
TUFO SEDIMENTARIO : sedimentary tuff
TUFO SUBAEREO : subaeric tuff
TUFO VETROSO : vitric tuff
TUFO VULCANICO : volcanic tuff
TUMESCENZA : tumescence (of a volcano, one of the premonitory events of an eruption)
TUNDRA A CORDE : tundra ostioles (in a periglacial environment)
TUNDRA CON ORLI RILEVATI PER AZIONE DEL GELO: tundra ostioles (in a periglacial environment)
TUNNEL SCAVATO IN MINIERA : adit
TUNNEL VULCANICO : lava tunnel
TURBINE DI FUMO VULCANICO : smoke ring (caused by turbulent air movements around the cloud)
UADI : (from Arabic) dry river bed in desert regions, normally dry desert river, ouadi, wash
UBEHEBE : ubehebe (from Hawaiian; a low cone, little more than an embryo, sometimes chiefly built of rock fragments from the underlying terrain migled and interbedded with lapilli, according to Cotton)
UCCELLI : birds
UIDIAN : (from Arabic) normally dry desert rivers (plural of uadi), ouidian
UIDIAN : ouidian (from Arabic; plural of “uadi”)
ULTRAMETAMORFISMO : metablastism, ultrametamorphism (metamorphism of the highest grade with or without introduction of new material by diffusion, but always without magmatic phase; can form migmatites and also granites)
ULTRAMETAMORFISMO : ultrametamorphism (a general term for processes such as anatexys, palingenesis, etc., which surpass ordinary metamorphism in power)
ULTRAMILONITE : ultramylonite (flinty crushed rock, a rock crushed in a totally structureless mass)
UMIDITÀ DEL SUOLO : soil moisture
UMIDITÀ EQUIVALENTE : moisture equivalent (percentage of water held by a sample of soil after extraction of water by a constant centrifugal force 1000 times gravity)
UMIDITÀ IN EQUILIBRIO : air dryness (condizione di un minerale avente contenuto di umidità in equilibrio con quello atmosferico)
UMIFICAZIONE : humification
UMITE : humic coal (coal derived from peat)
UNITÀ ASSOLUTE : absolute units (directly derived from fundamental units of a system and not based on arbitary numerical definitions)
UNITÀ BIOSTRATIGRAFICA : biostratigraphic unit
UNITÀ CRONOSTRATIGRAFICA : time rock unit
UNITÀ INDIVIDUALI DI LETTI A STRATIFICAZIONE ALTERNA : rhythmites
UNITÀ LITOSTRATIGRAFICA : lithostratigraphic unit
UNITÀ STRUTTURALE : structural unit
URALITIZZAZIONE : uralitization (transformation of pyroxene into hornblende)
USCITA DI UN EMISSARIO DA UN LAGO : lake outlet
USCITA SOTTERRANEA DI UN EMISSARIO DA UN LAGO : swallow hole
UTENSILE : implement (of prehistoric man)
UVALA (from Slovenian) : depression formed by coalescence of dolines, uvala
VALANGA : avalanche
VALANGA BAGNATA : ground avalanche (snow masses drenched by spring thaw and thus rendered incoherent to the surface of the underlying rock, moving downslope as an avalanche)
VALANGA DETRITICA : debris avalanche (e.g. volcanic)
VALANGA DI GHIACCIO : ice avalanche (detached from a glacier)
VALANGA DI NEVE COMPATTATA DAL VENTO : wind slab avalanche
VALANGA DI NEVE POLVEROSA : drift avalanche (inizially unleashed by the wind)
VALANGA LATERALE DI UN DUOMO DI LAVA : discharged domal avalanche
VALANGHE DI DISINTEGRAZIONE DEL DUOMO VULCANICO : avalanches of domal disintegration
VALENZA : valence
VALLATA : valley
VALLATA ESTESA : extended valley (by regressive erosion due to a marine regression)
VALLE : dale (Northern England from Scandinavia), glen (Anglo-Scottish and Northern Irish), vale (Northern England), valley (standard English)
VALLE A CICLI MULTIPLI : multiple cycle valley (caused by rejuvenation)
VALLE A DUE CICLI : two-story valley (caused by rejuvenation)
VALLE A FORMA DI U : complete trough, trough, U-shaped valley (believed to be a river valley reshaped by glacial erosion; or also by fluvial erosion if the lithology is favourable to the development of perpendicular sides as in the case of sandstone or limestone, or again fluvial in arid climates where lateral denudation is largely absent)
VALLE A FORMA DI V : V-shaped valley, young valley
VALLE A GRADINI GLACIALI : giant stairway
VALLE A MEANDRO : meandering valley
VALLE A PROFILO TRASVERSALE CONCAVO : trough, trough valley
VALLE A V : V-shaped valley, young valley
VALLE AD U : complete trough, trough, U-shaped valley (believed to be a river valley reshaped by glacial erosion; or also by fluvial erosion if the lithology is favourable to the development of perpendicular sides as in the case of sandstone or limestone, or again fluvial in arid climates where lateral denudation is largely absent)
VALLE ANACLINALE : anaclinal valley (oriented in a direction opposite to that of the geological strata)
VALLE ANTECEDENTE : antecendent valley (a valley formed by a river which has hold its course during an orogenic phase, incising its channel as fast as the land was rising)
VALLE ANTICLINALE : anticlinal valley
VALLE APERTA : open valley
VALLE ASIMMETRICA : asimmetric valley
VALLE CATACLINALE : cataclinal valley
VALLE CIECA : blind valley (where a river disappears underground or resurfaces)
VALLE CON PENDII CONCAVI DIGRADANTI IN UN AMPIO FONDOVALLE : trough shaped valley
VALLE CON PIANA ALLUVIONALE BEN SVILUPPATA : floodplain valley
VALLE CONSEGUENTE : consequent valley (a valley draining according to the original slope of the land)
VALLE DECAPITATA : beheaded valley, betrunked valley
VALLE DELLA MORTE : death valley (depression filled with gases heavier than air and poisonous, like CO, or suffocating, like CO2)
VALLE DI CROLLO : collapse valley (formed by the collapse of an extensive cave system)
VALLE DI FAGLIA : fault valley
VALLE DI LINEA DI FAGLIA : fault line valley (developed in the comparatively weak debris of a fault line)
VALLE EPIGENETICA : superimposed valley (a valley originally developed on less resistant strata and which, after the erosion of such strata, is now fixed on harder underlying rock without showing any adaptation to the surface and structure of this formation)
VALLE EREDITATA : superimposed valley (a valley originally developed on less resistant strata and which, after the erosion of such strata, is now fixed on harder underlying rock without showing any adaptation to the surface and structure of this formation)
VALLE EROSIVA : erosional valley (not of structural origin)
VALLE FLUVIALE SOMMERSA : drowned river valley
VALLE FORMATA DA ACQUA DI SCIOGLIMENTO GLACIALE : valley formed by meltwater
VALLE GIOVANILE : young valley
VALLE GLACIALE : glacial valley
VALLE GLACIALE CON SEZIONE VERTICALE ARROTONDATA : trough
VALLE GLACIALE SOSPESA : hanging glacial valley
VALLE INSEQUENTE : insequent valley
VALLE LONGITUDINALE : longitudinal valley (a valley parallel to a mountain chain)
VALLE MARGINALE PROGLACIALE : ice marginal valley (a valley parallel to the glacial front through which glacial melwaters are drained)
VALLE MATURA : mature valley
VALLE MONOCLINALE : monoclinal valley
VALLE MORTA : dead valley, dry valley (in which streams and rivers have become subterranean)
VALLE OBSEQUENTE : obsequent valley (a valley draining in a direction opposite to the original slope of the territory)
VALLE PRINCIPALE : main valley
VALLE PROGLACIALE : glacial spillway (mouth of proglacial lake, usually perpendicular to the glacial front)
VALLE RESEQUENTE : resequent valley (valley draining according to the original slope originario of the land not because it succeeds to an original consequent valley but due to successive adjustments to structure at deeper levels)
VALLE SECCA : dead valley, dry valley (in which streams and rivers have become subterranean), water gap, wind gap
VALLE SECCA CARSICA : valley sink (formed by coalescence of uvalas)
VALLE SINCLINALE : synclinal valley (valley following the axis of a syncline)
VALLE SOSPESA : hanging valley (due to differential glacial erosion which causes a tributary valley to be hanging in relation to the main valley, or due to cliff retreat which makes the river hanging at the mouth and therefore ending with a waterfall)
VALLE SOSPESA : water gap, wind gap
VALLE SOTTOMARINA : submarine valley
VALLE SOVRAIMPOSTA : superimposed valley (a valley originally developed on less resistant strata and which, after the erosion of such strata, is now fixed on harder underlying rock without showing any adaptation to the surface and structure of this formation)
VALLE STRETTA : narrow valley
VALLE STRUTTURALE : tectonic valley
VALLE SUSSEGUENTE : subsequent valley (a valley draining in a direction parallel to the strike)
VALLE TETTONICA : tectonic valley
VALLE TRASVERSALE : transverse valley (a valley crossing a mountain chain roughly at a right angle)
VALLE TRIBUTARIA : tributary valley
VALLE TRONCATA : beheaded valley, betrunked valley (of which the lower part has been lost by erosion)
VALLE VALLE A FORMA DI U : complete trough (believed to be a river valley reshaped by glacial erosion)
VALLE VECCHIA : old valley
VALLETTA : dale (Northern Englland from Scandinavia)
VALLETTA GLACIALE AFFOGATA : förde (from Danish)
VALORE APPROSSIMATIVO DELL’INCLINAZIONE : approximate amount of dip (of geological strata)
VALORE DI CURVATURA : curvature value (quantity, measured on the basis of the torsion balance, proportional to the second derivative of potential gravity in relation to horizontal coordinates)
VALORE NORMALE DI GRAVITÀ : normal value of gravity
VALUTAZIONE : rating
VAPORE ACQUEO : water vapour
VARIANTE : variety
VARIAZIONE : variation (genetic)
VARIAZIONE DI POTENZA : variation in thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
VARIAZIONE DI SPESSORE : variation in thickness (of a stratigraphic unit)
VARIAZIONE GENETICA LIEVE NON EREDITARIA : fluctuation
VARIAZIONE GRANULOMETRICA : granular variation
VARIAZIONE SECOLARE : secular variation
VARIEGATO : variegated
VARIOLE : varioles (sheaflike or radial bodies like spherulites occurring in some basalts and diabases, especially in flowws marked by pillow structures and in the glassy margins of dikes and sills, usually consisting of divergent plagioclase fibers with or without interstitial glass or of plagioclase)
VARIOLITE : variolite (aphanitic basaltic or andesitic rock containing numerous varioles)
VARIOLITICO : variolitic (an adjective applied to the structure of rocks characterized by the presence of varioles)
VARVA : varve
VASCA BOLLENTE : hot pool
VASCA DI GEYSER : geyser pool
VECCHIA TORBA A SFAGNI : older sphagnum peat
VECCHIO PAESAGGIO : old landscape (in the erosion cycle according to Davis)
VEGETAZIONE ALOFITA : halophyte vegetation (vegetation capable to tolerate high salinity conditions, e.g. in salt marshes)
VELOCITÀ APPARENTE DI FLUSSO ACQUEO SOTTERRANEO : apparent velocity of groundwater flow
VELOCITÀ APPARENTE DI PROPAGAZIONE : apparent speed of propagation (of an earthquake along the surface of the Earth)
VELOCITÀ CRITICA DI EROSIONE : critical erosion velocity (flow velocity capable of mobilizing sediments in a river)
VELOCITÀ DELLA CORRENTE : current velocity of a stream
VELOCITÀ DI DEPOSIZIONE : settling velocity
VELOCITÀ DI FLUSSO FREATICO : velocity of groundwater flow
VELOCITÀ DI INFILTRAZIONE DELL’ACQUA : infiltration rate
VELOCITÀ DI PROPAGAZIONE : speed of propagation (of an earthquake)
VELOCITÀ DI REGISTRAZIONE : speed of registration (of an earthquake)
VELOCITÀ DI SEDIMENTAZIONE : settling velocity
VELOCITÀ VERA DI PROPAGAZIONE : true speed of propagation (of an earthquake along a seismic ray)
VENA : lode, vein
VENA A COLLANA DI PERLE : pinch and swell form
VENA A RIGONFIAMENTI : pinch and swell form
VENA CONCREZIONATA : crustified vein
VENA CONTEMPORANEA : contemporaneous vein
VENA INTRUSIVA : intrusive vein
VENA LAMINARE : banded vein
VENA LINGUIFORME IRRADIANTESI DA UN GRANDE CORPO INTRUSIVO : tongue shaped apophysis, tongue shaped vein, zungenförmig apophysis
VENA MAGMATICA SUBORIZZONTALE : Erzflöz (from German: subhorizontal magmatic vein)
VENA METALLIFERA : veindike
VENA MINERALIZZATA VERTICALE : gash vein
VENA MINERARIA PICCOLA : veinlet
VENA OMOGENETICA : contemporaneous vein
VENA PRINCIPALE : main vein
VENA QUARZOSA AURIFERA : reef (Australian and South African English)
VENE INTERSECANTISI AD ANGOLO ACUTO : hammock structure (structure formed by two systems of veins intersecting at an acute angle)
VENE MINERARIE INTERCONNESSE : linked veins
VENITE : venite (veined gneiss, i.e. migmatite, in which the material of the veins is derived from the metamorphic rock itself by exudation)
VENTAGLIO : fan
VENTAGLIO DI LAVA SOLIDIFICATA : lava fan
VENTIFATTO : ventifact
VENTO : wind
VENTO DI SABBIA : sand drift
VERGENZA : overturn (of a fold)
VERSAMENTO NATURALE DI PETROLIO : oil seepage
VERSANTE DI VALLATA : valley wall
VERSANTE FLUVIALE CONCAVO : undercut slope
VERSANTE FLUVIALE CONVESSO : slipoff slope
VERSO LA FOCE : downstream (in a river)
VERSO LA SORGENTE : upstream (in a river)
VERSO RIVA : inshore
VERTEBRATI : vertebrates
VERTICALE : vertical (direction of the plumbline)
VESCICOLA : vesicle (in lavas and intrusive surficial rocks)
VESCICOLARE : cavernous (an adjective applied to igneous rocks)
VETRIFICAZIONE DI ROCCE SOLIDE PER AZIONE DEL MAGMA : vitrification
VETRINITE : vitrinite
VETRINITE AMORFA : collinite
VETRINITE CONTENENTE STRUTTURE CELLULARI : telinite
VETRITE : vitrite (microlitotype of coal containing over 95% vitrinite)
VETRO : glass
VETRO VULCANICO : obsidian, volcanic glass
VETROFIRICO : vitrophyric (an adjective applied to porphyritic rocks with a vitreous groundmass)
VETROFIRO : vitrophyre (porphyritic rock with a vitreous groundmass)
VETROSO : glassy, vitreous
VETTA : mountain peak
VIBROGRAFO : vibrograph vibrograph (apparatus used to record swift vibrations caused by artificial earthquakes)
VICOLO CIECO IN GROTTA : blind
VIRGAZIONE : virgation
VISCOSITÀ : viscosity
VISCOSITÀ ASSOLUTA : absolute viscosity
VOLTA : upfold
VOLTA AEREA : aerial arch
VOLUME DEI PORI DEL SUOLO : pore volume
VOLUME EFFICACE DI POROSITÀ : effective pore volume (volume of the pores of the soil in which water can move freely)
VORTICE : eddy, whirl
VORTICE DI FUMO VULCANICO : smoke ring (caused by turbulent air movements around the cloud)
VORTICITÀ : vorticity
VULCANESIMO : volcanism, vulcanism
VULCANESIMO EPIGENETICO : epigenetic volcanism
VULCANESIMO ERUTTIVO : external volcanism
VULCANESIMO ESTERNO : external volcanism
VULCANESIMO OROGENICO : orogenic volcanism, orogenic vulcanism
VULCANESIMO PROSSIMO ALLA SUPERFICIE : hypabissal activity (causing the formation of laccoliths and sills)
VULCANESIMO SOTTERRANEO : cryptovolcanism
VULCANICITÀ : volcanicity
VULCANICO : volcanic
VULCANISTA : plutonist (supporter of the plutonic theory)
VULCANO : volcano
VULCANO A DOPPIO CONO : Somma volcano (with an adventive cone within a caldera)
VULCANO A SCUDO : shield volcano
VULCANO A SCUDO DI PICCOLE DIMENSIONI : dyngja (from Icelandic)
VULCANO A SCUDO EMBRIONALE : embryonic dome
VULCANO A STRUTTURA IMBRICATA : imbricated volcano (lava cone built up of sheets overlapping each other like tiles of a roof, younger layers being intruded between older ones)
VULCANO ANNIDATO : nested volcano (having several younger cones inside a caldera)
VULCANO ATTIVO : active volcano
VULCANO CENTRALE : central volcano
VULCANO COMPOSITO : compound volcano (a volcano with several peaks and craters)
VULCANO CON CRATERE : cratered volcano
VULCANO DI FANGO : macaluba, mud volcano
VULCANO DISSEZIONATO : cleaved volcano
VULCANO EMBRIONALE : embryonic volcano
VULCANO EPIGENETICO : epigenetic volcano
VULCANO EROSO : eroded volcano
VULCANO EVIDENTE NEL PAESAGGIO : supravolcano
VULCANO ISOLATO : isolated volcano
VULCANO MONOGENETICO : monogenetic volcano (formed in one eruptive period only)
VULCANO NON ATTIVO IN TEMPI RECENTI : subactive volcano
VULCANO OMOGENEO : homogenous volcano
VULCANO PARASSITA : subordinate volcano (derived from intrusive magma at shallow depth as sills or laccoliths)
VULCANO POLIGENETICO : polygenetic volcano (formed due to different eruptive events)
VULCANO PRINCIPALE : principal volcano
VULCANO QUIESCENTE : dormant volcano
VULCANO SEMPLICE : simple volcano
VULCANO SMANTELLATO : volcanic neck, volcanic plug (erosion remnant of a volcano showing the dismantled chimney fill made of solidified lava)
VULCANO SOLCATO : furrowed volcano
VULCANO SOTTOMARINO : submarine volcano
VULCANO SPENTO : extinct volcano
VULCANO SUBACQUATICO : subaquatic volcano
VULCANO SUBACQUEO : subaeric volcano
VULCANO SUBATTIVO : subactive volcano
VULCANO SUBORDINATO : subordinate volcano (derived from intrusive magma at shallow depth as sills or laccoliths)
VULCANO TIPO SOMMA : Somma volcano (with an adventive cone within a caldera)
VULCANOLOGIA : volcanology, vulcanology
VULCANOLOGO : volcanologist, vulcanologist
VUOTATO : emptied
VUOTI DI SCIOGLIMENTO : solution openings (in a rock)
VUOTO LATERALE IN UN GHIACCIAIO : lateral canyon (ice free space alongside a glacier due to melting by heat radiation from the bare rock)
XENOBLASTICO : xenoblastic (an adjective applied to those minerals of metamorphic rocks without true crystal faces)
XENOBLASTO : xenoblast (crystalline component of metamorphic rocks which has not developed own crystallographic faces)
XENOCRISTALLO : xenocryst (allogenous crystal, often eroded, included in a magmatic rock)
XENOMORFICO : xenomorphic (an adjective applied to crystals not delimitated by own crystal faces)
YARDANGS : yardangs (singular: yardang; sharp-edged ridges in rocks, separated by elongated U-profile furrows, originated by wind scour)
ZEOLITIZZAZIONE : zeolitization (replacement of one or more constituents of a rock with zeolites)
ZERO ASSOLUTO : absolute zero (minimum possible temperature of any substance at zero thermal energy, at about – 273,15°C)
ZOCCOLO INSULARE : insular shelf
ZOLLA TETTONICA : plate
ZONA : zone
ZONA A PIEGHE : fold belt
ZONA ABISSALE DI LAGO : lake abyssal zone (zone of the lake not directly influenced by the waves)
ZONA AFOTICA : aphotic zone
ZONA ALTERATA : weathered layer (in seismic survey: zone immediately below the surface, in which the velocity of the seismic wave is very much lower than in the underlying stratum)
ZONA DESERTICA : desert zone
ZONA DI ABLAZIONE : ablation area of a glacier
ZONA DI ACCUMULO DI UNA FRANA : deposition area
ZONA DI AERAZIONE : zone of aeration (zone of soil above the capillary level at which water is held by capillarity and in which air circulation occurs)
ZONA DI BATTIGIA : surf zone, wash zone
ZONA DI CAPILLARITÀ : capillary zone
ZONA DI CONTATTO METAMORFICO : contact zone
ZONA DI CONVERGENZA : convergence zone (in geology: zone in which two tectonic plates collide; in meteorology: zone of the atmosphere where convergence of air masses occurs; in oceanography: marine area from which the water sinks slowly from the surface)
ZONA DI DEBOLEZZA : zone of weakness
ZONA DI DIACLASI : zone of jointing
ZONA DI EVAPOTRASPIRAZIONE : soil water belt (part of the lithosphere immediately under the surface, from which water is diffused into the atmosphere by evapotranspiration)
ZONA DI FAGLIA : fault zone
ZONA DI FUSIONE : ablation area of a glacier (inappropriate term: it fails to include evaporation and sublimation)
ZONA DI GIACIMENTO MINERARIO PARTICOLARMENTE RICCA : ore shoot
ZONA DI MASSIMO SVILUPPO : zone of maximum development (of a water table)
ZONA DI OSSIDAZIONE : zone of oxidation
ZONA DI SATURAZIONE : zone of saturation (portion of the lithosphere in which interstices are filled with water by hydrostatic pressure)
ZONA DI SCIVOLAMENTO : shear zone (in a fault, where friction has created a zone where the rock is crushed and brecciated)
ZONA DI SPACCATURA : zone of jointing
ZONA DI SPIANAMENTO : plain of lateral planation
ZONA DI SUBSIDENZA DI UNA FALDA DI RICOPRIMENTO : zone of subsidence of a nappe (between the top of a nappe and its front)
ZONA DI TRANSIZIONE : transition belt
ZONA DISFOTICA : disphotic zone (zone of the sea where little penetration of light occurs)
ZONA DIVERSIVA : diversion zone (zone in which a bundle of folds changes direction)
ZONA EUFOTICA : euphotic zone (zone of the sea in which the light penetrates easily)
ZONA FAGLIATA : fault belt
ZONA FESSURATA NEL FIANCO DI UN VULCANO : rift zone
ZONA FONDAMENTALE DI FAGLIA : fundamental fault zone (zone of faulting within an orogene separating zones of different structural composition)
ZONA FREATICA : phreatic zone (saturation zone below the water table)
ZONA INTERCOTIDALE : intertidal zone (coastal strip lying between the lines of lowest and highest tides), littoral zone (zone along the lake shore where the bottom is directly affected by wave action, zone along the sea shore between the level of highest tides and the lower limit of illumination)
ZONA LITORALE DI LAGO : lake littoral zone (zone of the lake whose bottom is directly influenced by the waves)
ZONA LITORANEA CHE SUBISCE L’IMPATTO DEI FRANGENTI : splash zone
ZONA LITORANEA DEI FRANGENTI : surf zone
ZONA LITORANEA DI BATTIGIA : surf zone
ZONA LITORANEA PERMANENTEMENTE SOMMERSA DAL MARE : shore face
ZONA LITORANEA RAGGIUNTA DAGLI SPRUZZI DELLE ONDE : spray zone
ZONA MAGMATICA : shell of magma (espression of the antiquated hypothesis according to which there should be inside the Earth a more or less continuous magmatic zone feeding magma chambers and volcanoes)
ZONA MOBILE : mobile belt
ZONA RADICALE : root zone (in plant palaeontology: zone of plant roots; in tectonic geology: zone from which a nappe emerges)
ZONA SUBLITORANEA : sublittoral zone (zone of undeterminate width below the level of lowest tides)
ZONA SUPERFICIALE ARRICCHITA DI COMPOSTI SOLFOROSI : supergene sulphide zone
ZONA VADOSA : vadose zone (permeable zone above the water table level)
ZONALITÀ CONCENTRICA : concretionary zoning
ZONE DI HAYFORD : Hayford zones (subdivisions of the Earth’s globe in zones for enabling the calculation of the topographic and isostatic reductions around a gravity station)
ZONIZZAZIONE : zoning (a crystal structure with bands of different crystals)

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DIZIONARIO INGLESE-ITALIANO DI SCIENZE DELLA TERRA

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
The extreme necessity of English for international contacts, in the field of Science and not only, is quite plain. This dictionary, born as a glossary for personal use in researches in physical geography, has later been extended to all Earth Sciences. It is the result not only of extensive bibliographic research but also of field research in English-speaking countries. The compilation is based upon a systematic comparison, for each item, of the definitions given by several dictionaries and books. This has entailed, among other things, a work of critical translation of items from English, German, Dutch and French.
Some specific items of fluvial geomorphology have been acquired during fieldwork in northern England in two sabatical years at the University of Durham, one of which as a Visiting Professor at the latter University.
Eart Science terms, being strictly technical, are seldom found in common dictionaries and some of them may be missing even in those of a general technical-scientific character, which do not always take account of the specific needs of the geologist, the palaeontologist, the geophysicist, the physical geographer. In the case of dictionaries specialized in the Earth Sciences, however, a new difficulty emerges, namely that new items are born rather frequently, and this causes these dictionaries to become swiftly dated.
Often the difficulty is overcome by non-English-speaking authors by using untranslated English terms. This however can be a problem for a reader, especially if he is a student. Consequently, it is preferable to attempt the translation anyway, or use the English term with an Italian explanation added. For this reason, this dictionary provides, when appropriate, a choice between different possible translations.
Sometimes the same term has more than one meaning. In this case, the different meanings are given in alphabetical order, separated by a comma. It will be up to the utiliser of the dictionary to choose the appropriate traslation on the basis of the context of the sentence. For some terms the English form itself, or the anglicized form derived from other languages, is given as the Italian translation, since the Italian scientific literature often uses such forms unchanged. To some items which could entail some difficulty for students, a short definition or an explicative circumlocution has been added within parenthesis. Besides the current terms, many others decidedly obsolete have been included, as they are still of considerable interest for the historian of science.
In a dictionary of this kind, items can be ordered in chapters or simply arranged in alphabetical order. For easier consultation and to avoid repetitions, it has been preferred to adopt the latter solution. Any time a term was found to have more than one meaning, each belonging to different disciplines, the various meanings have been detailed indicating the attendant disciplinary areas. Many items belonging to palaeontology, palaeobiology and ecology, come inevitably also within the purview of the biological sciences. Other items, linked to the management of natural resources, are common to economic geography, regional geography and regional planning.
Obsolete items have been sistematically included, since a bibliographic research by the utiliser of the dictionary can lead to perusing works published tens of years ago, and after all there is also a subject called History of Science. The translations of many terms may appear straightforward, being exactly or nearly identical in English and in Italian, on account of the root being in both cases from Greek or Latin. This is so common that no explicit indication of that origin is given in the dictionary, but only when the origin of a word is from less obvious languages. Even the cases of total or partial identity between English and Italian words, however, can give the non-native English speaker nasty surprises as to spelling.
When no indication is added, the terms are those commonly used in the standard English of England. Not a few examples of typically regional terms exist, however, inside England itself, especially in the North, where a strong Scandinavian influence has fostered the geordie dialect. American, Australian, South African, Scottish and Welsh terms, as well as those from English dialects, can be considerably different from their standard English equivalent, and it is useful to know them as there are important examples of them in the Earth Sciences.
Items originally un-English are also included, as English has acquired a great many of them. For example, the English-speaking Earth Sciences have acquired glaciological terms from various Scandinavian languages, volcanological terms from Hawaaian and Italian (even southern Italian dialects), and terms of desert geomorphology, as could well be expected, from Arabic and Berber languages. Thanks are due, for explanations concerning the latter terms, to Dr. Monia M’Sehli, Lecturer in Arabic at the University of Cagliari. The dictionary includes not merely single words, but also expressions and whole sentences commonly used in the international scientific literature.
Particular caution is necessary in reading numbers. These are consistently written in the dictionary according to the system in current use in each language system. In English, the comma is used to separate numbers in groups of three digits, while the full stop is used to separate decimals (e.g. 123,456.7). In Italian, the usage is exactly the opposite, with full stops used to separate digits in groups of three, and commas to separate decimals (e.g. 123.456,7).
It is hoped that this volume will be useful to Italian authors intending to publish in English, and possibly also to foreign authors wishing to carry out research in Italy. Any indication as to inaccuracies or the need of additions will be gratefully received.

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LEZIONE DI SPIRITUALITÀ

Uno studio megagalattico, con arcate dorate e un enorme numero di libri dall’aspetto incombente e minaccioso.

Personaggi:
Il SUPERACCADEMICO;
VOCE maschile al telefono (si sente grazie ad un altoparlante incorporato nell’apparecchio).

SUPERACCADEMICO (intento a meditare sulle sudate carte) — Adunque, quale sarà il principio incomputabile, che manifestasi attraverso la metafora gentile del vero? Quale la pregnanza trascendente ingenita nel …….
(Squilla il telefono.)
SUPERACCADEMICO — ……. cavolo ……. chi osa turbare le mie trascendentali meditazioni? (solleva la cornetta) Pronto.
VOCE — Mi chiamo Lampadio Illuminoni. Parlo col professor Federico Maria De Bellis?
SUPERACCADEMICO (sussurrando) — Son io quel desso.
VOCE — Non la sento bene.
SUPERACCADEMICO (con voce tonante) — Sono il Professor Federico Maria De Bellis, ordinario di Estetica extraterrestre all’Università di Tremezzicastelli, presidente dell’Accademia Aurea di Teologia Metafisica Cultural-Scientifico-Umanistica-Oceanica-Termonucleare.
VOCE — Ah, adesso la sento bene. Gradirei ringraziarla per le sue cortesi osservazioni circa il mio romanzo La lampadina, sponsorizzato dall’Enel.
SUPERACCADEMICO (sforzandosi di dissipare un banco di nebbia cerebrale) — Ah, sì? Di che trattasi?
VOCE — Non rammemora le sue cortesi parole in merito a tal opra?
SUPERACCADEMICO (sempre lottando con la nebbia cerebrale) — Veramente ……. ah, sì, ora rammemoro.
VOCE — Ella ebbe la bontà di osservare, in un suo aureo biglietto a me indirizzato, che ella inclinava a continuare a pensare ……. Ma se continua a far ciò, vuol dir forse che ella ha anche, in qualche punto dello spazio-tempo, cominciato a pensare? e come? dove? quando?
SUPERACCADEMICO — Che comporta codesta dimanda?
VOCE — Comporta l’esigenza di acclarare in qual modo ella sia pervenuto alla conclusione che chi ha scelto di fare il bravo prete debba continuare a fare il bravo prete per sempre.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Come!? Non dovrebbe esser ciò per natural disegno di ferreo dovere di tener fede ai pronunciati voti per il conseguimento della spiritual salute? Ella forse dissente, e con inopinata animadversione inclina forse al rio libertinaggio?
VOCE — Non è questo il punto. Volevo solo capire il suo ragionamento. Del resto, guardi che io sono delle medesime idee sulla fedeltà ai voti liberamente assunti.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Me ne rallegro assai. Senza la sana spiritualità perduto è l’uman genere.
VOCE — E anche mia moglie è della stessa idea.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Moglie!? Ella è dunque un prete sposato? Oh, qual orrore! Ebbe una special dispensa perché convertito da eretica chiesa protestante?
VOCE — A dire il vero non sono prete di nessuna chiesa, né lo sono mai stato.
SUPERACCADEMICO (con subitaneo sbalordimento) — Ma come? non è prete?
VOCE — Ma quando mai? ma chi gliel’ha messo in testa?
SUPERACCADEMICO — Me ne avevano parlato come di un prete.
VOCE — Chi?
SUPERACCADEMICO — In questo istante ho la mente immersa nelle morbide ed avvolgenti tenebre dell’oblio.
VOCE — Ah, mi pareva …….
SUPERACCADEMICO — Ingarbugliata parmi la matassa.
VOCE — E non capisco da che cosa crede di poter dedurre che io avrei “una deroga sull’insegnamento”, visto l’alto Modello (in maiuscole) cui, secondo lei, io mi ispiro. E conclude: “Non me ne abbia, Reverendissimo (in maiuscole).” Io non gliene ho, anche se non sono Reverendissimo, né in maiuscole né in minuscole.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Ma io credevo che ella fosse un prete.
VOCE — Questo l’ho capito. Non mi resta che ringraziarla per l’alta dignità di cui ha voluto rivestirmi. Già che c’era, poteva farmi vescovo. Ma, alla fine della storia, il libro le è piaciuto o no?
SUPERACCADEMICO — Ripeto: non me ne voglia il Reverendissimo autore se mi sono leggiadramente avvolto nella tenue nebbia di una leggera confusione.
VOCE — Ma anche se fossi prete, che importa? Ci vuol tanto a dire se il libro le è piaciuto o no? Non ha mai sentito dire: “Il vostro parlare sia sì sì no no: tutto il resto viene dal maligno”? Comunque, quando sarò papa la farò mio segretario di Stato. Contento?
SUPERACCADEMICO — Signore, ciò non è cosa da pigliarsi a gabbo. Inoltre parmi che ella si diletti in antiestetiche illazioni sui miei reconditi pensieri a lei ignoti. Illazioni, peraltro, da veruna sostanza suffragate. Ed ella sappia che la mia non fu avventata deduzione.
VOCE — Non fu? E che fu?
SUPERACCADEMICO — A ciò fui portato anche dalla grande moralità che avvertii percorrendo il Suo libro: un animus vi trovai che normalmente si ha solo in un gran buon vecchio prete. E anche le molte meditazioni fanno pensare a un uomo molto spirituale, e la spiritualità, rara a trovarsi oggigiorno, è l’anima della moralità e del bene. Si conservi così e mi si feliciti con la famiglia.
VOCE — Ho i brividi dall’emozione. Quale penetrazione psicologica! Un pensier mi trafigge: è forse lei un vecchio ottimo prete?
SUPERACCADEMICO — Ma che dice?
VOCE — Deduco ciò dalla vibrante altezza del suo eletto pensiero.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Troppo buono, troppo buono.
VOCE — Strano, tutti mi hanno sempre detto che sono la malignità in persona. Ma se lo dice lei che sono buono …….
SUPERACCADEMICO — Orsù, giovanotto, non sia troppo modesto.
VOCE — Prima ero un vecchio prete, adesso sono diventato un giovanotto.
SUPERACCADEMICO — E come faccio a saper s’ella è giovane o vecchio, se giammai l’incontrai?
VOCE — È appunto cotal dimanda ch’io volea rivolgerle, perocché di quel che s’ignora è ben tacere. Ma se fra noi v’è alcuno che merita il clerical titolo e la nera tonaca, per l’alto suo sentire, questi è proprio lei.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Ne son non poco lusingato. Ma occor prudenza nel giudicare, poiché l’umano essere, ella ben consideri, è complesso, è un vero microcosmo.
VOCE — Proprio così, e qualche volta è pure un vero microcefalo.
SUPERACCADEMICO — Che intende ella?
VOCE — Chi ha orecchie per intendere intenda. Buona notte, Professor Federico Maria De Bellis, ordinario di Estetica extraterrestre all’Università di Tremezzicastelli, presidente dell’Accademia Aurea di Teologia Metafisica Cultural-Scientifico-Umanistica-Oceanica-Termonucleare, e si riguardi dalle correnti d’aria.
(Click di telefono riattaccato.)
SUPERACCADEMICO (scuotendo il capo) — Questi giovani preti! Non havvi più religione.

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LA TORRE DEI TOPI

EMILIO BIAGINI

 

Una stanza all’interno della torre medievale di Bingen, su un’isola del Reno.

Personaggi:
Il Principe HATTO di Magonza;
il SERVO;
la SENTINELLA;
la VOCE del Frate;
una gigantesca torma di giganteschi topi di gigantesca cattiveria.

HATTO — Che corsa. Non ne posso più.
SERVO — Veramente ha corso la barca. Mai vascello fu più veloce tra Magonza e qui.
HATTO — È ben sicura la torre?
SERVO — Ma certo, Vostra Grazia. Nessuno ha mai conquistato la torre di Bingen.
HATTO — Forse perché nessuno l’ha mai presa d’assalto. Gli operai hanno finito di murare la porta?
SERVO — Certamente. Hanno fatto un ottimo lavoro e se ne sono già andati. Non passerebbe nemmeno un topo.
HATTO (con improvvisa angoscia) — Non nominarli.
SERVO — Ma come potrebbero seguirci? Si son mai visti animali del genere nuotare nel Reno? Ormai non avete più nulla da temere, principe.
HATTO — Ne sei proprio certo?
SERVO — Assolutamente.
HATTO — Pure, non sono tranquillo.
SERVO — Per l’acqua abbiamo la cisterna. La dispensa e il deposito della legna sono ben forniti. Con ceste e corde possiamo tirar su qualunque cosa ci serva quando arriverà il battello con i rifornimenti.
HATTO — Non sono le provviste a preoccuparmi. È il ricordo di quelle grida che mi tormenta.
SERVO — Quali grida?
HATTO — Zuccone, non ricordi già più la gente chiusa nel granaio in fiamme? Urlava, mentre bruciava viva. E io che dicevo agli amici riuniti a convito: “Sentite come squittiscono i topi? Possano i topi divorarmi vivo se mai darò ad un povero una crosta di pane”. E proprio in quell’istante, un topo enorme entrò nella sala e mi morsicò una gamba. Lo ammazzammo a bastonate, ma ne vennero altri.
SERVO — È costume di quegli animali muoversi in gruppo.
HATTO — Ne venivano sempre, e gli ospiti, dopo avermi aiutato ad ucciderne qualcuno, cominciarono a spaventarsi e a mettersi in salvo, lasciandomi solo. E gridavano che quelli non erano topi comuni, ma demoni in forma di topo. Dovetti fuggire di stanza in stanza, sempre inseguito dalle bestiacce. Quelli rosicchiavano le porte, riuscivano a penetrare in una stanza dopo l’altra. Porto ancora qua e là i segni dei loro dentacci: ferite lievi, fortunatamente. Alla fine non mi è restato che imbarcarmi e chiedere rifugio al grande fiume, che cinge come un potente fossato quest’isola.
SERVO — Voi siete un uomo fortunato. Bene faceste a far chiudere quegli straccioni nel granaio e a farvi dar fuoco. Non vi rattristate. Erano così importuni tutti quei pezzenti. Il granaio era vecchio e mezzo in rovina. Occorreva comunque ricostruirlo. E che colpa ne avete se una carestia inaudita si è abbattuta sul paese?
HATTO — Io però l’ho peggiorata la carestia.
SERVO — Ma per carità, principe, una piccola incetta di viveri in tempo di penuria è segno di lungimiranza e buona amministrazione.
HATTO — Speriamo bene. Sentinella, si vede niente?
SENTINELLA (dall’alto della torre) — Tutto tranquillo, Vostra Grazia.
HATTO (uscendo) — Allora mi ritirerò nella mia camera. Un po’ di sonno mi farà bene.
SERVO — Dormite pure. Io veglio.
SENTINELLA (invisibile, dall’alto) — Si avvicina una barca.
SERVO — Chiedi chi è.
SENTINELLA (come sopra) — Chi disturba la quiete di queste acque e il riposo del principe di queste terre? Chi siete? Parlate, prima che una freccia vi trafigga.
VOCE — L’ultimo degli ultimi io sono. Un umile figlio di San Francesco.
SERVO — Che cosa vuole?
SENTINELLA (come sopra) — Che vuoi, frate? Tornatene al tuo convento.
VOCE — Scortese risposta è questa. Malvagio tu mi sembri e più malvagio il tuo compagno che ti da l’imbeccata di quello che devi dire.
SERVO — Di te non abbiamo bisogno.
VOCE — Devo al più presto parlare col principe Hatto.
SERVO — Riposa, e non credo che voglia con te conferire.
VOCE — Vengo da lontano, con ordini precisi dal Padre Superiore. Tanto abbiamo pregato per il principe, poiché la sua anima è in grave pericolo, ed anche il suo corpo. Io, non da me stesso, ma per la virtù di Santo Francesco, posso forse allontanare da lui il castigo. Deve confessarsi e fare grande penitenza. Noi sappiamo che ha cominciato a balenargli qualche barlume di pentimento. Non deve passare quest’ora senza che io gli parli.
SERVO — Come sai tu il pensiero recondito del principe? Con me solo si confida, e tu non eri qui ad ascoltare.
VOCE — Molte cose nascoste e molte cose avvenire sono rivelate a chi opera il bene sotto il segno di Santo Francesco. Fammi entrare.
SERVO — La porta è murata.
VOCE — Voi pure siete entrati.
SERVO — Finestra e scala dialogano bene fra loro.
VOCE — Siano scala e finestra anche il mio sentiero.
SERVO — La scala è rotta.
VOCE — Cala una corda.
SERVO — Non ne abbiamo.
VOCE — Tu menti e stai pensando alla vendetta.
SERVO — Bene, tu leggi nel pensiero. Sappi allora che il principe è nostro, ormai. Ha passato un segno oltre il quale non si torna.
VOCE — Non spetta a te il giudizio.
SENTINELLA — Vedo una gran macchia nera venirsene per il fiume, allegramente galleggiando.
VOCE — Presto, che io entri.
SERVO — Non entrerai.
SENTINELLA — La macchia nera è sempre più grande. Ora si distingue meglio. Galleggia nuotando disinvolta. Ha testoline, occhi, zampe e code innumerevoli.
SERVO — La notizia mi rallegra.
HATTO (dalla sua camera) — Cos’è tutto questo trambusto? Che non si possa riposare un momento in santa pace?
SERVO — C’è fuori un frate. Chiede di voi.
HATTO — Il brusco risveglio mi mette di cattivo umore. Mandatelo al diavolo.
VOCE — Il cielo mi è testimone che la mia intenzione era buona e la mia obbedienza al Superiore pronta. Ma contro la tua cattiva volontà non posso nulla, principe di Magonza. La corrente porta lontano la mia barca. Addio.
SENTINELLA — Il frate s’allontana. I topi s’avvicinano. Sono enormi. Eccoli già sull’isola. Ingegnose bestiole, cominciano a scavare sotto le mura della torre.
SERVO — Scendi giù e vieni a vedere. Li sento arrivare. Dev’essere molle la terra qua sotto.
SENTINELLA (scende dal posto di guardia) — Quanto ci vorrà?
SERVO — Poco.
HATTO — Aaah! Aiuto! Aiuto!
SERVO (guardando dentro la stanza di Hatto) — L’hanno preso. Non può già più muoversi. Credo che l’abbiano subito azzannato alle caviglie.
SENTINELLA (guardando a sua volta, con orrore) — Non potremmo fare qualcosa?
HATTO — Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah!
(Un improvviso getto di sangue arterioso esce dalla camera interna e raggiunge la scena. La sentinella se ne ritrae inorridita.)
SERVO — Sì, possiamo aspettare che tutto sia finito, poi tornare a Magonza a tuffarci nel tesoro.
(Rumori orrendi di carne divorata dalla camera di Hatto.)
SENTINELLA (rifugiatosi il più lontano possibile dalla camera del principe, parlando a malapena curvato in due, fra un conato di vomito e l’altro) — Che spettacolo spaventoso.
SERVO (trionfante) — Se l’è ben meritato. Fra i poveretti che ha fatto ardere vivi in quel granaio c’era mio fratello.
SENTINELLA (ansimando) — Chissà, avido com’era, che tesoro avrà accumulato?
SERVO — Andiamo a sciogliere la barca. Prima arriviamo a Magonza e più troveremo da saccheggiare.
SENTINELLA (con angoscia) — Anche su noi cadrà la vendetta, perché non abbiamo accolto il frate e salvato il principe.
SERVO — Che io sia dannato se mai ho avuto pensiero di salvarlo. Vieni dunque a Magonza? Dobbiamo far presto.
SENTINELLA — No, non vengo. E tu dannato sarai davvero se alberghi questi pensieri. Io non voglio aver parte nel saccheggio. Resterò qui a ricomporre per la sepoltura i miseri resti di colui che ho tradito. Al tradimento tu mi hai mosso e persuaso.
SERVO — Avevo buoni motivi.
SENTINELLA — Non erano i miei. Tu mi hai trascinato.
SERVO — Sei sempre stato un debole e un bambino.
SENTINELLA — Io mi pento del male che ho fatto. E se si dev’essere bambino per entrare nel Regno dei Cieli, ben venga l’infanzia. Dopo aver sepolto il nostro signore, andrò a cercare il francescano e farò penitenza per tutta la vita.
SERVO — Non è stata penitenza sufficiente servire quel demonio?
SENTINELLA — Almeno la visita del santo frate non sarà stata del tutto vana. Tu va pure e ingozzati di tesori ingannevoli. Alla fine dei conti, vedremo chi avrà ragione.
SERVO — Se cambi idea, mi troverai alla taverna solita, fra boccali di vino del Reno e piacevoli fanciulle. Addio. (esce)
SENTINELLA (cadendo in ginocchio e scoppiando in pianto) — Possa la mia vita futura essere la negazione di quella passata. Santa Vergine e San Francesco, vegliate sul mio proponimento.

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AFORISMI LETTERARI

AFORISMI LETTERARI

Chi non sa fare un aforisma farebbe meglio a rinunciare a scrivere.

Il libro più bello è quello che non si ha il coraggio di scrivere perché rivelerebbe troppo di di stessi.

Il segreto per vincere un grande premio letterario? Loggia-letto. Ossia: appartenere alla stessa loggia massonica del grande editore e andare a letto col presidente della giuria. Ecco perché è meglio non vincere.

 Si deve scrivere anzitutto per il proprio piacere. Se poi si vendono tanti libri e arride il successo da parte di pubblico e critica, bene. Se no, tanto peggio per il pubblico e la critica.

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IL SOLE

“O bimbi, o guardate he mi so’ stufaho. E m’avete hucinato in tutte le salse. E m’avete fatto sorgere libero e giohondo, e m’avete fatto sol dell’avvenire, e poi sole he ride. E ‘un c’è proprio nulla da ridere. O grulli, o per hi m’avete preso? Io ‘un sorgo né libero né giohondo, perché l’è il vostro pianetuholo he gira. E he m’en hale del vostro avvenire, che io ci ho cinque miliardi d’anni e ci sarò per altri cinque. E quanto al riso, che ‘un lo sapete che il riso abbonda sulla bocca de’ grulli? E voi v’arrabattate a mostrar d’esser grandi e grossi e di far ballare il clima come vi pare, hon le vostre fabbrihette e le vostre mahhinette, ma hi homanda al clima so’ io, e in questo momento mi va di far haldo e faccio haldo, e se mi harba il freddo vedrete come vi metto in friho. Quando, tra la fine di quello che hiamate il diciassettesimo secolo e l’inprincipio di quello seguente, ci avete avuto tanto freddo he i fiumi in Europa gelavano, ebbene ero io he mandavo meno raggi. e se dopo mi so’ shaldato ‘un gli è miha perché me l’avete detto voi, o grulli. O he la finite di honfiarvi come la rana he voleva farsi toro, altrimenti buuum, e sarete da rahhogliere hol hucchiaino.”

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